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What scientific events should we expect in 2024?

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What scientific events should we expect in 2024?

What scientific events should we expect in 2024? Advanced artificial intelligence tools, missions to the moon, and ultra-fast supercomputers are among the advances that will shape an important part of research in the coming year.

What scientific events should we expect in 2024?

According to Nature, in this report we take a look at the scientific developments that we should expect to happen in the coming year.

Artificial intelligence is evolving

در سال ۲۰۲۴ منتظر چه رویدادهای علمی باشیم؟

The emergence of ChatGPT this year had a profound impact on science. Its developer, San Francisco, California-based OpenAI, is expected to release GPT-5, the next-generation AI model that underpins chatbots, late next year. GPT-5 is likely to display more advanced capabilities than its predecessor, GPT-4. Scientists also see the launch of Google’s Gemini artificial intelligence as a competitor to GPT-4. Large language models can process many types of input, including text, computer code, images, audio, and video.

The new version of Google’s DeepMind artificial intelligence tool called AlphaFold, which researchers have used to predict the three-dimensional shapes of proteins with high accuracy, is also scheduled to be released next year. This artificial intelligence is capable of modeling the interactions between proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules with atomic precision, which can open up new opportunities in the design and discovery of drugs.

Big questions have also been raised on the regulatory front. The UN High Advisory Panel on Artificial Intelligence will share its final report in mid-2024, which will provide guidelines for international AI regulation.

Read More: Mind reading with new artificial intelligence

Observing the stars

در سال ۲۰۲۴ منتظر چه رویدادهای علمی باشیم؟

Vera C. Observatory Vera C. Rubin in Chile is scheduled to begin operating some of its instruments in late 2024 ahead of a planned 10-year survey of the entire Southern Hemisphere sky. With the observatory’s 8.4-meter telescope and giant 3,200-megapixel camera, scientists hope to discover many transient phenomena and near-Earth asteroids.

Also in Chile, the Simmons Observatory in the Atacama Desert will be completed in mid-2024. This next-generation cosmology experiment will look for signs of primordial gravitational waves, the post-Big Bang glow in the cosmic background. Its telescopes will be equipped with 50,000 light-gathering detectors, 10 times more than similar projects currently underway.

Astronomers remain concerned that data from this new ground-based telescope will become unusable due to the increasing number of bright satellite constellations polluting the night sky with their light.

Armed mosquitoes

در سال ۲۰۲۴ منتظر چه رویدادهای علمی باشیم؟

Next year, the Global Mosquito Program will start producing mosquitoes to fight the disease at a factory in Brazil. These mosquitoes are infected by a bacterial strain that prevents the transmission of pathogenic viruses and could protect up to 70 million people from diseases such as dengue and Zika. This non-profit organization will produce five billion bacteria-infected mosquitoes annually over the next decade.

Beyond the pandemic

در سال ۲۰۲۴ منتظر چه رویدادهای علمی باشیم؟

As the world moves through the emergency phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the US government is funding trials of three next-generation vaccines, two of which are intranasal vaccines aimed at preventing infection by building immunity in airway tissues. The third is a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine that boosts antibody and T-cell responses and holds promise for long-lasting immunity against a wide range of SARS-CoV-2 strains.

Meanwhile, the World Health Organization is set to unveil the final draft of its pandemic pact at the 77th World Health Assembly in May. The agreement seeks to better equip governments around the world to prevent and manage future pandemics. The 194 member countries of the World Health Organization will decide the terms of the agreement, including whether any of its provisions will be legally binding. At the center of the negotiations is ensuring equitable access to the tools, including vaccines, data, and expertise, needed to prevent pandemics.

What scientific events should we expect in 2024?

Missions to the moon

در سال ۲۰۲۴ منتظر چه رویدادهای علمی باشیم؟

For the first time since the 1970s, NASA is launching a manned mission into space. Artemis 2 could launch in November next year and carry four astronauts, three men and one woman, to orbit the moon on the Orion spacecraft for a 10-day mission. Artemis 2 will pave the way for the next mission, Artemis 3, which will land the next man and woman on the moon. China is also preparing to launch its Chang’e-6 lunar return mission in 2024. If successful, the mission would be the first to collect samples from the far side of the moon.

Missions to explore extrasolar moons include NASA’s Clipper spacecraft, which will travel to Jupiter’s moon Europa next October. Its purpose is to determine whether the subsurface ocean of these moons could host life or not. Japan’s Mars Exploration Rover (MMX) mission, planned for 2024, will visit Mars’ moons, Phobos and Deimos. It will land on Phobos and collect surface samples for return to Earth in 2029.

What scientific events should we expect in 2024?

Light shines on dark matter

در سال ۲۰۲۴ منتظر چه رویدادهای علمی باشیم؟

The results of an experiment to identify dark matter particles known as axions will shine a light on this matter in 2024.

Exions are thought to be emitted from the Sun and converted into light, but these tiny particles have yet to be observed experimentally because they require sensitive detection instruments and a very strong magnetic field.

The BabyIAXO experiment in Hamburg uses a solar telescope made of a 10-meter magnet and ultra-sensitive noise-free X-ray detectors to track the center of the Sun for 12 hours a day to record the conversion of axons to photons.

2024 could be the year scientists measure the mass of the neutrino, the most mysterious particle in the Standard Model of particle physics. The results of the neutrino experiment in 2022 showed that neutrinos have a maximum mass of 0.8 electron volts. The researchers will finish collecting data in 2024 and are expected to make definitive measurements of these tiny particles.

Debate about awareness

در سال ۲۰۲۴ منتظر چه رویدادهای علمی باشیم؟

The coming year could bring new insights into the neural bases of consciousness. A large project that is testing two theories through a series of experiments will publish the results of its second experiment by the end of 2024. In the first round, both theories were not fully consistent with the observed brain imaging data. The second round can bring neuroscience closer to deciphering the mysteries of mental experience.

Saving our planet

در سال ۲۰۲۴ منتظر چه رویدادهای علمی باشیم؟

In the second half of 2024, the International Court of Justice in The Hague could rule on the legal obligations of countries to combat climate change and rule on legal consequences for those found to be harming the climate. Although the ruling will not be legally binding, the court’s influence could push countries to strengthen their climate goals and could be invoked in domestic legal cases.

Negotiations for the United Nations Plastics Convention, which seeks to create a binding international agreement to eliminate plastic pollution, are due to end next year. Since the 1950s, the world has produced 10 billion tons of plastic, of which more than seven billion tons are now trash, most of which pollute the oceans and harm wildlife. But there is growing concern among researchers that the UN negotiations, which began last year, are moving too slowly and will not achieve the desired goals.

Superfast supercomputers

در سال ۲۰۲۴ منتظر چه رویدادهای علمی باشیم؟

Early next year, researchers will power up Europe’s first large-scale supercomputer, Jupiter. This giant machine can perform one quintillion (one billion billion) calculations per second. Researchers will use the device to create “digital twin” models of the human heart and brain for medical purposes and high-resolution simulations of Earth’s climate.

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Inventing a material resistant to heat of 1000 degrees Celsius

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a material resistant to heat

Korean researchers have produced heat-resistant materials that can withstand temperatures of up to 1000 degrees Celsius, and not only withstand high temperatures, but also withstand intense ultraviolet radiation, and are ideal for use in space. So here we will talk about inventing a material resistant to heat of 1000 degrees Celsius.

Inventing a material resistant to heat of 1000 degrees Celsius

A research team at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) has produced a refractory material that maintains its optical properties even at a temperature of 1000 degrees Celsius and under strong ultraviolet radiation.

According to SA, this material can be used in various applications from aerospace to thermal photovoltaic (TPV) systems.

Thermal radiation is a term used to define the electromagnetic radiation emitted by all materials whose temperature is above absolute zero. This radiation comes from the heat created during the movement of the charges in the material and its release in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

Scientists have been working on exploiting this radiation as a kind of energy source. The heat from facilities such as thermal power plants and industrial sites can be used for heating, cooling, and even energy production if suitable thermal refractory materials are available.

Most of this research has focused on deploying technology in general environmental conditions. To expand its scope of application, newer materials that can operate in harsh environments are sought.

Electricity generation from indirect solar radiation

In our efforts to phase out fossil fuels, large-scale energy production projects using sunlight are underway in various parts of the world. However, the spectrum of solar radiation that enters the Earth and remains unused is another renewable resource that scientists want to tap into.

As an alternative to renewable solar and wind energy, whose power output varies depending on weather conditions, friendly thermoelectric energy generation technology, says Jungbum Kim, senior researcher at KIST, whose team developed the new refractory materials. The environment that uses the radiant energy emitted from the sun and high-temperature environments to generate electricity has received attention.

Read More: 10 influential people in the world of science in 2023

How was this new material made?

Typically, materials such as tungsten, nickel, and titanium nitride are used as refractory conductors. However, these materials are easily oxidized at higher temperatures.

According to a press release from the Korean researchers, they used pulsed laser deposition techniques to fabricate lanthanum-doped selective barium oxide (LBSO) in a nanoscale thin film. This material can maintain its performance even when it is exposed to a temperature of 1000 degrees Celsius and intense ultraviolet radiation with a power of 9 megawatts per square centimeter.

The research team also made a thermal emitter in the infrared spectrum using LBSO and found the material to be stable when used in multilayers or as a thin film. This opens up the possibility of using LBSO for thermovoltaic (TPV) power generation.

Interestingly, this material allows thermal radiation to be transferred directly to the PV cells, thereby preventing its oxidation by air.

The LBSO provision will help address climate change and the energy crisis by accelerating the commercialization of thermoelectric power generation, Kim added in a press release.

The researchers are confident that LBSO will find applications beyond power generation and waste heat recovery from industrial equipment. Because the material is resistant to UV exposure, it can also handle heat generated by absorption or exposure to strong sunlight. This usually occurs in harsh environments and can help develop applications in the aeronautics and space fields.

The findings of this research have been published in Advanced Science magazine.​

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Expected scientific news in the new year

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“Prolonged Covid treatment” and “Artificial Intelligence regulation” are among the topics we expect to see important news in the new year. Here we will talk about the expected scientific news in the new year.

Expected scientific news in the new year

With the US elections approaching and European parties’ differences over green policies, political tensions and differences can create problems and uncertainties for scientists in the new year. While the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are winding down, a long-running COVID treatment trial may be showing its first results.

The warming of the Pacific Ocean known as “El Niño” is also likely to lead to the strengthening of the global temperature to higher limits. “Science” reporters have reviewed the research and policy areas that could make news in 2024.

Read More: 6 historical secrets scientists discovered in 2023

El Niño may perpetuate record heat

The first scientific news in the new year is El Niño. An El Niño heat wave in the eastern Pacific is likely to intensify in the next few months, pushing global average temperatures 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels for the first time. Also, the El Nino weather phenomenon is also expected to worsen the drought in the Amazon and Australia.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
This change started last year and it is suspected that 2023 will become the hottest year in the history of the modern era, with the average temperature in the first 11 months of the year being 1.4 degrees above the pre-industrial level, which is higher than It can be explained only by the emission of greenhouse gases.

On the other hand, El Nino has reduced the heat absorption capacity of the ocean and this pattern will continue in the new year.

Competing to regulate artificial intelligence

The second scientific news in the new year is artificial intelligence. Governments around the world announced ambitious plans to increase AI oversight last year, and the race to regulate AI is expected to intensify in the new year.

American organizations will face a serious task in this field; Especially since the US government announced policy guidelines in November last year with the aim of determining the criteria for the responsible development of artificial intelligence.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Members of the US Congress have also been active in this regard and have presented more than 150 plans to ensure that artificial intelligence will be beneficial – and not threatening.

This is while it seems that the European Union is closer to approving and adopting ethical guidelines. But specific regulations may soon fall out of favor as new artificial intelligence software, such as chatbots based on large language models, enter the field so quickly and seemingly endlessly.

The arrival of anti-malarial mosquitoes

The next scientific news in the new year is anti-malarial mosquitoes.The strategy of releasing laboratory-modified mosquitoes to prevent the spread of dengue fever is being intensified this year after a string of successes.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, developed and tested by the non-profit organization “World Malaria Mosquito Program” (WMP), carry the bacteria Wolbachia pipientis, which prevents them from transmitting certain viruses.

A pilot program in Indonesia has shown that this strategy reduces the number of dengue cases and hospitalizations.

In the fall of last year, researchers reported that dengue fever material has decreased by at least 95% in the release areas of this laboratory mosquito in Colombia.

The first results of the long COVID treatment trial

Four years after the beginning of the pandemic caused by “SARS-CoV-2”, millions of people in the world have suffered from the consequences of the “prolonged COVID-19” syndrome, which is accompanied by symptoms such as fatigue, constant headache, and shortness of breath.

 

While there is no approved treatment for this condition, patients and their doctors are experimenting with various medications and nutritional supplements to treat the condition.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Scientists hope to announce the results of some long-running Covid treatment clinical trials this year, although the results may be preliminary. Some drugs, such as Paxlovid and other antiviral drugs, target SARS-CoV-2, and other proposed drugs will target some of the other unusual cases identified in long-running Covid research.

Even if these experiments are not successful, the scientists hope that the results of the experiments will shed light on the biology behind the prolonged COVID-19 state so that they can determine what to test next.

Creating order in the neutrino mass

Two ongoing experiments can show how clumps of tiny, elusive particles called neutrinos aggregate. These particles appeared in three types of electron, muon, and tao, which transform into each other and this phenomenon can explain why the universe has produced more matter than antimatter.

First, scientists must define their theoretical model. They know that two of the neutrinos have roughly the same mass, but they don’t know if there are two light neutrinos and one heavier one, or vice versa. Physicists working on the T2K experiment in Japan and the NOvA experiment in the US are studying neutrinos by firing them hundreds of kilometers into large sensors.

They plan to publish a joint analysis in the new year that could determine which of the two alternatives is correct.

Opposition to the green ambitions of the European Union

While far-right nationalist parties are doing well in polls leading up to June’s European elections, observers predict opposition to the EU’s green agenda will intensify. The “European Green Deal” adopted in 2020 aims to make Europe the “first climate-neutral continent” and reduce greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2050. In this context, environmentally friendly measures have been designed in various sectors, including energy and transportation.

This is even though far-right parties and the conservative party “People of Europe” have already adopted friendly positions towards farmers and industries and, for example, have opposed policies aimed at reducing the use of insecticides. European lawmakers may also act to limit funding for implementing green laws, such as those related to ecosystem restoration.

Delay in nuclear fusion super project

Project managers for the Large Experimental Nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which has been in the works for decades, are expected to announce a new completion date this year, putting the “first plasma” test beyond 2025.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
This facility under construction in France at a cost of tens of billions of dollars for the international partners of this project is supposed to prove the feasibility of nuclear fusion as a carbon-free energy source, but it has been facing problems.

The COVID-19 pandemic delayed the production of parts; Some parts of the reactor were wrongly designed and shaped and did not fit in the work. The cooling pipes were worn out and corroded, and the French Atomic Regulatory Organization was not sure of the project’s safety.

The new head of this project is trying to restore the construction and implementation work to its routine. He is expected to announce a new and revised plan this year, but told a fusion energy conference late last year that “it’s not going to be good news.”

Cooperation with local experts

After centuries of colonial wars and decades of exploitation by some scientists, many indigenous peoples have hesitated to interact with researchers, but hopes have been created for reconciliation between the two sides and more research projects under the guidance of indigenous peoples aim to bring indigenous knowledge from the world into Western science. do

In the new year, new contributions may be made based on the excellent examples of the past year, including the study of the North American horse breed. The American National Science Foundation supports the development of efforts with 30 million dollars in five years to create a new scientific center in this field, and some other American institutions have allocated funds in this field to cooperate with universities.

Although some areas of past tension still remain, new models of cooperation will likely be created in the new year.

The launch of the expensive “Europa” probe

The last scientific news in the new year is the launch of the expensive “Europa” probe. NASA’s five-billion-dollar Europa Clipper probe is scheduled to launch this October with a SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket, and it will be NASA’s most expensive planetary exploration mission since the Viking Mars mission in the 1970s.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Europa, one of the large moons of Jupiter, has an icy crust several kilometers thick, under which there is a large salty ocean that could potentially be a place for life to grow.

When the Clipper probe arrives at its destination in 2030, it will not directly sample the ocean but will fly by the moon 50 times, scanning its surface and gathering clues about the moon’s interior.

Scientists had hoped that this probe would be able to follow up on clues related to telescopic investigations of an active eruption from the side of this moon into space, but recent efforts with NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope did not find any evidence of this issue.

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6 historical secrets scientists discovered in 2023

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6 historical secrets that scientists discovered in 2023

6 historical secrets scientists discovered in 2023. In 2023, scientists discovered some historical secrets using modern methods such as ancient genetics and artificial intelligence tools.

6 historical secrets scientists discovered in 2023

In this article we will read about 6 historical secrets that scientists discovered in 2023. Science is transforming our understanding of the past. Paleogenetics uncovers strange secrets from DNA hidden in bones. Artificial intelligence deciphers ancient texts written in lines of the forgotten alphabet. Chemical analysis of molecular remains left on teeth, cooking utensils, and building materials reveals details about past diets and building techniques.

In this report, 6 secrets about human history that scientists revealed in 2023 are discussed; In addition, one case that still surprises scientists and remains unsolved.

The true identity of a prehistoric leader

A 5,000-year-old skeleton buried with a crystal dagger and other valuables was discovered in a tomb in Seville, Spain in 2008, and was determined to belong to a once-important person. Previously, it was thought that this skeleton was a young man, but investigations with new scientific methods determined that this person was a woman, and subsequent studies rejected the stereotype of “man hunters” about early humans.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

Leonardo Garcia, professor of ancient history at the University of Seville, said: This technique will open a new era in the analysis of the social organization of prehistoric societies.

Read More: Discovery of a protein that causes early dementia

The ingredient involved in the legendary power of Roman cement

It has been proven that the cement of the Roman era was more resistant and stable than the cement of the modern era. In a study in January, scientists announced that they had discovered the mysterious substance that strengthened cement in the Roman period. This study group analyzed 2,000-year-old cement samples from ancient sites in central Italy related to the Roman Empire.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

They found that the white particles in these ancient cements allowed them to repair cracks that had developed over time. These white pieces were ignored in previous studies.

The true appearance of “Otzi” the iceman

In 1991, climbers found the mummified body of Utzi in the Alps in Italy. The frozen remains of a corpse are perhaps the most authentic archaeological discovery that has been carefully studied and has revealed unprecedented details of life 5,300 years ago.

 

But a new analysis of DNA obtained from Ötzi’s pelvis in August revealed that his physical appearance was not what scientists first thought.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

A study of his genetic makeup revealed that Ötzi the Iceman had dark skin, and dark eyes, and was probably bald. This revised look is in stark contrast to the famous remake of The Iceman, which depicted him as a fair-skinned, hairy individual.

The person using the 20,000-year-old ornament was identified

Archaeologists occasionally unearth bone tools and other items from ancient sites, but it has been impossible to determine with certainty which people used them. This year, scientists discovered ancient human DNA from an ornament made of deer bone in a Denisova goose in Siberia.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

With this clue, they were able to determine that the person using this ornament was a woman who lived between 19,000 and 25,000 years ago. This woman belongs to a group known as Ancient North Eurasians, which are genetically related to the first Americans.

It is not clear why this deer tooth ornament contained a large amount of ancient human DNA; Perhaps it is very popular and has been used near the skin for a long time.

Deciphering an ancient scroll with artificial intelligence

About 2,000 years ago, during the eruption of the “Vesuvius” volcano, about 1,100 scrolls were burned and destroyed. In 1700, some explorers found this pile of scrolls from the volcanic mud.

The collection, known as the Herculaneum Scrolls, maybe the largest known library from ancient times, but the contents of these fragile documents remained a mystery until a computer science student at the University of Nebraska entered a science competition this year. This field won.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

With the help of artificial intelligence and computed tomography imaging, Luke Fritor was the first person to decipher a word written in ancient Greek on one of the burnt scrolls. Fritor was awarded $40,000 for deciphering the word πορφυρας, meaning purple. The researchers hope that in the near future, they will be able to decipher the entire scrolls using this technique.

Ingredients for making mummy

Scientists have discovered some of the ingredients and potions used by the ancient Egyptians for embalming corpses from pieces of pottery left in a mummy workshop.

By chemically analyzing the remains of organic materials left in these containers, scientists determined that the ancient Egyptians used many different substances to anoint corpses to reduce unpleasant odors and protect the corpse from bacteria.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

The identified substances included the oils of plants such as juniper, cypress, and cedar, as well as resins from the pistachio tree, animal fat, and beeswax. In the past, researchers had learned the names of the materials used from ancient texts, but until recently were only able to guess about the composition of these materials.

Beethoven: A family secret revealed, but a secret remains

Composer Ludwig van Beethoven died in 1827 at the age of 56 after suffering physical problems including hearing loss and liver disease.

Beethoven wrote a letter to his brothers in 1802, requesting that his doctor investigate the nature of his illness after his death. Nearly 200 years after his death, scientists extracted DNA from pieces of hair to fulfill his request.

۶ راز تاریخی که دانشمندان در سال ۲۰۲۳ کشف کردند

The researchers failed to make a definitive diagnosis of Beethoven’s disease, but Beethoven’s genetic data helped researchers rule out possible causes of his disease, such as celiac disease, lactose intolerance, or irritable bowel syndrome.

This genetic information also revealed that an extramarital affair occurred in the Beethoven family.

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