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Why was the human genome never completed?



human genome

Why was the human genome never completed? So far, no human genome has been read completely. Scientists expect to pass this milestone for the first time this year.

Why was the human genome never completed?

Before the end of 2023, you should be able to read the complete human genome, which will be the story of a person; It will also provide insight into who he is and where he came from, and his future. The complete human genome is probably not very fun at first glance and it will be very, very long. But the online publication of the complete human genome without any flaws will be a very important moment.

At this point you may feel like you’ve heard this before: the human genome was published years ago. Was it not done perfectly?

In fact, the human genome had never been completely read. The first draft of the human genome was published in 2001, and then in 2003, a group of scientists from the Human Genome Project announced that they had completed the work. This sequence, which was prepared by combining DNA fragments from different people, became the reference sequence with which the DNA of other humans can be compared.

Compiling the human genome by combining the genomic information of several individuals was the best that scientists could do at the time, but it had significant flaws and errors. Later versions of the human genome improved, but many problems remained. Only in the last few years has technology advanced enough to read the entire human genome without gaps and with minimal errors.

But all human genome sequences published so far have been hybrid, using DNA from multiple individuals. This year, the entire genome of a person (a man named Leon Pushkin) is going to be published for the first time. This complete and single human genome will be a monumental technical achievement. It’s only been 70 years since Rosalind Franklin’s black-and-white image revealed the double helix structure of DNA and revolutionized scientists’ understanding of how genetic information is stored. Today, we have the ability to read the entire genetic book that gives rise to the unique characteristics of a human being.

But the project’s geneticists say this is just the beginning. They want to sequence the genomes of people from around the world to create a true picture of the genetic diversity of the human species. They want to find out what the previously unsequenced parts of the DNA do. They also want to introduce whole-genome sequencing into clinics to help doctors diagnose and treat diseases.

In short, the human genome will never be complete, and we will never finish reading it.

The first human genome

The Human Genome Major Project (HGP) was one of the largest scientific projects at a cost of about $3 billion. The goal of this project, which began in 1990, was to read the entire DNA that the average human carries in his cells. The first draft of the sequence was published a little over a decade later. In 2001, at the same time, another version of the human genome was published by Celera Genomics.

لئون پشکین

The human genome came with many promises. With the help of the human genome, we understand what genes do, especially genes that play a role in diseases. This enables personalized medicine where we receive treatments tailored to our genetic makeup.

The complete human genome also provides insights into our evolutionary origins: how exactly are we different from our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, and bonobos?

Some of these promises have happened and some have not yet been fulfilled. Our knowledge of the function of many genes and their roles in diseases ranging from breast cancer to schizophrenia has increased. However, most diseases are affected by hundreds of genes, so we are still a long way from genomic medicine.

Read More: Scientists have found a way to diagnose colon cancer more easily

A small number of inherited diseases are caused by a faulty gene, and the use of genetic screening to identify people at risk for rare diseases is largely limited to those at high risk.

Genetics has also changed our understanding of human evolution. For example, it has been shown that our ancestors interbred with other hominids such as Neanderthals.

Meanwhile, in the background of scientists’ efforts to provide a complete human genome, lies the unpleasant fact that the human genome has never been truly complete. While geneticists have been revising it since the first draft was published (last revised in February 2022), parts of the genome are still missing.

Repeated sequences

One of the problems is that parts of DNA are highly repetitive. In certain parts of the genome, the same sequences are repeated over and over, sometimes thousands of times.

Duplicated DNA often appears in similar parts of the genome. Our DNA is not stored as a long, continuous rope, but is divided into smaller pieces called chromosomes.

Chromosomes are X-shaped (except for the Y-shaped chromosome carried by males), and there are 23 pairs of them in human cells. Each of the chromosomes has duplicated DNA at the end of its four arms (telomeres) and at the central junction (centromeres), and both of these are important.

Telomeres act as protective caps and their damage is associated with aging. Meanwhile, centromeres are important for the process of cell division that underlies growth and reproduction. DNA rearrangements at centromeres play a role in the development of some cancers.

The Human Genome Project failed to sequence the duplicated DNA and did not attempt to do so. Their method could not solve this challenge. They didn’t read the entire genome at once, but instead divided it into small pieces a few hundred bases long, read them, and then put the sequences together using a computer. This method is not efficient for repeated segments, because the computer does not know in what order those segments are put together. “Eight percent of the copy that was officially completed in 2003 was missing,” says Adam Filippi, head of the genome informatics division at the National Human Genome Research Institute in Maryland.

Therefore, our duplicated DNA remained almost completely unread for 20 years. Then in 2021, Filippi and his colleagues announced that they had all read it.

What is the genome?

The genome is often compared to a book written in the DNA alphabet instead of the English alphabet. The DNA alphabet consists of only four letters: A, C, G, and T. Each of these letters represents different molecules called “bases” that are strung along the length of the DNA molecule. Any particular sequence of these letters constitutes a gene. The responsibility of translating this information lies with the molecular machines inside our cells. Some genes provide the information needed to make different proteins that have different functions in the body, while other parts of DNA have regulatory functions. What the Human Genome Project team achieved was the exact order of bases along the length of DNA; Something like CGATTTCCGAAAA and so on for over three billion characters.

Reading the human genome from beginning to end

The Telomere to Telomere (T2T) Consortium was not a big, famous, multi-billion dollar project. “It was really a public effort that took place during birth,” says Karen Miga, a geneticist at the University of California, Santa Cruz. In the eyes of many genomic experts, we appeared out of nowhere.

” A key advance was the ability to accurately read long stretches of DNA, says Evan Eichler, a professor of genome sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle. Previously, technologies capable of reading long sequences had been developed, but until recently they were not accurate enough. Therefore, improving the accuracy of these technologies was a key development. Also, the ability to read sequences that spanned over 100,000 bases was an important advance.

تشخیص بیماری های ژنتیکی

T2T’s first major breakthrough came in July 2020 when the project’s researchers published the complete sequence of the X chromosome. At the time, the best available sequence of the X chromosome had 29 gaps, and the T2T team filled in all the gaps. The following year, they published the complete sequence of chromosome 8. In 2021, they also published a preprint titled “The Complete Sequence of a Human Genome,” in which they filled in 8 percent of the missing sequence.

Reading repetitions

But the human genome had not been read completely yet. Ishler says the team used a little trick that some called cheating.

Most cells in our body have two copies of each chromosome: one from the mother and one from the father. This makes it more difficult to put the sequences together on the computer because the two versions differ very little. To solve this problem, T2T used abnormal cells that have two copies of the father’s DNA that are nearly identical. The mentioned cells were the result of a hydatiform mole (molar or baby-eating pregnancy), which is a type of failed pregnancy.

Eggs and sperm have only one copy of each chromosome, so when a sperm fertilizes an egg, the resulting embryo has two copies. However, sometimes the egg loses its DNA and is then fertilized. Then the egg cell, which has lost its DNA, replicates the sperm’s DNA. Hydatidiform moles form dangerous lesions that look somewhat like cancer and must be removed. This is what T2T sequenced. According to some researchers, they had read only half of the genome, because the complete genome has two copies of any particular sequence. Although overall, their sequence was a clear improvement over previous sequences and added more than 200 million letters and two thousand genes to the human genome.

Having a complete genome means finally being able to understand what the repetitive segments of DNA do, Miga says. “Now that we have these maps, I’m very excited to see what sequences are in these regions,” he says. But what is their main function? And if there is a problem in these areas, how can it contribute to our understanding of human disease and human health?”

Repetitive DNA contains many sequences that can move around the genome and are called “mobile DNA”. “Many of these elements have played a role in our recent evolution,” says Rachel O’Neill, a molecular geneticist at the University of Connecticut in Storrs. “Many evolutionary mutations, including placentation, loss of the tail, and some brain functions, can be attributed to this type of driver DNA.”

Meanwhile, Eishler refers to duplications, where long stretches of DNA that can contain multiple genes are duplicated at once. These sequences can evolve at an extraordinary rate. Ishler says: “The result of this phenomenon is the emergence of new genes that are specific to humans. “These genes contribute disproportionately to the differences that make us human.”

While the human and chimpanzee genomes are 99% identical, duplications are one of the ways in which important differences can arise between us and chimpanzees. The originally published human genome was largely devoid of these duplicated sequences.

Neuroscientists have shown that some duplicated genes are important in brain function. But geneticists couldn’t study them precisely because they were in repeats that didn’t occur in older genomes.

The T2T sequence was finally published in a special issue of the journal Science in March 2022. But at that time the team was moving forward.

The remaining large gap was the Y chromosome, which is only present in males. Sperm usually carry only one sex chromosome (either an X chromosome or a Y chromosome). Because the hydatidiform mole DNA used by T2T came from sperm that contained an X chromosome, the Y chromosome was not sequenced. The team needed a male donor to finish their work, so they used Pushkin.

DNA donor

Pushkin is a systems biologist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. Much of his research focuses on understanding the mechanisms of aging and how to slow them down. He believes that the human life span has no limit and can be increased. Genomics is a big part of his work. Pushkin has donated his DNA to a number of major sequencing projects.

Pushkin’s first donation was to the Personal Genome project, which was launched in 2015. The goal of the project was to attract volunteers who were willing to share their DNA publicly to enable faster and more efficient research, as well as to overcome fears about the potential misuse of genomic data.

A decade later, Pushkin’s DNA was again used by the GIAB project. The goal of the project was to sequence the genomes of cell lines that could be grown indefinitely in the laboratory and make it easier to study the effects of mutations. Pushkin’s genome was favorable because he had also enrolled his parents in the project and provided them with information on his mother, father, and son.

تعیین توالی ژنوم

Pushkin does not regret his choices, although he points to an unpleasant consequence. “I can’t go to labs that work with my cells, because if my immortal cells somehow get into my body, my immune system won’t recognize them, and there’s a chance that the immune system will go into overdrive, and it’s a dangerous situation,” he says. come.” He is delighted to have his DNA sequenced again by T2T, this time in full.

In December 2022, T2T published another preprint paper describing the complete sequence of Pushkin’s Y chromosome. Since this chromosome has many repetitions and complications, more than half of the chromosome was not present in the past genomes. The new sequence added more than 30 million characters including dozens of genes.

The team is now working on Pushkin’s complete genome, including both copies of each chromosome. “We’ve finished sequencing and reconstructing it,” says Filippi. The resulting genome is complete and without defects and takes duplications into account. All that remains is the review. Filippi says there are a handful of errors we can check. He says their final genome should be published this year.

Pan Genome

Will the human genome be completed this year? The answer is no because there is no single human genome. Each person’s DNA is different and these differences are important. We won’t really understand the genome unless we have a record of how it differs between different populations.

The initial HGP project attempted to address this problem by drawing its sample from a few individuals, all from New York. The sequence that was released was a combination of all of them. Indeed, they tried to provide an average genome, but an American city cannot represent the full spectrum of human genetic diversity. This is why many members of the T2T Consortium are also enrolled in another project: the Human Pangenome Reference Consortium. The goal of this project is to sequence the genomes of hundreds of people from all over the world.

The project’s genomes will not be complete, as they will lose some degree of completeness in exchange for using automated methods that allow them to include more people in the study. In July 2022 the team published a preprint describing the 47 sequenced genomes that they had combined to create a draft “pangenome.”

They are now collaborating with researchers from around the world. “We don’t want this to be done exclusively in one place,” says Ishler. I think it is better to have genomes, especially from populations whose genetic diversity we have not identified well, and to do this in their own communities and by their own people.”

Pangenome’s effort has already paid off. Filippi is a co-author of a study published in January that identified a mechanism for a genetic abnormality. About 1 in 1,000 babies have a Robertsonian translocation, in which two chromosomes fuse together. If the genetic material is not destroyed, the health of the person is not affected, but in some cases, it can lead to conditions such as Down syndrome.

There appears to be a conserved sequence of DNA (that is, a sequence that is the same across species) that is found on multiple chromosomes. This can confuse the cellular mechanisms of DNA replication and cause chromosomes to fuse together. The critical sequence is located in a region that is both repetitive and highly variable between individuals, so it cannot be studied without multiple complete genomes.

Such findings explain why many project researchers want whole genome sequencing to be done in hospitals as well. “My ultimate goal is to be able to replicate T2T genomes in the clinic for any disease,” says Filippi. The methodology we have developed is in this direction. The cost of genome sequencing has fallen dramatically over the decades, so much so that the cost of the T2T project was much less than the cost of the original HGP.

Clearly, there is still much to learn from our genome. As new techniques reveal more secrets of the genome and make it possible to sequence more genomes, there is no end in sight. “As long as humans exist, the Human Genome Project will continue,” says O’Neill.


Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs




Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs

Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs. A smart capsule that can be swallowed is designed to monitor vital signs and even detect drug overdoses.

Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs

In this article we’re going to talk about an ingestible sensor  that can monitor vital signs. A smart capsule that can be swallowed is designed to monitor vital signs and even detect drug overdoses.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers have developed a new ingestible capsule that can monitor vital signs, including heart rate and breathing patterns, from inside a patient’s digestive tract.

The new device, which can be swallowed like a pill, can track vital signs like breathing and heart rate from inside the body, offering a simple and convenient way to care for people prone to opioid overdoses.

The new device has the potential to be used to detect signs of irregular breathing during opioid overdose, scientists say.

Giovanni Traverso, an associate professor of mechanical engineering at MIT and a gastroenterologist who has worked on the development of a range of ingestible sensors, says the device will be particularly useful for sleep studies.

As the lead author of this study, he says: This device can help diagnose and monitor many health conditions without the need to go to the hospital, which can make healthcare more accessible and supportive for patients.

Read More: The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer

Usually, sleep studies require patients to be attached to a number of sensors and devices. In labs and in-home studies, these sensors can be attached with wires to a patient’s scalp, temples, chest, and lungs. The patient may also use a nasal cannula, chest belt, and pulse oximeter that can be connected to a portable monitor.

As you can imagine, trying to sleep with all these devices connected to you can be challenging, says Traverso.

Now, a new sensor has been developed by Celero Systems – a startup led by MIT and Harvard researchers – in the form of a capsule.

The device is part of a growing field of ingestible devices that can perform various functions inside the body. Unlike devices such as pacemakers that require surgical implantation, the use of easy-to-swallow devices does not require invasive procedures.

The idea is that a doctor can prescribe these capsules and the patient just has to swallow them, says Benjamin Place, one of the authors of the study and the founder of Celero Systems, which is actually a medical device company in Massachusetts. People are used to taking pills and the cost of using ingestible devices is much lower than traditional medical tests.

This capsule, called VM Pill, works by sensing small body vibrations related to breathing and heart activity. This device can detect from inside the intestine whether a person stops breathing or not.

To test this capsule, researchers put it in the stomach of pigs who were unconscious. The pigs were then given a powerful opioid that could cause respiratory failure. This device measured the breathing rate of the pigs in real time and alerted the researchers. So they were able to reverse the overdose process.

The researchers also tested and evaluated the device for the first time by giving it to people suffering from sleep apnea. This was the first time that ingestible sensor technology was tested on humans.

Sleep apnea causes interruption of breathing during sleep. Many people with sleep apnea are unaware of their condition, in part because its diagnosis requires spending a night in a sleep lab attached to external devices that monitor their vital signs.

Researchers administered VM capsules to 10 sleep apnea patients at West Virginia University. This device controls the breathing rate with 92.7% accuracy.

Compared to external devices, this capsule can control heart rate with at least 96% accuracy.

This test also showed that the use of this device is safe.

This capsule contains two small batteries and a wireless antenna that transmits data. The ingestible sensor, about the size of a vitamin capsule, travels through the digestive tract and collects signals while it’s in the stomach.

Participants in the experiment slept overnight in a laboratory while the sensor recorded their breathing, heart rate, temperature, and stomach movements. The sensor was also able to detect sleep apnea in one of the patients during the experiment.

Findings show that this oral capsule is capable of measuring health metrics with medical-grade diagnostic equipment in a sleep center. Traditionally, patients needing to be diagnosed with specific sleep disorders would have to spend the night in a lab where they would be attached to an array of sensors and devices, but this ingestible sensor technology eliminates that need.

Importantly, MIT says there have been no reported side effects from taking the capsule. The capsule is usually eliminated from the patient’s body within a day or so, although this short shelf life may also limit its effectiveness as a monitoring device.

Traverso says the team plans to equip the smart capsule with a mechanism that would allow it to sit in a patient’s stomach for a week.

Apart from that startup and MIT, this research was conducted by experts from West Virginia University and other affiliated hospitals.

Apart from that startup and MIT, this research was conducted by experts from West Virginia University and other affiliated hospitals.

Dr. Ali Rezaei, director of West Virginia University’s Rockefeller Institute of Neuroscience, said there is great potential to create a new pathway through this device that will help us detect when a patient has overdosed on drugs and is in the process of overdosing. is to do

He added: “The quality and stability of this data was excellent compared to the standard clinical studies we conducted in our sleep labs.” This device enables us to monitor patients’ vital signs remotely without the need for wires or medical staff, allowing patients to be monitored in their natural environment instead of a clinic or hospital.

Researchers even predict that in the future these devices will be able to mix drugs internally, and if the sensor registers that the person’s breathing rate has slowed down or stopped, the appropriate drugs can be released through it.

The researchers say more data from this study will become available in the coming months.

This research was published in Device magazine.

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The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer




The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer

The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer. A new study has confirmed the link between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer.

The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer

According to New Atlas, a new study has found a link between high blood insulin levels, which are often seen in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and pancreatic cancer. The researchers say their findings could lead to new cancer prevention strategies and targeted therapies to slow or stop cancer progression.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most common, aggressive and deadly pancreatic cancers. However, the mechanisms by which obesity and type 2 diabetes contribute to PDAC remain unclear.

Now, a new study by researchers at the University of British Columbia in Canada sheds light on the role of insulin and its receptors in the development of PDAC.

James Johnson, one of the corresponding authors of the study, said: “In addition to the rapid increase in obesity and type 2 diabetes, we are also seeing an alarming increase in the incidence of pancreatic cancer.” These findings help us understand how this happens and highlight the importance of keeping insulin levels in a healthy range, which can be done with diet, exercise and, in some cases, medications.

Read More: Transforming invasive cancer cells into healthy cells!

The pancreas performs the functions of exocrine and endocrine glands. Acinar (exocrine) cells synthesize, store, and secrete enzymes in the small intestine that help digest food, while beta (endocrine) cells make the hormone insulin, which regulates blood glucose levels. Insulin is thought to bind to its receptor on the acinar cell and stimulate the secretion of the enzyme.

Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of ineffective and insufficient insulin, leading to insulin resistance and high blood insulin (hyperinsulinemia) because the body produces more hormones to lower high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). It is generally accepted that in obesity, the increase in the level of free fatty acids causes insulin resistance, which leads to hyperinsulinemia due to hyperglycemia.

Using mouse models, the researchers investigated what happens in pancreatic acinar cells when the animals have hyperinsulinemia.

“We found that hyperinsulinemia contributes to the initiation of pancreatic cancer directly through insulin receptors in acinar cells,” said Annie Zhang, senior author of the study. This mechanism includes increased production of digestive enzymes, which leads to increased inflammation of the pancreas.

Researchers say, this inflammation leads to the growth of precancerous cells. Their findings could pave the way for new cancer prevention strategies and therapeutic approaches that target insulin receptors on acinar cells.

“We hope this study will change clinical practice and help develop lifestyle interventions that can reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer in the general population,” said study author Janelle Cope. The research could also pave the way for targeted therapies that modulate insulin receptors to prevent or slow the progression of pancreatic cancer.

The researchers also say their findings could have implications for other obesity-related cancers and type 2 diabetes, where elevated insulin levels may also play a role.

Our colleagues in Toronto have shown a similar link between insulin and breast cancer, says Johnson. In the future, we hope to determine whether extra insulin may help other types of obesity- and diabetes-related cancers.

This study was published in the journal Cell Metabolism.

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What is Bioprinting and what are its uses?




what is bioprinting

Bioprinting is a relatively new technology that enables the creation of biological structures and living tissues using layer-by-layer methods. In bioprinting, biological materials such as cells, proteins and biopolymers are used instead of ink.

There are different methods for bioprinting, including extrusion, laser and inkjet. Bioprinting has many applications in medicine, such as making artificial organs, tissue repair, and drug production. Bioprinting is also expected to play an important role in the future of medicine as technology advances.

What is bioprinting ?

Bioprinting is an emerging technology that uses layer-by-layer methods to build biological structures and living tissues. In bioprinting, living cells and biomaterials such as proteins and biocompatible materials are layered on top of each other to create tissues and organs similar to the natural tissue of the human body.

There are different methods for bioprinting:

  • Extrusion bioprint: In this method, biological materials such as cells, proteins and biopolymers are printed from a nozzle in a layer on top of each other.
  • Laser bioprint: In this method, a laser is used to print cells layer by layer. The laser causes the cells to stick and fuse together.
  • Inkjet bioprinting: Similar to inkjet printers, cells and biomaterials are printed instead of ink.

There are three main types of devices for bioprint:

  • Extrusion bioprinting devices that print materials using pressure.
    Droplet bioprinting devices that print drops of material.
    Laser bioprinting devices that stick materials layer by layer using a laser.


Applications of bioprint

what is bioprinting

The applications of bioprinting will be very wide in the future. Among the most important applications, the following can be mentioned:

  • Making artificial organs and transplanting organs: by using the patient’s stem cells, organs such as kidney, liver, heart, etc. can be bioprinted and used for transplantation.
  • Repair of damaged tissues: Bioprint can be used to repair burns, wounds and spinal cord injuries.
  • Production of personalized drugs: drugs can be personalized and bioprinted based on the patient’s cells.
  • Research on drugs and scientific experiments: Fabricated tissues can be used for drug testing and scientific studies.
  • Food printing: Bioprinting can be used to produce food in the future.
  • Making laboratory models of organs and tissues: these models are used to test drugs and study diseases.
  • Fabrication of artificial skin: bioprinted skins have been used to treat severe burns.
  • Making a scaffold or mold for angiogenesis: Scaffolds are made from bioprint in such a way as to cause the growth of blood vessels in the damaged tissue.
  • Making artificial cartilage: Bioprinted cartilage is used to repair damaged cartilage.
  • Artificial bone and membrane construction: Bone and membrane constructed tissues are used to replace damaged tissues.
  • Printing drugs and pills: Drugs can be printed using cells and biological materials.

Of course, there are still many challenges in the field of bioprint. including problems such as providing blood supply to the printed tissues, the high cost of the process, and the complexity of making large structures. But with the advancement of technology, bioprinting is expected to play an important role in the future of medicine and the production of biological materials. Stem cells and bioprinting can change the future of disease treatment.

Combining artificial intelligence and bioprinting

what is bioprinting

It is possible to use a combination of artificial intelligence and bioprinting. Some examples of this combination can be mentioned:

  • Designing and optimizing the structure of tissues: artificial intelligence can suggest optimal patterns and structures for printing tissues.
  • Print process control: Artificial intelligence can control and optimize the print process online.
  • Texture image analysis: Using artificial intelligence techniques such as deep learning, printed textures can be analyzed.
  • Simulating the behavior of tissues: Artificial intelligence can simulate the behavior of living tissues to optimize the bioprint process.
  • Automation of processes: artificial intelligence can automate parts of the bioprinting process and reduce errors.
  • Design of biocompatible materials: Artificial intelligence algorithms are used for the optimal design of materials and biomaterials used in bioprinting.

Therefore, it is expected that in the future we will see the convergence and use of artificial intelligence and bioprinting, which will lead to many improvements.

Read more: the world first dental robot start working

Bioprinting and superhuman powers

Bioprint is a very new technology and using it to create superhuman powers in humans is currently considered unethical and illegal. However, a few points should be noted in this regard:

  • It is possible to increase human physical strength by bioprint stronger muscles and bones, but this technology is still very immature.
  • Bioprinting of the brain and nerves can increase human mental and cognitive capacity, but it also has the risk of irreparable damage.
  • Genetic modification of embryos with CRISPR can create desirable traits in humans, but it has many ethical considerations.
  • Brain implants such as Neuralink can extend mental capabilities but are still in the experimental stages.
    Creating superhuman powers can cause unpredictable side effects in humans.


Bioprint is one of the emerging and very promising technologies in the field of medicine and tissue engineering. This technology is able to create tissues and organs similar to the human body through layer-by-layer printing of cells and biological materials.

There are different methods for bioprinting, which include extrusion, laser and inkjet, and various devices have been designed and built to perform this process.

Bioprinting is expected to find many applications in the near future in the field of artificial organ manufacturing, tissue engineering, personalized medical treatments, etc. Of course, there are still challenges in this field that require more research and development so that bioprinting can achieve commercial and wide applications. All in all, this technology is expected to create a huge revolution in the field of medicine and biotechnology in the not too distant future.


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