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What is a chromosome DNA and genes



What is a chromosome?

What is a chromosome? Everything we need to know about chromosomes . Our genetic information is stored in 23 pairs of chromosomes that vary greatly in size and shape. Join us to learn more about chromosomes.

What is a chromosome?

Chromosomes are string-like structures located in the nucleus of plant and animal cells. Each chromosome consists of a protein and a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is passed from parent to offspring and contains specific instructions that make each living thing unique.

The term chromosome (colored body) comes from the Greek words color (chroma) and body (soma). Scientists gave this name to chromosomes because they are structures or cell bodies that are strongly colored by special dyes used in research. What do chromosomes do?

The unique structure of chromosomes keeps DNA tightly wrapped around coil-like proteins called histones. Without such packaging, DNA molecules are too long to fit inside cells. For example, if all the DNA molecules in a human cell were separated from their histones and strung together, they would be 6 feet (1.8 meters) long.

For an organism to grow and function properly, cells must constantly divide to produce new cells to replace old cells. During cell division, it is essential that DNA remains intact and is equally distributed between cells. Chromosomes are a key part of the process that ensures that DNA is accurately copied and distributed during cell division. However, in rare cases, mistakes also occur.

Changes in the number or structure of chromosomes in new cells can lead to serious problems. For example, in humans, some types of leukemia and some other cancers are caused by defective chromosomes, which are made up of joined pieces of broken chromosomes.

It is also very important that reproductive cells such as eggs and sperm contain the correct number of chromosomes and that their chromosome structure is correct. Otherwise, the growth and development of the resulting children may be disturbed. For example, people with Down syndrome have 3 copies of chromosome 21 instead of the two copies that other people have.

Chromosome DNA and genes

Do all living things have the same type of chromosomes?

The number and shape of chromosomes vary among living organisms. Most bacteria have one or two circular chromosomes. Humans, along with other animals and plants, have linear chromosomes that are located in pairs in the nucleus of cells.

The only human cells that do not contain a pair of chromosomes are the reproductive cells, or gametes, which carry only one copy of each chromosome. When two gametes fuse, they become a single cell that contains two copies of each chromosome. This cell then divides and the resulting cells divide many times, eventually forming an adult that has a complete set of chromosome pairs in almost all of its cells.

In addition to the linear chromosomes found in the cell nucleus, human cells, and other complex organisms have a much smaller type of chromosome that resembles what is found in bacteria. This circular chromosome is found in mitochondria, which are structures outside the nucleus that act as the powerhouse of the cell.

Scientists think that in the past, mitochondria were independent bacteria with the ability to convert oxygen into energy. When these bacteria attacked cells that could not use oxygen, the cells kept them, and over time, the bacteria evolved into today’s mitochondria.

Chromosome structure

What is a centromere?

The compact region of linear chromosomes is called the centromere. Although this compaction is called a centromere (which refers to the center), it is usually not located exactly in the center of the chromosome, and in some cases, it is located almost at the end of the chromosome. The regions on both sides of the centromere are called chromosome arms.

The centromere helps to place the chromosomes in the right position in the cell during the complex process of cell division. Chromosomes are copied before a new cell is produced, and the centromere serves as the junction for the two halves of each replicated chromosome, known as sister chromatids.

What is chromatid?

A chromatid is one of the two identical halves of a replicated chromosome. During cell division, first, the chromosomes go through the replication process so that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes. Following DNA replication, the chromosome consists of two identical structures called sister chromatids, which are joined together at the centromere.

Chromosome structure

In simpler terms, during DNA division, when a cell divides, the cell must copy its DNA and then transfer half of it to one cell and half to another cell. As you know, DNA is arranged in chromosomes, so when a chromosome replicates or makes a copy of itself, the resulting genetic material is put together as two chromosomes, called chromatids. Then in the next stage of cell division, when the DNA is transferred to two daughter cells, one of the chromatids is transferred to each of the two cells; Therefore, a chromatid is a copy of a chromosome after DNA replication.

What is a telomere?

Telomeres are repetitive segments of DNA located at the ends of linear chromosomes. They protect the ends of chromosomes the way a shoelace protects a shoelace from unraveling.

In many types of cells, telomeres lose a portion of their DNA each time the cell divides. Eventually, when all the telomeric DNA is gone, the cell can no longer reproduce and dies. White blood cells and other cells that have a very high rate of cell division have a special enzyme that prevents their chromosomes from losing their telomeres. Because they maintain their telomeres, they usually live longer than other cells. Telomeres also play a role in cancer. Chromosomes in malignant cells usually do not lose their telomeres, contributing to the uncontrolled growth that makes cancer so devastating.

Read More: Why was the human genome never completed?

The number of human chromosomes

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes and a total of 46 chromosomes. All plants and animals have a specific number of chromosomes. For example, a fruit fly has four pairs of chromosomes, while a rice plant has 12 and a dog has 39.

What is a karyotype?

A karyotype is a picture of a person’s chromosomes. To produce this image, the chromosomes are separated, stained, and examined under a microscope. This is usually done using the chromosomes in the white blood cells. The chromosomes are imaged under a microscope and then cut, and the chromosomes are sorted by size from largest to smallest. An experienced cytogeneticist can identify missing or extra parts of chromosomes. The karyotype of a male is shown in the figure below.

How are chromosomes numbered?

Each chromosome is assigned a specific number based on its size. The largest chromosome is chromosome number one. For example, in humans, chromosome number 18 is one of the smallest chromosomes.

How are chromosomes inherited?

In humans and most other complex organisms, one copy of each chromosome is inherited from the female parent and the other from the male parent. This explains why children inherit some traits from the mother and others from the father. The inheritance pattern of the small circular chromosome present in mitochondria is different. Only egg cells (and not sperm cells) retain their mitochondria during fertilization; Therefore, mitochondrial DNA is always inherited from the female parent. In humans, a few diseases, including some forms of hearing impairment and diabetes, have been linked to mitochondrial DNA.

Are male chromosomes different from female chromosomes?

Yes, they differ in a pair of chromosomes known as sex chromosomes. Females have two X chromosomes in their cells, while males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Inheriting extra or fewer copies of sex chromosomes can lead to serious problems. For example, women with extra copies of the X chromosome tend to be taller than average, and some have mental retardation. Men with more than one X chromosome have Klinefelter syndrome, a condition characterized by tall stature and often impaired fertility. Another syndrome caused by an imbalance in the number of sex chromosomes is Turner’s syndrome. Women with Turner syndrome have only one X chromosome. They are very short, usually do not reach puberty, and some may have heart or kidney problems.

کروموزوم X و Y

Facts about X chromosome and Y chromosome

1. In the nucleus of each cell, DNA is packaged in string-like structures called chromosomes.

2. Most human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes. One set of chromosomes comes from the mother, while the other set is inherited from the father. The 23rd pair are sex chromosomes, while the other 22 pairs are called autosomes.

3. Normally, people who are biologically female have two X chromosomes, while people who are biologically male have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Although there are exceptions to this rule.

4. From the point of view of female biology, people inherit one X chromosome from their father and another X chromosome from their mother. Biologically male people always get their X chromosome from their mother.

5. In terms of size, the X chromosome is about three times the size of the Y chromosome and contains about 900 genes, while the Y chromosome has about 55 genes.

6. Female mammals have two X chromosomes in each cell. However, one of the X chromosomes is inactive. This inactivation prevents transcription so that the amount of X-linked genes does not double, which can be potentially dangerous. An inactive X chromosome is compacted in the nucleus as a small compact structure called a cargo body. Objects are usually used to determine gender.

7. Changes in the structure or number of X chromosomes can lead to disease. For example, trisomy X syndrome is caused by having three X chromosomes instead of two X chromosomes. Turner syndrome occurs when women inherit only one copy of the X chromosome.

8. Some women have excellent color vision. This condition is very rare and is called tetrachromacy and is linked to the X chromosome. These women can see up to 100 million shades of color because they have four types of cone cells in their eyes instead of the usual three.

9. Contrary to popular belief, the calico is not a breed of cat, but a distinct coat color pattern that is linked to the X chromosome. More than 95% of calico cats are female. The patches of fur on a calico cat are orange and black, and the color depends on which X chromosome is inactive within each patch of the coat.

10. In genealogy, male descent is often traced using the Y chromosome, as it is only passed down from the father.

11. All people who carry a Y chromosome are related through a common XY ancestor who lived (probably) about 300,000 years ago.

12. The Y chromosome contains a gene called SRY, which causes the testicles to form in the embryo and leads to the development of the internal and external reproductive organs of the male sex. If a mutation occurs in the SRY gene, the embryo will develop female reproductive organs despite having XY chromosomes.

13. Variation in the number of sex chromosomes in a cell is quite normal. Some men have more than two X chromosomes in all their cells (the XXY condition is called Klinefelter syndrome), and many men lose the Y chromosome as they age. Smoking may accelerate this process.

14. Some genes that were thought to be lost on the Y chromosome have actually been moved and transferred to other chromosomes.

15. Most of the Y chromosome consists of repetitive DNA fragments, and special techniques are needed to sequence and determine the order of these very similar fragments.

What are chromosomal abnormalities?

Different types of chromosomal abnormalities can be divided into two main groups: numerical abnormalities and structural abnormalities.

Numerical anomalies

The condition in which a person loses one of his pairs of chromosomes are called monosomy, and the condition in which a person has more than two chromosomes instead of one pair is called trisomy. An example of a disease caused by numerical abnormalities is Down syndrome, which is characterized by mental retardation, learning problems, specific facial features, and weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy. A person with Down syndrome has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of two. For this reason, Down syndrome is also called trisomy 21. An example of monosomy, in which a person lacks one chromosome, is Turner syndrome. In Turner syndrome, the female sex is born with only one sex chromosome, an X, and is usually shorter than usual and is unable to have children, and has other problems.

Structural abnormalities

Chromosome structure can be changed in several ways:

Deletion: A part of the chromosome is lost or deleted.

Duplication: Part of the chromosome is duplicated, resulting in extra genetic material.

Translocation: A part of a chromosome is transferred to another chromosome. There are two main types of chromosomal translocations. In reciprocal translocation, parts of two different chromosomes are exchanged. In Robertson translocation, a complete chromosome is attached to another chromosome at the centromere.

Inversion: A part of the broken chromosome turns upside down and then rejoins. As a result of this phenomenon, the genetic material is reversed.

Rings: A part of the chromosome breaks and forms a ring or circle. This phenomenon can be associated with the loss of genetic material or the genetic material does not change.

Most chromosomal abnormalities occur randomly in the egg or sperm. In these cases, there is an abnormality in every cell of the body. However, some abnormalities occur after fertilization, so some cells are abnormal and others are not.

Chromosomal abnormalities can be inherited from one parent (such as a translocation) or present in a new individual. This is why when it is determined that a child has some kind of abnormality, chromosomal studies are often done on the parents.

How do chromosomal abnormalities occur?

Chromosomal abnormalities usually occur when an error occurs in cell division. There are two types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis results in two cells that are copies of the original cell. A cell with 46 chromosomes divides and becomes two cells, each of which has 46 chromosomes. This type of cell division occurs throughout the body except for the reproductive organs. This is how most of the cells that make up our body are made and replaced.

Meiosis leads to the production of cells that have half the number of chromosomes, i.e. 23 chromosomes, instead of 46 chromosomes. Meiosis occurs in the reproductive organs and leads to the formation of eggs and sperm.

In both processes, the correct number of chromosomes is supposed to be established in the resulting cells. Of course, errors in cell division can lead to the formation of cells that have fewer or more copies of chromosomes. Errors can also occur when chromosomes are duplicated.

Other factors that can increase the risk of chromosomal abnormalities are:

Maternal age: Women are born with all the eggs they will have in their lifetime. Some researchers believe that with age, errors appear in the egg’s genetic material. Older women are at higher risk of giving birth to babies with chromosomal abnormalities than younger women. Because men produce new sperm throughout their lives, paternal age does not increase the risk of chromosomal abnormalities.

Environment: Although there is no conclusive evidence that certain environmental factors cause chromosomal abnormalities, the environment may play a role in the occurrence of genetic errors.


Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs




Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs

Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs. A smart capsule that can be swallowed is designed to monitor vital signs and even detect drug overdoses.

Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs

In this article we’re going to talk about an ingestible sensor  that can monitor vital signs. A smart capsule that can be swallowed is designed to monitor vital signs and even detect drug overdoses.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers have developed a new ingestible capsule that can monitor vital signs, including heart rate and breathing patterns, from inside a patient’s digestive tract.

The new device, which can be swallowed like a pill, can track vital signs like breathing and heart rate from inside the body, offering a simple and convenient way to care for people prone to opioid overdoses.

The new device has the potential to be used to detect signs of irregular breathing during opioid overdose, scientists say.

Giovanni Traverso, an associate professor of mechanical engineering at MIT and a gastroenterologist who has worked on the development of a range of ingestible sensors, says the device will be particularly useful for sleep studies.

As the lead author of this study, he says: This device can help diagnose and monitor many health conditions without the need to go to the hospital, which can make healthcare more accessible and supportive for patients.

Read More: The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer

Usually, sleep studies require patients to be attached to a number of sensors and devices. In labs and in-home studies, these sensors can be attached with wires to a patient’s scalp, temples, chest, and lungs. The patient may also use a nasal cannula, chest belt, and pulse oximeter that can be connected to a portable monitor.

As you can imagine, trying to sleep with all these devices connected to you can be challenging, says Traverso.

Now, a new sensor has been developed by Celero Systems – a startup led by MIT and Harvard researchers – in the form of a capsule.

The device is part of a growing field of ingestible devices that can perform various functions inside the body. Unlike devices such as pacemakers that require surgical implantation, the use of easy-to-swallow devices does not require invasive procedures.

The idea is that a doctor can prescribe these capsules and the patient just has to swallow them, says Benjamin Place, one of the authors of the study and the founder of Celero Systems, which is actually a medical device company in Massachusetts. People are used to taking pills and the cost of using ingestible devices is much lower than traditional medical tests.

This capsule, called VM Pill, works by sensing small body vibrations related to breathing and heart activity. This device can detect from inside the intestine whether a person stops breathing or not.

To test this capsule, researchers put it in the stomach of pigs who were unconscious. The pigs were then given a powerful opioid that could cause respiratory failure. This device measured the breathing rate of the pigs in real time and alerted the researchers. So they were able to reverse the overdose process.

The researchers also tested and evaluated the device for the first time by giving it to people suffering from sleep apnea. This was the first time that ingestible sensor technology was tested on humans.

Sleep apnea causes interruption of breathing during sleep. Many people with sleep apnea are unaware of their condition, in part because its diagnosis requires spending a night in a sleep lab attached to external devices that monitor their vital signs.

Researchers administered VM capsules to 10 sleep apnea patients at West Virginia University. This device controls the breathing rate with 92.7% accuracy.

Compared to external devices, this capsule can control heart rate with at least 96% accuracy.

This test also showed that the use of this device is safe.

This capsule contains two small batteries and a wireless antenna that transmits data. The ingestible sensor, about the size of a vitamin capsule, travels through the digestive tract and collects signals while it’s in the stomach.

Participants in the experiment slept overnight in a laboratory while the sensor recorded their breathing, heart rate, temperature, and stomach movements. The sensor was also able to detect sleep apnea in one of the patients during the experiment.

Findings show that this oral capsule is capable of measuring health metrics with medical-grade diagnostic equipment in a sleep center. Traditionally, patients needing to be diagnosed with specific sleep disorders would have to spend the night in a lab where they would be attached to an array of sensors and devices, but this ingestible sensor technology eliminates that need.

Importantly, MIT says there have been no reported side effects from taking the capsule. The capsule is usually eliminated from the patient’s body within a day or so, although this short shelf life may also limit its effectiveness as a monitoring device.

Traverso says the team plans to equip the smart capsule with a mechanism that would allow it to sit in a patient’s stomach for a week.

Apart from that startup and MIT, this research was conducted by experts from West Virginia University and other affiliated hospitals.

Apart from that startup and MIT, this research was conducted by experts from West Virginia University and other affiliated hospitals.

Dr. Ali Rezaei, director of West Virginia University’s Rockefeller Institute of Neuroscience, said there is great potential to create a new pathway through this device that will help us detect when a patient has overdosed on drugs and is in the process of overdosing. is to do

He added: “The quality and stability of this data was excellent compared to the standard clinical studies we conducted in our sleep labs.” This device enables us to monitor patients’ vital signs remotely without the need for wires or medical staff, allowing patients to be monitored in their natural environment instead of a clinic or hospital.

Researchers even predict that in the future these devices will be able to mix drugs internally, and if the sensor registers that the person’s breathing rate has slowed down or stopped, the appropriate drugs can be released through it.

The researchers say more data from this study will become available in the coming months.

This research was published in Device magazine.

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The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer




The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer

The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer. A new study has confirmed the link between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer.

The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer

According to New Atlas, a new study has found a link between high blood insulin levels, which are often seen in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and pancreatic cancer. The researchers say their findings could lead to new cancer prevention strategies and targeted therapies to slow or stop cancer progression.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most common, aggressive and deadly pancreatic cancers. However, the mechanisms by which obesity and type 2 diabetes contribute to PDAC remain unclear.

Now, a new study by researchers at the University of British Columbia in Canada sheds light on the role of insulin and its receptors in the development of PDAC.

James Johnson, one of the corresponding authors of the study, said: “In addition to the rapid increase in obesity and type 2 diabetes, we are also seeing an alarming increase in the incidence of pancreatic cancer.” These findings help us understand how this happens and highlight the importance of keeping insulin levels in a healthy range, which can be done with diet, exercise and, in some cases, medications.

Read More: Transforming invasive cancer cells into healthy cells!

The pancreas performs the functions of exocrine and endocrine glands. Acinar (exocrine) cells synthesize, store, and secrete enzymes in the small intestine that help digest food, while beta (endocrine) cells make the hormone insulin, which regulates blood glucose levels. Insulin is thought to bind to its receptor on the acinar cell and stimulate the secretion of the enzyme.

Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of ineffective and insufficient insulin, leading to insulin resistance and high blood insulin (hyperinsulinemia) because the body produces more hormones to lower high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). It is generally accepted that in obesity, the increase in the level of free fatty acids causes insulin resistance, which leads to hyperinsulinemia due to hyperglycemia.

Using mouse models, the researchers investigated what happens in pancreatic acinar cells when the animals have hyperinsulinemia.

“We found that hyperinsulinemia contributes to the initiation of pancreatic cancer directly through insulin receptors in acinar cells,” said Annie Zhang, senior author of the study. This mechanism includes increased production of digestive enzymes, which leads to increased inflammation of the pancreas.

Researchers say, this inflammation leads to the growth of precancerous cells. Their findings could pave the way for new cancer prevention strategies and therapeutic approaches that target insulin receptors on acinar cells.

“We hope this study will change clinical practice and help develop lifestyle interventions that can reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer in the general population,” said study author Janelle Cope. The research could also pave the way for targeted therapies that modulate insulin receptors to prevent or slow the progression of pancreatic cancer.

The researchers also say their findings could have implications for other obesity-related cancers and type 2 diabetes, where elevated insulin levels may also play a role.

Our colleagues in Toronto have shown a similar link between insulin and breast cancer, says Johnson. In the future, we hope to determine whether extra insulin may help other types of obesity- and diabetes-related cancers.

This study was published in the journal Cell Metabolism.

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What is Bioprinting and what are its uses?




what is bioprinting

Bioprinting is a relatively new technology that enables the creation of biological structures and living tissues using layer-by-layer methods. In bioprinting, biological materials such as cells, proteins and biopolymers are used instead of ink.

There are different methods for bioprinting, including extrusion, laser and inkjet. Bioprinting has many applications in medicine, such as making artificial organs, tissue repair, and drug production. Bioprinting is also expected to play an important role in the future of medicine as technology advances.

What is bioprinting ?

Bioprinting is an emerging technology that uses layer-by-layer methods to build biological structures and living tissues. In bioprinting, living cells and biomaterials such as proteins and biocompatible materials are layered on top of each other to create tissues and organs similar to the natural tissue of the human body.

There are different methods for bioprinting:

  • Extrusion bioprint: In this method, biological materials such as cells, proteins and biopolymers are printed from a nozzle in a layer on top of each other.
  • Laser bioprint: In this method, a laser is used to print cells layer by layer. The laser causes the cells to stick and fuse together.
  • Inkjet bioprinting: Similar to inkjet printers, cells and biomaterials are printed instead of ink.

There are three main types of devices for bioprint:

  • Extrusion bioprinting devices that print materials using pressure.
    Droplet bioprinting devices that print drops of material.
    Laser bioprinting devices that stick materials layer by layer using a laser.


Applications of bioprint

what is bioprinting

The applications of bioprinting will be very wide in the future. Among the most important applications, the following can be mentioned:

  • Making artificial organs and transplanting organs: by using the patient’s stem cells, organs such as kidney, liver, heart, etc. can be bioprinted and used for transplantation.
  • Repair of damaged tissues: Bioprint can be used to repair burns, wounds and spinal cord injuries.
  • Production of personalized drugs: drugs can be personalized and bioprinted based on the patient’s cells.
  • Research on drugs and scientific experiments: Fabricated tissues can be used for drug testing and scientific studies.
  • Food printing: Bioprinting can be used to produce food in the future.
  • Making laboratory models of organs and tissues: these models are used to test drugs and study diseases.
  • Fabrication of artificial skin: bioprinted skins have been used to treat severe burns.
  • Making a scaffold or mold for angiogenesis: Scaffolds are made from bioprint in such a way as to cause the growth of blood vessels in the damaged tissue.
  • Making artificial cartilage: Bioprinted cartilage is used to repair damaged cartilage.
  • Artificial bone and membrane construction: Bone and membrane constructed tissues are used to replace damaged tissues.
  • Printing drugs and pills: Drugs can be printed using cells and biological materials.

Of course, there are still many challenges in the field of bioprint. including problems such as providing blood supply to the printed tissues, the high cost of the process, and the complexity of making large structures. But with the advancement of technology, bioprinting is expected to play an important role in the future of medicine and the production of biological materials. Stem cells and bioprinting can change the future of disease treatment.

Combining artificial intelligence and bioprinting

what is bioprinting

It is possible to use a combination of artificial intelligence and bioprinting. Some examples of this combination can be mentioned:

  • Designing and optimizing the structure of tissues: artificial intelligence can suggest optimal patterns and structures for printing tissues.
  • Print process control: Artificial intelligence can control and optimize the print process online.
  • Texture image analysis: Using artificial intelligence techniques such as deep learning, printed textures can be analyzed.
  • Simulating the behavior of tissues: Artificial intelligence can simulate the behavior of living tissues to optimize the bioprint process.
  • Automation of processes: artificial intelligence can automate parts of the bioprinting process and reduce errors.
  • Design of biocompatible materials: Artificial intelligence algorithms are used for the optimal design of materials and biomaterials used in bioprinting.

Therefore, it is expected that in the future we will see the convergence and use of artificial intelligence and bioprinting, which will lead to many improvements.

Read more: the world first dental robot start working

Bioprinting and superhuman powers

Bioprint is a very new technology and using it to create superhuman powers in humans is currently considered unethical and illegal. However, a few points should be noted in this regard:

  • It is possible to increase human physical strength by bioprint stronger muscles and bones, but this technology is still very immature.
  • Bioprinting of the brain and nerves can increase human mental and cognitive capacity, but it also has the risk of irreparable damage.
  • Genetic modification of embryos with CRISPR can create desirable traits in humans, but it has many ethical considerations.
  • Brain implants such as Neuralink can extend mental capabilities but are still in the experimental stages.
    Creating superhuman powers can cause unpredictable side effects in humans.


Bioprint is one of the emerging and very promising technologies in the field of medicine and tissue engineering. This technology is able to create tissues and organs similar to the human body through layer-by-layer printing of cells and biological materials.

There are different methods for bioprinting, which include extrusion, laser and inkjet, and various devices have been designed and built to perform this process.

Bioprinting is expected to find many applications in the near future in the field of artificial organ manufacturing, tissue engineering, personalized medical treatments, etc. Of course, there are still challenges in this field that require more research and development so that bioprinting can achieve commercial and wide applications. All in all, this technology is expected to create a huge revolution in the field of medicine and biotechnology in the not too distant future.


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