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Everything you need to know about stomach acid



Everything you need to know about stomach acid

Everything you need to know about stomach acid . Stomach acid is one of the components of gastric juice that helps break down food and also plays a role in preventing infection. Changing the acidity of gastric juice causes complications.

Everything you need to know about stomach acid

Stomach acid is one of the components of gastric juice that helps break down food and also plays a role in preventing infection. Changing the acidity of gastric juice causes complications.

Stomach acid is a watery and colorless liquid that is secreted from the glands that are located in the lining of the stomach. This liquid is very acidic and helps break down food to make digestion easier. Stomach acid helps the body more easily absorb nutrients as food moves through the digestive tract. To break down any type of food from meat to fibrous and tough plant material, stomach acid must be very acidic.

The human body is designed to tolerate moderate levels of stomach acid without causing illness or complications. Although these systems may sometimes have problems. Having gastric juice that is more or less acidic than normal can cause other health problems. Read on to find out how strong stomach acid is and what happens when the body produces stomach acid that is too strong or too weak.

How strong is stomach acid?

Stomach acid does many things for the body. Stomach acid breaks down the food you eat into particles that are easier to digest. Stomach acid also acts as the first line of defense against pathogens and microbes that can cause disease. These actions require a highly acidic liquid.

To know how strong stomach acid is, you first need to know how the acidity level of liquids is measured. Acidity is measured by the pH scale, which ranges from 0 to 14. The lower the pH level, the more acidic the liquid is. For example, battery acid has a pH of zero, so it is a very strong acid.

The pH of liquids with the lowest acidity is 14. These liquids are called alkaline liquids. In the middle of this scale are neutral liquids like pure water. Stomach acid has a pH between 1 and 2, so it is very acidic. Keep in mind that battery acid can dissolve materials such as metal and bone. Stomach acid, whose pH is one or two degrees higher, can also damage very strong materials such as bones and teeth.

What is stomach acid made of?

The low pH level of stomach acid is largely due to the presence of hydrochloric acid (HCl). However, there is only a very small amount of HCl in stomach acid. Other components of stomach acid include potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).

The cells of the stomach wall secrete these three acidic substances. These cells also produce several enzymes and mucus. Mucus is very important in this process and protects the lining of the stomach so that acid and other components of gastric juice do not damage this sensitive organ.

What happens if stomach acid has very low levels of hydrochloric acid?

Usually, the pH level of stomach acid fluctuates over time. Certain conditions such as medications or stress can interfere with the production of stomach acid.

What are the symptoms of low levels of HCl in gastric juice?

According to the information published on the Healthline website, if the hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice is low, you may experience the following symptoms:

  • Belching
  • flatulence stomach
  • discomfort
  • heartburn
  • diarrhea
  • Indigestion
  • Nausea with vomiting
  • gas
  • hair loss

If your stomach acid is chronically low, you may have a condition called hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid). Complications from chronically low acid levels can be significant. The early stages of this condition can lead to difficulty in digesting food and absorbing nutrients needed by the body. If this condition is not treated, it can damage the digestive system. Hypochlorhydria increases the risk of infections and chronic health problems.

Treatment of low stomach acid levels

The exact treatment for low-acid gastric juice depends on its likely cause. Your doctor may prescribe an HCl supplement. This supplement can increase the pH level of stomach acid. He may also prescribe pepsin enzyme medications that help increase stomach acidity. Other treatments for low stomach acid levels include:

  • Antibiotics to treat the underlying infection
  • Improving diet and increasing supplements
  • Medication management
  • Stress reduction techniques

What happens if the stomach has high levels of hydrochloric acid?

If the acid level in the gastric juice is too high, the lining of the stomach may lose its effectiveness. High levels of stomach acid can lead to complications such as stomach ulcers and acid reflux.

Symptoms of high stomach acid levels

The most obvious symptoms of high levels of stomach acid are:

  • Nausea or vomiting
  • flatulence
  • Abdominal discomfort that may worsen if the stomach is empty
  • diarrhea
  • heartburn
  • loss of appetite
  • Unreasonable weight loss

Treatment of high stomach acid levels

High stomach acid is usually treated with medication. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) work to reduce stomach acid. The doctor may prescribe these drugs alone or together with other drugs. Other treatments depend on the likely cause of the high acid levels. These treatments may include:

  • antibiotics
  • Change in diet
  • Surgery to remove tumors, part of the stomach (gastrectomy), or part of the vagus nerve (vagotomy)

What factor causes the level of stomach acid to rise or fall?

Some diseases, medications and lifestyle factors can cause stomach acid levels to fluctuate. Chronically high or low acid levels can be problematic for your health and well-being. Getting treatment can prevent long-term complications from these cases.

Causes of low stomach acid levels

Certain conditions, such as those listed below, increase the risk of low acid levels:

  • Having a premature birth
  • Age over 65 years Gastric surgery
  • Having high levels of stress
  • Lack of nutrients, especially zinc Helicobacter pylori infection
  • Having a chronic disease
  • Causes of high stomach acid levels

There are factors that can increase the likelihood of high stomach acid levels. These factors include the following:

  • Excessive production of certain hormones that stimulate the production of stomach acid
  • Return of stomach acid production after stopping drugs that reduce stomach acid
  • Helicobacter pylori infection Stomach outlet obstruction
  • Tumors, but rarely

Tips for optimal stomach acid production

More research is needed on ways to help influence acid production without medication. However, according to a review published in 2019, dietary and lifestyle changes may help people with high stomach acid production. These changes can include the following:

  • Eating smaller meals throughout the day instead of large, high-calorie meals
  • Avoid lying down for 2-3 hours after eating and avoid eating 2-3 hours before sleep
  • Avoid wearing tight clothes that put pressure on the stomach Increase the amount of dietary fiber
  • Reducing the calorie intake of each meal
  • Avoid smoking Follow the Mediterranean diet Chew food thoroughly
  • Drink enough water between meals
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Maintain a balanced weight


Stomach acid is a very acidic liquid that the body naturally produces to help digest and absorb nutrients from food. The body also produces enzymes and mucus to help protect itself against the power of the acid.

High levels of stomach acid can lead to heartburn, acid reflux, and ulcers. Low levels of stomach acid may impair the ability to digest food. If you have symptoms of low or high levels of stomach acid, see your doctor. Both of these conditions can become problematic if they are chronic and not treated well. The specialist examines your symptoms and recommends the best treatment for you. In some cases, they may look for underlying health problems, such as infections, that could be contributing to changes in the stomach’s normal acidity levels.


Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs




Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs

Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs. A smart capsule that can be swallowed is designed to monitor vital signs and even detect drug overdoses.

Ingestible Sensor Monitors Vital Signs

In this article we’re going to talk about an ingestible sensor  that can monitor vital signs. A smart capsule that can be swallowed is designed to monitor vital signs and even detect drug overdoses.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers have developed a new ingestible capsule that can monitor vital signs, including heart rate and breathing patterns, from inside a patient’s digestive tract.

The new device, which can be swallowed like a pill, can track vital signs like breathing and heart rate from inside the body, offering a simple and convenient way to care for people prone to opioid overdoses.

The new device has the potential to be used to detect signs of irregular breathing during opioid overdose, scientists say.

Giovanni Traverso, an associate professor of mechanical engineering at MIT and a gastroenterologist who has worked on the development of a range of ingestible sensors, says the device will be particularly useful for sleep studies.

As the lead author of this study, he says: This device can help diagnose and monitor many health conditions without the need to go to the hospital, which can make healthcare more accessible and supportive for patients.

Read More: The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer

Usually, sleep studies require patients to be attached to a number of sensors and devices. In labs and in-home studies, these sensors can be attached with wires to a patient’s scalp, temples, chest, and lungs. The patient may also use a nasal cannula, chest belt, and pulse oximeter that can be connected to a portable monitor.

As you can imagine, trying to sleep with all these devices connected to you can be challenging, says Traverso.

Now, a new sensor has been developed by Celero Systems – a startup led by MIT and Harvard researchers – in the form of a capsule.

The device is part of a growing field of ingestible devices that can perform various functions inside the body. Unlike devices such as pacemakers that require surgical implantation, the use of easy-to-swallow devices does not require invasive procedures.

The idea is that a doctor can prescribe these capsules and the patient just has to swallow them, says Benjamin Place, one of the authors of the study and the founder of Celero Systems, which is actually a medical device company in Massachusetts. People are used to taking pills and the cost of using ingestible devices is much lower than traditional medical tests.

This capsule, called VM Pill, works by sensing small body vibrations related to breathing and heart activity. This device can detect from inside the intestine whether a person stops breathing or not.

To test this capsule, researchers put it in the stomach of pigs who were unconscious. The pigs were then given a powerful opioid that could cause respiratory failure. This device measured the breathing rate of the pigs in real time and alerted the researchers. So they were able to reverse the overdose process.

The researchers also tested and evaluated the device for the first time by giving it to people suffering from sleep apnea. This was the first time that ingestible sensor technology was tested on humans.

Sleep apnea causes interruption of breathing during sleep. Many people with sleep apnea are unaware of their condition, in part because its diagnosis requires spending a night in a sleep lab attached to external devices that monitor their vital signs.

Researchers administered VM capsules to 10 sleep apnea patients at West Virginia University. This device controls the breathing rate with 92.7% accuracy.

Compared to external devices, this capsule can control heart rate with at least 96% accuracy.

This test also showed that the use of this device is safe.

This capsule contains two small batteries and a wireless antenna that transmits data. The ingestible sensor, about the size of a vitamin capsule, travels through the digestive tract and collects signals while it’s in the stomach.

Participants in the experiment slept overnight in a laboratory while the sensor recorded their breathing, heart rate, temperature, and stomach movements. The sensor was also able to detect sleep apnea in one of the patients during the experiment.

Findings show that this oral capsule is capable of measuring health metrics with medical-grade diagnostic equipment in a sleep center. Traditionally, patients needing to be diagnosed with specific sleep disorders would have to spend the night in a lab where they would be attached to an array of sensors and devices, but this ingestible sensor technology eliminates that need.

Importantly, MIT says there have been no reported side effects from taking the capsule. The capsule is usually eliminated from the patient’s body within a day or so, although this short shelf life may also limit its effectiveness as a monitoring device.

Traverso says the team plans to equip the smart capsule with a mechanism that would allow it to sit in a patient’s stomach for a week.

Apart from that startup and MIT, this research was conducted by experts from West Virginia University and other affiliated hospitals.

Apart from that startup and MIT, this research was conducted by experts from West Virginia University and other affiliated hospitals.

Dr. Ali Rezaei, director of West Virginia University’s Rockefeller Institute of Neuroscience, said there is great potential to create a new pathway through this device that will help us detect when a patient has overdosed on drugs and is in the process of overdosing. is to do

He added: “The quality and stability of this data was excellent compared to the standard clinical studies we conducted in our sleep labs.” This device enables us to monitor patients’ vital signs remotely without the need for wires or medical staff, allowing patients to be monitored in their natural environment instead of a clinic or hospital.

Researchers even predict that in the future these devices will be able to mix drugs internally, and if the sensor registers that the person’s breathing rate has slowed down or stopped, the appropriate drugs can be released through it.

The researchers say more data from this study will become available in the coming months.

This research was published in Device magazine.

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The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer




The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer

The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer. A new study has confirmed the link between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer.

The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer

According to New Atlas, a new study has found a link between high blood insulin levels, which are often seen in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and pancreatic cancer. The researchers say their findings could lead to new cancer prevention strategies and targeted therapies to slow or stop cancer progression.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most common, aggressive and deadly pancreatic cancers. However, the mechanisms by which obesity and type 2 diabetes contribute to PDAC remain unclear.

Now, a new study by researchers at the University of British Columbia in Canada sheds light on the role of insulin and its receptors in the development of PDAC.

James Johnson, one of the corresponding authors of the study, said: “In addition to the rapid increase in obesity and type 2 diabetes, we are also seeing an alarming increase in the incidence of pancreatic cancer.” These findings help us understand how this happens and highlight the importance of keeping insulin levels in a healthy range, which can be done with diet, exercise and, in some cases, medications.

Read More: Transforming invasive cancer cells into healthy cells!

The pancreas performs the functions of exocrine and endocrine glands. Acinar (exocrine) cells synthesize, store, and secrete enzymes in the small intestine that help digest food, while beta (endocrine) cells make the hormone insulin, which regulates blood glucose levels. Insulin is thought to bind to its receptor on the acinar cell and stimulate the secretion of the enzyme.

Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of ineffective and insufficient insulin, leading to insulin resistance and high blood insulin (hyperinsulinemia) because the body produces more hormones to lower high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). It is generally accepted that in obesity, the increase in the level of free fatty acids causes insulin resistance, which leads to hyperinsulinemia due to hyperglycemia.

Using mouse models, the researchers investigated what happens in pancreatic acinar cells when the animals have hyperinsulinemia.

“We found that hyperinsulinemia contributes to the initiation of pancreatic cancer directly through insulin receptors in acinar cells,” said Annie Zhang, senior author of the study. This mechanism includes increased production of digestive enzymes, which leads to increased inflammation of the pancreas.

Researchers say, this inflammation leads to the growth of precancerous cells. Their findings could pave the way for new cancer prevention strategies and therapeutic approaches that target insulin receptors on acinar cells.

“We hope this study will change clinical practice and help develop lifestyle interventions that can reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer in the general population,” said study author Janelle Cope. The research could also pave the way for targeted therapies that modulate insulin receptors to prevent or slow the progression of pancreatic cancer.

The researchers also say their findings could have implications for other obesity-related cancers and type 2 diabetes, where elevated insulin levels may also play a role.

Our colleagues in Toronto have shown a similar link between insulin and breast cancer, says Johnson. In the future, we hope to determine whether extra insulin may help other types of obesity- and diabetes-related cancers.

This study was published in the journal Cell Metabolism.

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What is Bioprinting and what are its uses?




what is bioprinting

Bioprinting is a relatively new technology that enables the creation of biological structures and living tissues using layer-by-layer methods. In bioprinting, biological materials such as cells, proteins and biopolymers are used instead of ink.

There are different methods for bioprinting, including extrusion, laser and inkjet. Bioprinting has many applications in medicine, such as making artificial organs, tissue repair, and drug production. Bioprinting is also expected to play an important role in the future of medicine as technology advances.

What is bioprinting ?

Bioprinting is an emerging technology that uses layer-by-layer methods to build biological structures and living tissues. In bioprinting, living cells and biomaterials such as proteins and biocompatible materials are layered on top of each other to create tissues and organs similar to the natural tissue of the human body.

There are different methods for bioprinting:

  • Extrusion bioprint: In this method, biological materials such as cells, proteins and biopolymers are printed from a nozzle in a layer on top of each other.
  • Laser bioprint: In this method, a laser is used to print cells layer by layer. The laser causes the cells to stick and fuse together.
  • Inkjet bioprinting: Similar to inkjet printers, cells and biomaterials are printed instead of ink.

There are three main types of devices for bioprint:

  • Extrusion bioprinting devices that print materials using pressure.
    Droplet bioprinting devices that print drops of material.
    Laser bioprinting devices that stick materials layer by layer using a laser.


Applications of bioprint

what is bioprinting

The applications of bioprinting will be very wide in the future. Among the most important applications, the following can be mentioned:

  • Making artificial organs and transplanting organs: by using the patient’s stem cells, organs such as kidney, liver, heart, etc. can be bioprinted and used for transplantation.
  • Repair of damaged tissues: Bioprint can be used to repair burns, wounds and spinal cord injuries.
  • Production of personalized drugs: drugs can be personalized and bioprinted based on the patient’s cells.
  • Research on drugs and scientific experiments: Fabricated tissues can be used for drug testing and scientific studies.
  • Food printing: Bioprinting can be used to produce food in the future.
  • Making laboratory models of organs and tissues: these models are used to test drugs and study diseases.
  • Fabrication of artificial skin: bioprinted skins have been used to treat severe burns.
  • Making a scaffold or mold for angiogenesis: Scaffolds are made from bioprint in such a way as to cause the growth of blood vessels in the damaged tissue.
  • Making artificial cartilage: Bioprinted cartilage is used to repair damaged cartilage.
  • Artificial bone and membrane construction: Bone and membrane constructed tissues are used to replace damaged tissues.
  • Printing drugs and pills: Drugs can be printed using cells and biological materials.

Of course, there are still many challenges in the field of bioprint. including problems such as providing blood supply to the printed tissues, the high cost of the process, and the complexity of making large structures. But with the advancement of technology, bioprinting is expected to play an important role in the future of medicine and the production of biological materials. Stem cells and bioprinting can change the future of disease treatment.

Combining artificial intelligence and bioprinting

what is bioprinting

It is possible to use a combination of artificial intelligence and bioprinting. Some examples of this combination can be mentioned:

  • Designing and optimizing the structure of tissues: artificial intelligence can suggest optimal patterns and structures for printing tissues.
  • Print process control: Artificial intelligence can control and optimize the print process online.
  • Texture image analysis: Using artificial intelligence techniques such as deep learning, printed textures can be analyzed.
  • Simulating the behavior of tissues: Artificial intelligence can simulate the behavior of living tissues to optimize the bioprint process.
  • Automation of processes: artificial intelligence can automate parts of the bioprinting process and reduce errors.
  • Design of biocompatible materials: Artificial intelligence algorithms are used for the optimal design of materials and biomaterials used in bioprinting.

Therefore, it is expected that in the future we will see the convergence and use of artificial intelligence and bioprinting, which will lead to many improvements.

Read more: the world first dental robot start working

Bioprinting and superhuman powers

Bioprint is a very new technology and using it to create superhuman powers in humans is currently considered unethical and illegal. However, a few points should be noted in this regard:

  • It is possible to increase human physical strength by bioprint stronger muscles and bones, but this technology is still very immature.
  • Bioprinting of the brain and nerves can increase human mental and cognitive capacity, but it also has the risk of irreparable damage.
  • Genetic modification of embryos with CRISPR can create desirable traits in humans, but it has many ethical considerations.
  • Brain implants such as Neuralink can extend mental capabilities but are still in the experimental stages.
    Creating superhuman powers can cause unpredictable side effects in humans.


Bioprint is one of the emerging and very promising technologies in the field of medicine and tissue engineering. This technology is able to create tissues and organs similar to the human body through layer-by-layer printing of cells and biological materials.

There are different methods for bioprinting, which include extrusion, laser and inkjet, and various devices have been designed and built to perform this process.

Bioprinting is expected to find many applications in the near future in the field of artificial organ manufacturing, tissue engineering, personalized medical treatments, etc. Of course, there are still challenges in this field that require more research and development so that bioprinting can achieve commercial and wide applications. All in all, this technology is expected to create a huge revolution in the field of medicine and biotechnology in the not too distant future.


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