Unlike galaxies, stars rarely collide with each other. The reason for this problem depends on the two measurement scales that we mention.
How likely are space objects to collide? Everything depends on two numbers: size and distance. Using these two simple numbers, we can show why stars, unlike galaxies, never collide with each other.
Why don’t stars collide
Space collisions are one of the popular subjects of the science fiction genre. Over the past few decades, we’ve seen and heard about these encounters in books, movies, TV shows, and video games. For example, the chase of spaceships in the space filled with asteroids in the movie “Empire Strikes” is one such example. The heroes of the film must find their way through the huge space rocks that collide with each other while escaping from the enemy fighters.
However, in reality, how likely are objects to collide in the darkness of deep space? To answer this question, we need to focus on two familiar types of celestial: stars and galaxies.
Rewriting the stars
First, we must acknowledge an astronomical truth: stars rarely collide, But galaxies often collide so this collision is the key to their evolution; But what is the difference between the fate of stars and galaxies? There is an interesting astronomical answer, But first, let’s focus on a powerful type of simple physical reasoning.
One of the first points in this review is to provide an approximate solution to the problem before performing complex calculations. In this way, you should think about some fundamental characteristics of the review subjects and their characteristics. Regarding the question of the collision of objects in space, two important features should be considered:
- 1. How big are the objects?
- 2. How much space is there between them?
We do not need to consider factors such as temperature, density, magnetic fields or even the wavelength of the emitted light. None of these matters at first glance. All we need is size and distance.
Stars size and distance from each other
Let’s start with the stars. The diameter of the Sun is approximately one billion meters. Now that we know how big the stars are, what would be the average distance between them? Proxima Centauri is the closest star to the Sun, which is four light years away. This distance means more than ten million billion meters or 10 to the power of 16 meters.
If you divide the radius of the sun by the distance between it and Proxima Centauri, you get the number 0.0000001, so why stars do not collide with each other? The stars are much smaller than the distance between them. They don’t find each other wanting to meet at all.
However, galaxies tell a different story. Galaxies have a wider array of stars, But let’s take the Milky Way as a guide. The diameter of the Milky Way is approximately 100,000 light-years (10 to the power of 5 light years). But how far is it from its nearest galaxy? Andromeda is the closest galaxy to the Milky Way at a distance of approximately 2.5 million light years or 10 to the power of 6 light years.
Now do the same calculations for stars and divide the size of the mass by the distance between it and its neighbouring mass. For stars, the number 0.0000001 was obtained, which is a tiny number. When we do these calculations for galaxies, we arrive at a figure of 0.1.
Unlike stars, galaxies size and distance ratio is not that small. It can be said that two galaxies can find each other and collide more easily and this will happen to the Milky Way and Andromeda in the next 5 billion years. Galaxies often collide with each other and the consequences of such collisions can be impressive; it not only changes the shape of the galaxy; but It also affects its ability to form new stars.
Other galactic assessments
Read more: The effects of gravity on human aging
It should be noted that there is a vital role in this story. Stars born near each other as binary or triple systems may merge over time. Also, in the densest parts of the galaxy, stars gradually approach each other and stellar collisions may occur.
We must say that your point of view is important. In the next step, the initial velocities should be considered; Because it shows how fast objects move in distances. Also, force fields such as gravity must be considered in the interaction of objects. In galactic collisions, a single star feels the gravitational effect of all celestials, including stars within the galaxy.
However, on average, stars never collide; But galaxy collisions are common, and as we said, we need two numbers to know the answer: size and distance.
Recording the first X-ray image of an atom with a “quantum needle”
Recording the first X-ray image of an atom with a “quantum needle”. For the first time, Ohio University scientists have managed to record the first X-ray image of an atom using a quantum needle.
Water play in the space station is not just fun and games
Water play in the space station is not just fun and games
In this artice we’re going to read about why water play in the space station is not just fun and games .In an interview with Nature magazine, he said about his job: I am an astronaut of the European Space Agency. Last year, I spent five months—from late April to mid-October—on the International Space Station (ISS), with the last month as station commander. Before returning to the field, my team and I took some time to play with the water. Here, inside the International Space Station, I show how water behaves in zero gravity.
There are a few tricks you can use to make sure the water stays where you want it. Surface tension holds the water bubble together, and you can move it by gently pulling on it using a straw or blowing on it. If the bubble is small enough, you can drink it. We recycle all the water inside the spacecraft.
Weightlessness is not only exciting but also an opportunity to study fundamental physics. There is a lot of research on fluid dynamics in space stations. A study that I personally participated in deals with the loosening behavior of different types of liquids and mixtures of liquids and gases in containers. The results are very important for the design of fuel tanks, especially for space applications.
This photo was taken in the Japanese test module. It’s the largest single module on the ISS, so we often use it to talk to the media or school students. When we communicate with them, we use things like the balls behind my head that are models of the planets and the moon. The round thing behind me is the module airlock. We use it to deploy satellites as well as hardware like scanners for science experiments.
This was the second time I went to the International Space Station. I quickly adapt to the space and enjoy the feeling of weightlessness very much. It’s much harder for me to come back down to earth.
I don’t know when I will go there again. We’ll see how the US-led Artemis program to return humans to the moon evolves over the next decade. Maybe I will get another chance.
Cristoferti was a member of the Crew-4 mission carried out by SpaceX. At that time, he arrived at the space station with the “Dragon” capsule to begin his 6-month stay on April 27. It should be mentioned that the “Cro-4” mission was the second space flight of “Cristoforti”. He previously stayed on the space station from November 2014 to June 2015.
Why does time move forward?
Why does time move forward? No matter how ambiguous we are about the phenomenon of time, we agree on one thing, and that is that time always moves forward.
Why does time move forward?
Recently, a group in Australia has investigated the category of moving time forward and how it occurs. Before this, it was thought to be one of the fundamental principles of the natural world, but apparently there is a more important reason for this.
We all know that time only moves forward. No matter how many attempts have been made to change it, we know that broken glass will never repair itself and people will never be young again after aging. There are many hypotheses for the cause of this phenomenon, but for a long time, it has been thought that this one-way movement is one of the fundamental and integral parts of nature.
But based on new research conducted by Joan Vaccaro of Griffith University in Australia, it is said that this is not the main issue, and there is probably a deeper and more solid reason for time to move forward. In other words, it can be said that there must be a very careful difference between two different time directions. These two directions are actually the past and the future, and there is a factor that always leads us to the future and the opposite never happens.
Let’s back up for a second. It seems that this category is one of the most exciting and unimaginable aspects of physics. The mystery of time seems ambiguous because the forward movement of time is important in human life. But if we look at them individually at the atomic and molecular scale, then the movement of time forward or backward will not make much of a difference for these particles, and the particles will continue to behave regardless of the movement of time forward or backward.
We should keep in mind that our main discussion here is not about space, because you shouldn’t expect that moving objects in space won’t change their location anyway. Therefore, scientists believed for a long time that there must be a basic reason for the expansion of the universe as time moves forward, and they did not imagine this for the category of space itself. This view is actually known as the asymmetry between space and time. The best example to express inconsistency is that the equations of the laws of motion and stability have inhomogeneous functions in time and space. Vaccaro says:
In the relationship between space and time, it is easier to understand and receive space; Because space is something that simply exists. But time is something that always pushes us forward.
His new plan states that it is possible that the two mentioned directions for time (forward and backward) are not the same at all. Vaccaro continues: Experiments conducted on subatomic particles in the last fifty years show that nature does not behave the same in dealing with these two directions of time. Among these, we can especially mention the subatomic particles called B and K mesons, which exhibit anomalous behaviors in terms of time direction.
K and B mesons are very small subatomic particles that cannot be examined without the help of some advanced tools. But the evidence of their different behavior according to the time direction effective on them shows that the reason for this difference, instead of being related to a fundamental part of nature’s behavior, may be due to the direction in which we are moving in time. We are walking. Vaccaro explains in this context: As we move forward in time, there will always be some backward bounce, like the effects of motional instability, and in fact, this backward motion is what I intend to measure using the B and K mesons.
To carry out this research, Ms. Vaccaro rewrote the equations of quantum mechanics, taking into account that the nature of time will not be the same in two directions, and the results showed that the calculations performed can accurately explain the mechanism of our world. Vaccaro said about this: When we included this complex behavior in the model of the universe, we realized that the universe moves from a fixed state in one moment to moment-to-moment and continuous changes. In other words, this difference in the two directions of time seems to be the reason for forcing the universe to move forward.
If this issue is proven, it will mean that we have to rethink and revise our understanding and acceptance of the category of time passage and the equations affected by it. But on the other hand, this achievement may lead to new insights and findings about the more strange aspects of time. Vaccaro said in the end: Understanding how time passes and evolves brings us to a completely new perspective on the natural foundations of the phenomenon of time itself. Also, in this way, we may be able to get a better understanding and reception of amazing and exciting ideas such as traveling to the past.
Vaccaro’s calculations have been published in the Journal of Physical and Mathematical Engineering Sciences.
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