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What does the world look like from Cats eye , Cats vision



What does the world look like from the eyes of Cats ?Whats difference between Cats vision and human vision? Cats are funny creatures that easily attract the attention of humans with their movements and behavior. In this report, we will tell you how the world is from the point of view of these creatures.

The biggest difference between human vision and cat vision is in the retina. Cats cannot distinguish colors as well as humans, nor can they see very far away objects, But cats have a better ability to see in the dark than humans.

What do cats see behind those glowing eyes?

Nickolay Lamm is an artist who consulted with three animal vision experts nearly a decade ago to develop a hypothesis and visual representation of how cats see the world compared to humans.

There are two types of photoreceptor cells: rod photoreceptor cells and cone photoreceptor cells. Rod photoreceptor cells are responsible for peripheral vision and night vision. They distinguish brightness and shades of gray. Cone photoreceptor cells are responsible for day vision and color perception.

Both cats and dogs have a high concentration of rod photoreceptor cells and a low concentration of cone photoreceptor cells. In humans, it’s the other way around, and that’s why we can’t see well at night, but we can distinguish colors better.

But Nikolai Lamm wanted to allow humans to see the world through the eyes of their beloved pets. In the following image, human vision is above, and cat vision is below.

Visual field

Cats eye , how do cats see the world

What is the world like from Cats eye ? Visual field refers to the area seen when the eyes focus on one point. The field of vision of cats is 200 degrees, compared to the average field of vision of humans, which is 180 degrees.

Visual acuity

Cats eye , how do cats see the world

Visual acuity refers to the clarity of vision. The visual acuity of a normal person is 20/20. A cat’s visual acuity ranges from 20/100 to 20/20, which means that a cat needs to be within 20 feet of an object to see it, while a normal human can see it from 100 or 200 feet away. See objects. That’s why the bottom image is so blurry.o

Cats Color vision

Cats eye , how do cats see the world

What is the world like from Cats eye ? There is a common misconception that cats cannot see any color and only see the world in shades of gray. Humans are tricolor creatures, meaning they have three types of cones that allow them to see red, green, and blue. Cats are also thought to be tricolor, but not like humans. A cat’s vision is similar to that of a blind person. They can see shades of blue and green, but red and pink can confuse them.

Read more : The world’s oldest DNA has been discovered

These colors may look more green to them, while purple can look like another shade of blue. Trichromacy is the processing of three independent color channels for the transmission of color information, which is obtained from three different types of cone cells in the eye. Organisms that have trichromatic vision are called trichromats.

Cat’s eye field of view

Experts believe cats are nearsighted, meaning they cannot see distant objects. However, their ability to see nearby objects is suitable for hunting and catching prey.

Cats Night vision

Cats eye , how do cats see the world

Cats also have a structure behind the retina called the tapetum, which is thought to improve night vision. The tapetum cells act like a mirror, reflecting light that passes between the rod and cone photoreceptor cells back to the photoreceptors, giving them another chance to receive what little light is available at night. This is what makes cats’ eyes glow at night.

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The discovery of a “lost world” belonging to a billion years ago




The discovery of a “lost world” belonging to a billion years ago. Newly discovered biomarker traces indicate the existence of a new group of previously unknown organisms called “protosteroids” that ruled complex life on Earth about a billion years ago.

The discovery of a “lost world” belonging to a billion years ago

According to AI, scientists have discovered ancient microorganisms that lived between one and 1.6 billion years ago. These creatures probably lived in marine environments.

It seems that the more we learn about the evolution of life, the more mysteries we uncover. In new research, fossils of unknown creatures have been discovered, which probably belong to about 1 to 1.6 billion years ago. These tiny organisms, known as protostole biota, lived in a world with much less oxygen than the present atmosphere and lived in the waterways of our planet.

These organisms, which belonged to the family of eukaryotes, had a complex cell structure with mitochondria and a nucleus, and they were very different from today’s eukaryotes such as animals, plants, and amoebas, and they were adapted to the needs of their environment.

Read More: The world’s oldest DNA dating back 2 million years, was discovered

These ancient organisms, which were discovered by scientists from the Australian National University (ANU) and the Helmholtz Society (Helmholtz) from German research centers, extended the current record of fossil steroids to 1.6 billion years (from 800 million). Another remarkable achievement lies in the way this discovery was made.

As Jochen Brocks, a professor at the Australian National University and one of the study’s first authors, explained, the scientists first had to find what they were looking for, using a combination of methods to “convert a variety of modern steroids into their fossil equivalents.” They were drawing. This allowed them to find overlooked traces of fossilized fat molecules inside a 1.6-billion-year-old rock at the bottom of the ocean near Australia’s Northern Territory.

Perform discovery

Dr. Benjamin Nettersheim of the University of Bremen and the other first author of the study explained how to determine where early organisms were found. Their goal, he says, is to trace the molecular remains of early organisms as far back as possible in Earth’s history.

He explains: “We knew from previous research how and where on Earth to find these precious molecular traces of early life on Earth.” There are only a few places in the world where ancient sediments are not buried deeper than a few kilometers and have never been warmed to such an extent that the diagnostic ecological information of key biological biomolecules is completely destroyed by heat and geological metamorphic processes.

The discovery of a "lost world" belonging to a billion years ago

One such place where diagnostic molecular fossils still exist is in northern Australia. As Dr. Nettersheim explained, the sedimentary rocks there have undergone very little change over 1.64 billion years of geologic history.

The discovery of a “lost world” belonging a billion years ago

To find these missing fossils, scientists had to develop new search patterns in the lab and then began finding fossil steroids in almost all rocks with biomarkers between 800 million and 1.6 billion years ago. According to Netersheim, of these, only bacterial hopanoids were known.

But these are not fossil cholesterols, but biosynthetically more primitive versions of them, he explained.

Now we have found fossil derivatives of these molecules. We think they probably derive in part from our very early eukaryotic ancestors, which must have been much more widespread and ecologically important than previously thought.

Changing our understanding of evolution

In response to the question of how this discovery affects our knowledge of evolutionary processes, Netersheim stated: “If our interpretation is correct that molecular fossils mainly originate from our early eukaryotic ancestors, it means that our early ancestors, which are the most Marine environments between 1.6 billion and about 800 million years ago still belonged to the stem of the eukaryotic tree.

This means that it was during the Tonian period, about 800 million years ago, that modern types of eukaryotes such as red algae and heterotrophic eukaryotes and so-called protists such as ciliates increased, and this is ecologically important on a global scale.

What caused their extinction?

The researchers believe their findings will improve our understanding of the major change that took place during the Tonian Period, a time known from about 1 billion to 720 million years ago. Netersheim believes that both the dramatic increase in eukaryote fossil diversity and the appearance of the first modern sterol fossils following the 800 million years of exclusively early sterols during that period produced a significant transformation of marine ecosystems on a global scale that should have led to extinction. These creatures have become ancient.

It is possible that early protosterol biota became extinct or, more likely, was marginalized by environmental disturbances during this period, he says. Their extinction may have been due, for example, to the emergence of modern eukaryotes and changes in atmospheric oxygen concentration or nutrient regimes.

Search for other ancient creatures

Now that they have identified some microorganisms from a billion years ago, scientists are looking to find more. They attempt to reconstruct ancient ecosystems and the evolution of early life as recorded in the rock record in as much detail as possible.

Their study titled “The Lost World of Complex Life and the Late Emergence of the Eukaryotic Crown” is published in the journal Nature.

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Climate change and tsunamis that will come from Antarctica




Climate change

Climate change and tsunamis that will come from Antarctica. A new study warns that climate change could trigger giant, deadly tsunamis from Antarctica, as sediment slippage beneath the Antarctic seafloor could trigger these massive tsunamis as oceans warm.

Climate change and tsunamis that will come from Antarctica

Climate change could trigger giant tsunamis in the Southern Ocean by triggering underwater landslides in Antarctica, a new study warns. Antarctica is a continent at the south pole of the earth. This continent is the coldest place on earth and more or less its entire surface is covered with ice.

Antarctica is the fifth largest continent on Earth after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America, but it has the least human population among all continents. It also has the highest average height, the lowest average humidity, and the lowest average temperature among all the continents of the world.

Read More: How does air pollution destroy our sense of smell?

More than 80% of the freshwater reserves of the planet are located in Antarctica. In this continent, nearly 30 countries have nearly 70 research bases, of which 40 are annual or permanent bases and 30 are summer bases.

Now, by drilling in sediment cores hundreds of meters below the seabed in Antarctica, scientists found that during previous periods of global warming (3 million years ago and 15 million years ago), loose sedimentary layers were formed and slid to send huge tsunami waves to the coast of South America, New Zealand.

As climate change warms the oceans, researchers think it’s possible that these tsunamis will occur again.

In a statement, Jenny Giles, a lecturer in hydrography and ocean exploration at the University of Plymouth in the UK, said in a statement: “Undersea landslides are a major hazard with the potential to cause tsunamis that could lead to loss of life.

” He added: “Our findings show how we need to urgently increase our understanding of how global climate change affects the stability of these regions and the potential for future tsunamis.”

For the first time in 2017, researchers found evidence of ancient Antarctic landslides in the eastern Ross Sea. Beneath these landslides are layers of weak sediments filled with fossilized marine organisms called phytoplankton.

Scientists returned to this area in 2018 and drilled deep into the seabed to extract sediment cores. These excavations are done by sinking long and thin cylinders into the earth’s crust, which reveal the geological history of the region layer by layer.

By analyzing these sediment cores, the scientists found that the weak sedimentary layers formed during two periods, one about three million years ago during the warmth of the mid-Pliocene period and the other about 15 million years ago during the favorable climate of the Miocene period.

During these periods, the waters around Antarctica were three degrees Celsius warmer than today, which led to an explosion of algae populations that, after dying, filled the seabed with rich, slippery sediment, making the region prone to landslides.

During the subsequent cold climate and Ice Age, these slip layers were covered by thick layers of sand, said Robert McKay, director of the Antarctic Research Center at Victoria University of Wellington and chief scientist of the International Ocean Exploration Program Expedition 374, which extracted sediment cores in 2018. The bulk was covered by glaciers and icebergs.

The exact trigger of past underwater landslides in the region is not known for certain, but researchers have found the most likely cause to be the melting of glacier ice due to global warming. The end of Earth’s periodic ice ages caused the ice sheets to shrink and retreat, lightening the load on Earth’s tectonic plates and pushing them back up in a process called isostatic rebound.

After the formation of enough weak sedimentary layers, the continental growth of Antarctica triggered earthquakes that caused the coarse sand above the sliding layers to spill out from the edge of the continental shelf, which caused landslides and tsunamis.

The scale and size of ancient ocean waves are unknown, but scientists point to two undersea thrusts that generated massive tsunamis and caused significant loss of life. The first was the Grand Banks tsunami in 1929, which created waves 13 meters high and killed about 28 people on the coast of Newfoundland, Canada, and the second tsunami in Papua New Guinea in 1998, which created waves 15 meters high and killed 2,200 people.

Considering that many layers of sediment are buried under the Antarctic bed and the glaciers above the water are also slowly melting, the researchers warn that if their melting really caused tsunamis in the past, landslides and tsunamis in the future may occur again.

Those same layers still exist on the outer continental shelf, says McKay. So it’s a starting point for more of these thrusts to occur, but the big question is whether the trigger for these events is still ongoing.

He added: “We consider isostatic rebound as a logical potential driver, but it could be a random failure or climate change in ocean currents eroding sediment at key locations on the continental shelf that could cause this to happen.” These are things we can use computer models to evaluate in future studies.

This study was recently published in the journal Nature Communications.

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How does air pollution destroy our sense of smell?




air pollution

How does air pollution destroy our sense of smell? Losing the sense of smell or anosmia can have a significant impact on our quality of life, and researchers say that air pollution plays a role in causing it.

How does air pollution destroy our sense of smell?

In this article we’re going to read about how does pollution destroy our sense of smell . The sense of smell is one of our richest and broadest windows to the world around us, which plays a vital role in what we taste and our social interactions, and even helps us recognize possible dangers. But the threat in the air we breathe can destroy our sense of smell.

Covid-19 has shown many people what it is like to lose the sense of smell. Loss of the sense of smell, which is called “anosmia”, can have a significant impact on our well-being and quality of life. But while a sudden respiratory infection may lead to a temporary loss of this important sense, the sense of smell may gradually deteriorate over many years due to air pollution.

Exposure to PM2.5 (the collective name for particulate air pollution that comes mainly from burning fuel in our vehicles, power plants, and homes) has previously been linked to olfactory disorders, but usually only in certain environments, writes the BBC. Industrial or occupational. But new research reveals the true scale of olfactory impairment caused by air pollution and the potential harm caused by the pollution we breathe in every day. The findings of this study are important for all of us.

In the lower part of the brain, just above the nasal cavities, is the olfactory bulb. This sensitive tissue has nerve endings and is essential for the diverse image we get of the world with the help of the sense of smell. The olfactory bulb is also our first line of defense against viruses and pollutants entering the brain. But when repeatedly exposed to harmful factors, this defense slowly weakens.

“Our data show a 1.6- to 1.7-fold increased risk of developing anosmia in conditions of persistent particulate matter pollution,” says Murugapan Ramanathan, a nasal disease specialist at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore. Ramanathan has been curious about whether there is a connection between suffering from anosmia and the level of air pollution where people live. The simple question that Ramanathan wanted to answer was this: Is the prevalence of anosmia higher in people who live in areas with higher PM2.5 pollution?

Until recently, there was little scientific research on this topic. A Mexican study from 2006 used the smell of coffee and oranges to show that residents of Mexico City, who are often exposed to air pollution, have a poorer sense of smell on average than people living in rural areas of the country.

With the help of colleagues including Genevieve Zhang, an epidemiologist who created a map of air pollution data in the Baltimore area, Ramanathan conducted a study using data from 2,690 patients who visited Johns Hopkins Hospital over a four-year period. About 20% of the mentioned patients had anosmia and most of them did not smoke. Smoking affects the sense of smell.

air pollution

PM2.5 levels were higher in neighborhoods where patients with anosmia lived, compared to healthy control group participants. Even when the effect of age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, and alcohol and tobacco use were taken into account, the same result was obtained: even a small increase in exposure to ambient PM2.5 may be associated with anosmia.

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These findings have been repeated in studies in other regions of the world. For example, a recent study in Brescia in northern Italy showed that the more teenagers and young adults were exposed to nitrogen dioxide (another pollutant produced when fossil fuels are burned, especially from vehicle engines), the more sensitive their noses were to odors. Another annual study in São Paulo, Brazil, also found that people who lived in areas with higher particle pollution had a poorer sense of smell.

How does air pollution destroy our sense of smell?

According to Ramanathan, there are two possible paths. One is that some pollution particles pass through the olfactory bulb and directly enter the brain and cause inflammation. “The olfactory nerves are in the brain, but there’s an opening at the base of the skull where small nerve fibers enter the nose,” says Ramanathan.

In 2016, a team of British researchers found the following metallic particles in human brain tissue that appeared to have passed through the olfactory bulb. Barbara Maher, a professor of environmental science at Lancaster University who led the study, said at the time that the particles were similar to those found in polluted air near busy streets. (Fireplaces and wood-burning stoves were also other possible sources).

air pollution

Maher’s study shows that when tiny metal particles enter the brain, they can be toxic and cause oxidative brain damage that damages neural pathways; Although this is still theoretical. Another possible mechanism, says Ramanathan, may not even require pollution particles to enter the brain. Particles of pollution by constantly hitting the olfactory bulb, cause inflammation and damage to the nerves and destroy them slowly. Think of this situation as coastal erosion, where sand and salt waves gradually erode the shoreline. Let’s say those airwaves are full of pollution and the coastline is our nasal nerves.

Therefore, it is not surprising that anosmia mostly affects older people whose noses have been exposed to air pollution for a longer period. Interestingly, none of the Johns Hopkins patients lived in areas with excessive air pollution. Most of them lived in the green areas of Maryland, and none of them lived in highly polluted areas. This shows that even low levels of air pollution can cause problems in the long run.

A similar study was conducted separately by the Center for Aging Research at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. Postdoctoral researcher Ingrid Ekström was puzzled by findings from the early 2000s that showed more than 5.8 percent of adults in Sweden had anosmia and 19.1 percent had some form of smell disorder.

Knowing that the rate of anosmia is higher among the elderly, Ekstrom and colleagues designed a study using 3363 patients aged 60 years and older. Using sticks that gave off 16 common household odors, participants were scored based on the number of odors they could correctly identify.

As in the Baltimore study, participants’ home addresses were mapped based on urban air pollution, and here, too, a strong correlation was seen between higher pollution levels and poorer olfactory strength. “They had been exposed to pollution throughout their lives,” says Ekström. We don’t know exactly when their olfactory disorder started.” But he is confident that long-term exposure to pollution, even at low levels, has caused people’s olfactory disorders.

In 2021, the World Health Organization changed its health-based guidelines for the maximum annual average exposure to PM2.5 particles, changing it from 10 micrograms per cubic meter to 5 micrograms per cubic meter.

Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, is one of the few big cities in the world that is below the set level with an annual average of 4.2 micrograms per cubic meter. In contrast, Pakistan’s Islamabad has an annual average PM2.5 of 41.1 micrograms per cubic meter, while this average in Bloemfontein, South Africa is 42.3 micrograms per cubic meter.

This makes the Stockholm findings even more important: even Stockholm residents lose their sense of smell due to low pollution levels; How much worse can this problem be in areas where pollution levels are high? It’s also a reminder of how local pollution can be, both outdoors and indoors. Cooking and heating methods may expose some households to higher levels of pollution than their neighbors.

Meanwhile, modern combustion methods from vehicle engines to new wood stoves can produce tiny nanoparticles that barely register in PM2.5 readings, but are small enough to enter our bloodstream and brain tissue directly.

Air pollution is the cause of a quarter of deaths from heart disease and stroke and almost half of the deaths from lung diseases.

Maybe our sense of smell does not seem so alarming compared to the mentioned diseases. But Ramanathan and Ekström warn that the sense of smell and the problems caused by its lack are more important than they think.

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