Connect with us

science

10 influential people in the world of science in 2023

Published

on

10 influential people in the world of science in 2023

10 influential people in the world of science in 2023. The pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence, the designer of India’s space mission to the moon and the first guardian of global warming are only three of the 10 influential people who have taken important scientific steps in 2023 and led the world towards progress and improvement.

10 influential people in the world of science in 2023

Nature’s Top 10 List examines the key developments in science in recent years and some of the most important people who have made surprising and remarkable discoveries and helped solve important problems. This isn’t an award or a ranking, but a selection compiled by Nature editors to showcase the fascinating science stories of the past year. Since its inception more than a decade ago, Nature has published a list of 10 influential people in the world of science.

Kalpana Kalahasti

forward to the moon

۱۰ انسان تاثیرگذارِ جهان علم در سال ۲۰۲۳

This engineer and manager played an important role in ensuring the successful landing of India’s Chandrayaan-3 mission on the moon. A mission that made India the fourth country to achieve this successful landing.

Several minutes after the Indian space agency landed its first probe on the moon, Kalpana Kalashasti said: “We have achieved our goal without fail.” This will be the most memorable and happy moment for all of us. The landing made India one of the countries that had successfully landed on the moon, including the Soviet Union, the United States of America, and China.

Marina Silva

Amazon Protector

۱۰ انسان تاثیرگذارِ جهان علم در سال ۲۰۲۳

An environment minister in Brazil, he has helped curb rampant deforestation and rebuild institutions weakened by the previous government.

In a year of bad environmental news about global warming, record heat waves, and wildfires, Silva delivered a message of hope. He announced that satellite images of the Amazon rainforest between January and July 2023 showed a 42 percent reduction in deforestation warnings compared to the same period last year, which was very promising news.

Read More: Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs

Katsuhiko Hayashi

reproduction again

۱۰ انسان تاثیرگذارِ جهان علم در سال ۲۰۲۳

Katsuhiko Hayashi created living mouse eggs from male cells, a feat that could help save endangered species.

Katsuhiko Hayashi and his colleagues announced in March that they had produced mouse pups from the cells of two male mouse parents, and the news literally shocked some researchers. The team fertilized the eggs and transplanted the resulting embryos into female mice. Only seven live puppies were obtained out of 630 embryo transfers. Hayashi’s methods can be a way to save endangered animals.

Annie Kritcher

Nuclear fusion ignition

۱۰ انسان تاثیرگذارِ جهان علم در سال ۲۰۲۳

Annie Kreacher and her group at the US National Combustion Facility designed fusion experiments that produced more energy than they consumed. The physicist helped the US National Combustion Facility create nuclear reactions once seen only in hydrogen bombs and stars.

Eleni Myrivili

The first guardian of global warming

۱۰ انسان تاثیرگذارِ جهان علم در سال ۲۰۲۳

A former politician, Eleni Mirvili is now helping the world prepare for the threats of climate change as the UN’s chief warming officer.

Mirivili, a former deputy mayor of Athens, now has a global role to play in mitigating the catastrophic effects of global warming. He is the UN’s first Chief Heat Officer, tasked with keeping people cool as our planet heats up.

Currently, he is focused on raising awareness about global warming and raising money for related projects to make cities sustainable.

Ilya Sutskever

A visionary in the field of artificial intelligence

۱۰ انسان تاثیرگذارِ جهان علم در سال ۲۰۲۳

As a senior scientist at OpenAI, Ilya Sotskur has helped create GPT Chat while also being concerned about the safety of artificial intelligence. He has played an important role in the development of conversational artificial intelligence systems that are changing society.

James Hamlin

Superconductivity revealer

۱۰ انسان تاثیرگذارِ جهان علم در سال ۲۰۲۳

James Hamlin found problems with the work of controversial physicist Ranga Dias. The physicist helped identify flaws in the exciting claims of superconductivity at room temperature.

Svetlana Mojsov

Unknown manufacturer of the drug

۱۰ انسان تاثیرگذارِ جهان علم در سال ۲۰۲۳

The biochemist was finally recognized for his work in the development of multi-billion dollar weight loss drugs.

Thanks to this biochemist, a new group of weight loss drugs has entered the clinics and made drugs like Ozempic and Vigovi famous names. They have brought billions of dollars in profits to the pharmaceutical industry and won scientific acclaim for the researchers who helped discover the hormone behind these drugs.

Halidou Tinto

Malaria fighter

۱۰ انسان تاثیرگذارِ جهان علم در سال ۲۰۲۳

Halido Tinto runs a clinic in a village in Burkina Faso that helped approve the world’s first malaria vaccines.

Thanks to this researcher’s careful testing, a second vaccine for a deadly scourge will soon be available.

Thomas Powles

Discovering Better Treatments for cancer

۱۰ انسان تاثیرگذارِ جهان علم در سال ۲۰۲۳

This physician and cancer researcher has led a groundbreaking clinical trial for the treatment of advanced bladder cancer. Thomas Powell’s success in treating deadly bladder cancer could herald the next wave of powerful immunotherapy drugs. His regimen of two newer drugs appears to increase median survival from about 16 months to 2.5 years compared to standard chemotherapy.

science

Inventing a material resistant to heat of 1000 degrees Celsius

Published

on

By

a material resistant to heat

Korean researchers have produced heat-resistant materials that can withstand temperatures of up to 1000 degrees Celsius, and not only withstand high temperatures, but also withstand intense ultraviolet radiation, and are ideal for use in space. So here we will talk about inventing a material resistant to heat of 1000 degrees Celsius.

Inventing a material resistant to heat of 1000 degrees Celsius

A research team at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) has produced a refractory material that maintains its optical properties even at a temperature of 1000 degrees Celsius and under strong ultraviolet radiation.

According to SA, this material can be used in various applications from aerospace to thermal photovoltaic (TPV) systems.

Thermal radiation is a term used to define the electromagnetic radiation emitted by all materials whose temperature is above absolute zero. This radiation comes from the heat created during the movement of the charges in the material and its release in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

Scientists have been working on exploiting this radiation as a kind of energy source. The heat from facilities such as thermal power plants and industrial sites can be used for heating, cooling, and even energy production if suitable thermal refractory materials are available.

Most of this research has focused on deploying technology in general environmental conditions. To expand its scope of application, newer materials that can operate in harsh environments are sought.

Electricity generation from indirect solar radiation

In our efforts to phase out fossil fuels, large-scale energy production projects using sunlight are underway in various parts of the world. However, the spectrum of solar radiation that enters the Earth and remains unused is another renewable resource that scientists want to tap into.

As an alternative to renewable solar and wind energy, whose power output varies depending on weather conditions, friendly thermoelectric energy generation technology, says Jungbum Kim, senior researcher at KIST, whose team developed the new refractory materials. The environment that uses the radiant energy emitted from the sun and high-temperature environments to generate electricity has received attention.

Read More: 10 influential people in the world of science in 2023

How was this new material made?

Typically, materials such as tungsten, nickel, and titanium nitride are used as refractory conductors. However, these materials are easily oxidized at higher temperatures.

According to a press release from the Korean researchers, they used pulsed laser deposition techniques to fabricate lanthanum-doped selective barium oxide (LBSO) in a nanoscale thin film. This material can maintain its performance even when it is exposed to a temperature of 1000 degrees Celsius and intense ultraviolet radiation with a power of 9 megawatts per square centimeter.

The research team also made a thermal emitter in the infrared spectrum using LBSO and found the material to be stable when used in multilayers or as a thin film. This opens up the possibility of using LBSO for thermovoltaic (TPV) power generation.

Interestingly, this material allows thermal radiation to be transferred directly to the PV cells, thereby preventing its oxidation by air.

The LBSO provision will help address climate change and the energy crisis by accelerating the commercialization of thermoelectric power generation, Kim added in a press release.

The researchers are confident that LBSO will find applications beyond power generation and waste heat recovery from industrial equipment. Because the material is resistant to UV exposure, it can also handle heat generated by absorption or exposure to strong sunlight. This usually occurs in harsh environments and can help develop applications in the aeronautics and space fields.

The findings of this research have been published in Advanced Science magazine.​

Continue Reading

science

Expected scientific news in the new year

Published

on

By

scientific news in the new year

“Prolonged Covid treatment” and “Artificial Intelligence regulation” are among the topics we expect to see important news in the new year. Here we will talk about the expected scientific news in the new year.

Expected scientific news in the new year

With the US elections approaching and European parties’ differences over green policies, political tensions and differences can create problems and uncertainties for scientists in the new year. While the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are winding down, a long-running COVID treatment trial may be showing its first results.

The warming of the Pacific Ocean known as “El Niño” is also likely to lead to the strengthening of the global temperature to higher limits. “Science” reporters have reviewed the research and policy areas that could make news in 2024.

Read More: 6 historical secrets scientists discovered in 2023

El Niño may perpetuate record heat

The first scientific news in the new year is El Niño. An El Niño heat wave in the eastern Pacific is likely to intensify in the next few months, pushing global average temperatures 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels for the first time. Also, the El Nino weather phenomenon is also expected to worsen the drought in the Amazon and Australia.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
This change started last year and it is suspected that 2023 will become the hottest year in the history of the modern era, with the average temperature in the first 11 months of the year being 1.4 degrees above the pre-industrial level, which is higher than It can be explained only by the emission of greenhouse gases.

On the other hand, El Nino has reduced the heat absorption capacity of the ocean and this pattern will continue in the new year.

Competing to regulate artificial intelligence

The second scientific news in the new year is artificial intelligence. Governments around the world announced ambitious plans to increase AI oversight last year, and the race to regulate AI is expected to intensify in the new year.

American organizations will face a serious task in this field; Especially since the US government announced policy guidelines in November last year with the aim of determining the criteria for the responsible development of artificial intelligence.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Members of the US Congress have also been active in this regard and have presented more than 150 plans to ensure that artificial intelligence will be beneficial – and not threatening.

This is while it seems that the European Union is closer to approving and adopting ethical guidelines. But specific regulations may soon fall out of favor as new artificial intelligence software, such as chatbots based on large language models, enter the field so quickly and seemingly endlessly.

The arrival of anti-malarial mosquitoes

The next scientific news in the new year is anti-malarial mosquitoes.The strategy of releasing laboratory-modified mosquitoes to prevent the spread of dengue fever is being intensified this year after a string of successes.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, developed and tested by the non-profit organization “World Malaria Mosquito Program” (WMP), carry the bacteria Wolbachia pipientis, which prevents them from transmitting certain viruses.

A pilot program in Indonesia has shown that this strategy reduces the number of dengue cases and hospitalizations.

In the fall of last year, researchers reported that dengue fever material has decreased by at least 95% in the release areas of this laboratory mosquito in Colombia.

The first results of the long COVID treatment trial

Four years after the beginning of the pandemic caused by “SARS-CoV-2”, millions of people in the world have suffered from the consequences of the “prolonged COVID-19” syndrome, which is accompanied by symptoms such as fatigue, constant headache, and shortness of breath.

 

While there is no approved treatment for this condition, patients and their doctors are experimenting with various medications and nutritional supplements to treat the condition.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Scientists hope to announce the results of some long-running Covid treatment clinical trials this year, although the results may be preliminary. Some drugs, such as Paxlovid and other antiviral drugs, target SARS-CoV-2, and other proposed drugs will target some of the other unusual cases identified in long-running Covid research.

Even if these experiments are not successful, the scientists hope that the results of the experiments will shed light on the biology behind the prolonged COVID-19 state so that they can determine what to test next.

Creating order in the neutrino mass

Two ongoing experiments can show how clumps of tiny, elusive particles called neutrinos aggregate. These particles appeared in three types of electron, muon, and tao, which transform into each other and this phenomenon can explain why the universe has produced more matter than antimatter.

First, scientists must define their theoretical model. They know that two of the neutrinos have roughly the same mass, but they don’t know if there are two light neutrinos and one heavier one, or vice versa. Physicists working on the T2K experiment in Japan and the NOvA experiment in the US are studying neutrinos by firing them hundreds of kilometers into large sensors.

They plan to publish a joint analysis in the new year that could determine which of the two alternatives is correct.

Opposition to the green ambitions of the European Union

While far-right nationalist parties are doing well in polls leading up to June’s European elections, observers predict opposition to the EU’s green agenda will intensify. The “European Green Deal” adopted in 2020 aims to make Europe the “first climate-neutral continent” and reduce greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2050. In this context, environmentally friendly measures have been designed in various sectors, including energy and transportation.

This is even though far-right parties and the conservative party “People of Europe” have already adopted friendly positions towards farmers and industries and, for example, have opposed policies aimed at reducing the use of insecticides. European lawmakers may also act to limit funding for implementing green laws, such as those related to ecosystem restoration.

Delay in nuclear fusion super project

Project managers for the Large Experimental Nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which has been in the works for decades, are expected to announce a new completion date this year, putting the “first plasma” test beyond 2025.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
This facility under construction in France at a cost of tens of billions of dollars for the international partners of this project is supposed to prove the feasibility of nuclear fusion as a carbon-free energy source, but it has been facing problems.

The COVID-19 pandemic delayed the production of parts; Some parts of the reactor were wrongly designed and shaped and did not fit in the work. The cooling pipes were worn out and corroded, and the French Atomic Regulatory Organization was not sure of the project’s safety.

The new head of this project is trying to restore the construction and implementation work to its routine. He is expected to announce a new and revised plan this year, but told a fusion energy conference late last year that “it’s not going to be good news.”

Cooperation with local experts

After centuries of colonial wars and decades of exploitation by some scientists, many indigenous peoples have hesitated to interact with researchers, but hopes have been created for reconciliation between the two sides and more research projects under the guidance of indigenous peoples aim to bring indigenous knowledge from the world into Western science. do

In the new year, new contributions may be made based on the excellent examples of the past year, including the study of the North American horse breed. The American National Science Foundation supports the development of efforts with 30 million dollars in five years to create a new scientific center in this field, and some other American institutions have allocated funds in this field to cooperate with universities.

Although some areas of past tension still remain, new models of cooperation will likely be created in the new year.

The launch of the expensive “Europa” probe

The last scientific news in the new year is the launch of the expensive “Europa” probe. NASA’s five-billion-dollar Europa Clipper probe is scheduled to launch this October with a SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket, and it will be NASA’s most expensive planetary exploration mission since the Viking Mars mission in the 1970s.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Europa, one of the large moons of Jupiter, has an icy crust several kilometers thick, under which there is a large salty ocean that could potentially be a place for life to grow.

When the Clipper probe arrives at its destination in 2030, it will not directly sample the ocean but will fly by the moon 50 times, scanning its surface and gathering clues about the moon’s interior.

Scientists had hoped that this probe would be able to follow up on clues related to telescopic investigations of an active eruption from the side of this moon into space, but recent efforts with NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope did not find any evidence of this issue.

Continue Reading

science

6 historical secrets scientists discovered in 2023

Published

on

By

6 historical secrets that scientists discovered in 2023

6 historical secrets scientists discovered in 2023. In 2023, scientists discovered some historical secrets using modern methods such as ancient genetics and artificial intelligence tools.

6 historical secrets scientists discovered in 2023

In this article we will read about 6 historical secrets that scientists discovered in 2023. Science is transforming our understanding of the past. Paleogenetics uncovers strange secrets from DNA hidden in bones. Artificial intelligence deciphers ancient texts written in lines of the forgotten alphabet. Chemical analysis of molecular remains left on teeth, cooking utensils, and building materials reveals details about past diets and building techniques.

In this report, 6 secrets about human history that scientists revealed in 2023 are discussed; In addition, one case that still surprises scientists and remains unsolved.

The true identity of a prehistoric leader

A 5,000-year-old skeleton buried with a crystal dagger and other valuables was discovered in a tomb in Seville, Spain in 2008, and was determined to belong to a once-important person. Previously, it was thought that this skeleton was a young man, but investigations with new scientific methods determined that this person was a woman, and subsequent studies rejected the stereotype of “man hunters” about early humans.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

Leonardo Garcia, professor of ancient history at the University of Seville, said: This technique will open a new era in the analysis of the social organization of prehistoric societies.

Read More: Discovery of a protein that causes early dementia

The ingredient involved in the legendary power of Roman cement

It has been proven that the cement of the Roman era was more resistant and stable than the cement of the modern era. In a study in January, scientists announced that they had discovered the mysterious substance that strengthened cement in the Roman period. This study group analyzed 2,000-year-old cement samples from ancient sites in central Italy related to the Roman Empire.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

They found that the white particles in these ancient cements allowed them to repair cracks that had developed over time. These white pieces were ignored in previous studies.

The true appearance of “Otzi” the iceman

In 1991, climbers found the mummified body of Utzi in the Alps in Italy. The frozen remains of a corpse are perhaps the most authentic archaeological discovery that has been carefully studied and has revealed unprecedented details of life 5,300 years ago.

 

But a new analysis of DNA obtained from Ötzi’s pelvis in August revealed that his physical appearance was not what scientists first thought.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

A study of his genetic makeup revealed that Ötzi the Iceman had dark skin, and dark eyes, and was probably bald. This revised look is in stark contrast to the famous remake of The Iceman, which depicted him as a fair-skinned, hairy individual.

The person using the 20,000-year-old ornament was identified

Archaeologists occasionally unearth bone tools and other items from ancient sites, but it has been impossible to determine with certainty which people used them. This year, scientists discovered ancient human DNA from an ornament made of deer bone in a Denisova goose in Siberia.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

With this clue, they were able to determine that the person using this ornament was a woman who lived between 19,000 and 25,000 years ago. This woman belongs to a group known as Ancient North Eurasians, which are genetically related to the first Americans.

It is not clear why this deer tooth ornament contained a large amount of ancient human DNA; Perhaps it is very popular and has been used near the skin for a long time.

Deciphering an ancient scroll with artificial intelligence

About 2,000 years ago, during the eruption of the “Vesuvius” volcano, about 1,100 scrolls were burned and destroyed. In 1700, some explorers found this pile of scrolls from the volcanic mud.

The collection, known as the Herculaneum Scrolls, maybe the largest known library from ancient times, but the contents of these fragile documents remained a mystery until a computer science student at the University of Nebraska entered a science competition this year. This field won.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

With the help of artificial intelligence and computed tomography imaging, Luke Fritor was the first person to decipher a word written in ancient Greek on one of the burnt scrolls. Fritor was awarded $40,000 for deciphering the word πορφυρας, meaning purple. The researchers hope that in the near future, they will be able to decipher the entire scrolls using this technique.

Ingredients for making mummy

Scientists have discovered some of the ingredients and potions used by the ancient Egyptians for embalming corpses from pieces of pottery left in a mummy workshop.

By chemically analyzing the remains of organic materials left in these containers, scientists determined that the ancient Egyptians used many different substances to anoint corpses to reduce unpleasant odors and protect the corpse from bacteria.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

The identified substances included the oils of plants such as juniper, cypress, and cedar, as well as resins from the pistachio tree, animal fat, and beeswax. In the past, researchers had learned the names of the materials used from ancient texts, but until recently were only able to guess about the composition of these materials.

Beethoven: A family secret revealed, but a secret remains

Composer Ludwig van Beethoven died in 1827 at the age of 56 after suffering physical problems including hearing loss and liver disease.

Beethoven wrote a letter to his brothers in 1802, requesting that his doctor investigate the nature of his illness after his death. Nearly 200 years after his death, scientists extracted DNA from pieces of hair to fulfill his request.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

The researchers failed to make a definitive diagnosis of Beethoven’s disease, but Beethoven’s genetic data helped researchers rule out possible causes of his disease, such as celiac disease, lactose intolerance, or irritable bowel syndrome.

This genetic information also revealed that an extramarital affair occurred in the Beethoven family.

Continue Reading

Popular