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Everything you need to know about stomach acid



Everything you need to know about stomach acid

Everything you need to know about stomach acid . Stomach acid is one of the components of gastric juice that helps break down food and also plays a role in preventing infection. Changing the acidity of gastric juice causes complications.

Everything you need to know about stomach acid

Stomach acid is one of the components of gastric juice that helps break down food and also plays a role in preventing infection. Changing the acidity of gastric juice causes complications.

Stomach acid is a watery and colorless liquid that is secreted from the glands that are located in the lining of the stomach. This liquid is very acidic and helps break down food to make digestion easier. Stomach acid helps the body more easily absorb nutrients as food moves through the digestive tract. To break down any type of food from meat to fibrous and tough plant material, stomach acid must be very acidic.

The human body is designed to tolerate moderate levels of stomach acid without causing illness or complications. Although these systems may sometimes have problems. Having gastric juice that is more or less acidic than normal can cause other health problems. Read on to find out how strong stomach acid is and what happens when the body produces stomach acid that is too strong or too weak.

How strong is stomach acid?

Stomach acid does many things for the body. Stomach acid breaks down the food you eat into particles that are easier to digest. Stomach acid also acts as the first line of defense against pathogens and microbes that can cause disease. These actions require a highly acidic liquid.

To know how strong stomach acid is, you first need to know how the acidity level of liquids is measured. Acidity is measured by the pH scale, which ranges from 0 to 14. The lower the pH level, the more acidic the liquid is. For example, battery acid has a pH of zero, so it is a very strong acid.

The pH of liquids with the lowest acidity is 14. These liquids are called alkaline liquids. In the middle of this scale are neutral liquids like pure water. Stomach acid has a pH between 1 and 2, so it is very acidic. Keep in mind that battery acid can dissolve materials such as metal and bone. Stomach acid, whose pH is one or two degrees higher, can also damage very strong materials such as bones and teeth.

What is stomach acid made of?

The low pH level of stomach acid is largely due to the presence of hydrochloric acid (HCl). However, there is only a very small amount of HCl in stomach acid. Other components of stomach acid include potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).

The cells of the stomach wall secrete these three acidic substances. These cells also produce several enzymes and mucus. Mucus is very important in this process and protects the lining of the stomach so that acid and other components of gastric juice do not damage this sensitive organ.

What happens if stomach acid has very low levels of hydrochloric acid?

Usually, the pH level of stomach acid fluctuates over time. Certain conditions such as medications or stress can interfere with the production of stomach acid.

What are the symptoms of low levels of HCl in gastric juice?

According to the information published on the Healthline website, if the hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice is low, you may experience the following symptoms:

  • Belching
  • flatulence stomach
  • discomfort
  • heartburn
  • diarrhea
  • Indigestion
  • Nausea with vomiting
  • gas
  • hair loss

If your stomach acid is chronically low, you may have a condition called hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid). Complications from chronically low acid levels can be significant. The early stages of this condition can lead to difficulty in digesting food and absorbing nutrients needed by the body. If this condition is not treated, it can damage the digestive system. Hypochlorhydria increases the risk of infections and chronic health problems.

Treatment of low stomach acid levels

The exact treatment for low-acid gastric juice depends on its likely cause. Your doctor may prescribe an HCl supplement. This supplement can increase the pH level of stomach acid. He may also prescribe pepsin enzyme medications that help increase stomach acidity. Other treatments for low stomach acid levels include:

  • Antibiotics to treat the underlying infection
  • Improving diet and increasing supplements
  • Medication management
  • Stress reduction techniques

What happens if the stomach has high levels of hydrochloric acid?

If the acid level in the gastric juice is too high, the lining of the stomach may lose its effectiveness. High levels of stomach acid can lead to complications such as stomach ulcers and acid reflux.

Symptoms of high stomach acid levels

The most obvious symptoms of high levels of stomach acid are:

  • Nausea or vomiting
  • flatulence
  • Abdominal discomfort that may worsen if the stomach is empty
  • diarrhea
  • heartburn
  • loss of appetite
  • Unreasonable weight loss

Treatment of high stomach acid levels

High stomach acid is usually treated with medication. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) work to reduce stomach acid. The doctor may prescribe these drugs alone or together with other drugs. Other treatments depend on the likely cause of the high acid levels. These treatments may include:

  • antibiotics
  • Change in diet
  • Surgery to remove tumors, part of the stomach (gastrectomy), or part of the vagus nerve (vagotomy)

What factor causes the level of stomach acid to rise or fall?

Some diseases, medications and lifestyle factors can cause stomach acid levels to fluctuate. Chronically high or low acid levels can be problematic for your health and well-being. Getting treatment can prevent long-term complications from these cases.

Causes of low stomach acid levels

Certain conditions, such as those listed below, increase the risk of low acid levels:

  • Having a premature birth
  • Age over 65 years Gastric surgery
  • Having high levels of stress
  • Lack of nutrients, especially zinc Helicobacter pylori infection
  • Having a chronic disease
  • Causes of high stomach acid levels

There are factors that can increase the likelihood of high stomach acid levels. These factors include the following:

  • Excessive production of certain hormones that stimulate the production of stomach acid
  • Return of stomach acid production after stopping drugs that reduce stomach acid
  • Helicobacter pylori infection Stomach outlet obstruction
  • Tumors, but rarely

Tips for optimal stomach acid production

More research is needed on ways to help influence acid production without medication. However, according to a review published in 2019, dietary and lifestyle changes may help people with high stomach acid production. These changes can include the following:

  • Eating smaller meals throughout the day instead of large, high-calorie meals
  • Avoid lying down for 2-3 hours after eating and avoid eating 2-3 hours before sleep
  • Avoid wearing tight clothes that put pressure on the stomach Increase the amount of dietary fiber
  • Reducing the calorie intake of each meal
  • Avoid smoking Follow the Mediterranean diet Chew food thoroughly
  • Drink enough water between meals
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Maintain a balanced weight


Stomach acid is a very acidic liquid that the body naturally produces to help digest and absorb nutrients from food. The body also produces enzymes and mucus to help protect itself against the power of the acid.

High levels of stomach acid can lead to heartburn, acid reflux, and ulcers. Low levels of stomach acid may impair the ability to digest food. If you have symptoms of low or high levels of stomach acid, see your doctor. Both of these conditions can become problematic if they are chronic and not treated well. The specialist examines your symptoms and recommends the best treatment for you. In some cases, they may look for underlying health problems, such as infections, that could be contributing to changes in the stomach’s normal acidity levels.


Why do people listen to sad songs?




Why do people listen to sad songs?
Perhaps the main reason for listening to sad music is not to enjoy the feeling of sadness, and people listen to this type of music because of the sense of connection. So why do people listen to sad songs?

Why do people listen to sad songs?

There is a paradox in sad music: we don’t enjoy sadness in real life, but we enjoy art that makes us feel that way. Countless researchers since Aristotle tried to solve this contradiction. Perhaps through music, we experience a kind of catharsis of negative emotions. Catharsis here means refinement and cultivation of the soul. Maybe there is an evolutionary advantage in this feeling of sadness, or maybe we want to value our suffering. Maybe our body produces hormones in response to anxiety disorder, music that leads to a sense of comfort.

According to the New York Times, Dr. Nob, an experimental philosopher and psychologist at Yale University, in a new study published in the Aesthetic Education Journal, raised the question, “What is the purpose of sad music?” He tried to solve the contradiction of this kind of music. Over the years, he came to the conclusion that people often have two perceptions of the same thing. For example, they can consider people as artists if they have a set of characteristics such as an innate talent for working with a brush; But if they don’t have abstract values ​​such as creativity, curiosity or interest and just recreate old masterpieces for profit, we can say they are not artists. According to Dr. Nob and his former student Tara Venkatsan, a cognitive scientist, perhaps sad music also has a dual nature.

A girl listening to sad music

The aforementioned research shows that our emotional response to music is multidimensional; You don’t necessarily feel happy when you listen to a beautiful song, and you don’t necessarily feel sad when you listen to a sad song. According to a 2016 study, the emotional response of 363 listeners to sad songs was divided into three categories: sadness and strong negative emotions such as anger, panic, and despair, nostalgia, quiet sadness and self-compassion, and finally sweet sadness is pleasant pain. It comes from consolation and understanding. Many respondents reported a combination of all three. The researchers called this research “Fifty Blue Spectrums”.

Given the layers of emotion and the ambiguity of language, it’s no wonder that sad music creates a paradox; But it is not clear why it induces a sense of pleasure or meaning. Some psychologists have investigated how certain aspects of music, such as position, pitch, rhythm, and resonance, are related to listeners’ emotions. According to research, certain forms of songs have an almost universal function: for example, among different countries and cultures, lullabies have similar acoustic characteristics that make children and adults feel safe. Thomas Irola, a musicologist at the University of Durham in England and researcher of the “Fifty Spectrum” study, says:

Throughout life, we learn to make connections between our feelings and what we hear. We recognize emotional expression in speech, and often these cues are used in a similar way in music.

Other researchers, such as Patrick Joslin, a music psychologist from Uppsala University in Sweden, believe that such findings reveal the value of sad music. Sad music, he writes in an essay, asks why “the second movement of Beethoven’s Eroica symphony evokes a sense of sadness?” It leads to the question, “Why does a slow step lead to a feeling of sadness?”

According to the findings of Joslin and his colleagues, there are cognitive mechanisms through which feelings of sadness are induced in listeners. These mechanisms include unconscious reactions in the brain stem, synchronization of the rhythm with the internal rhythm such as the heartbeat, conditional reactions to certain sounds, the arousal of memories, emotional contagion, and reflexive measurement of music. Perhaps because sadness is such a strong emotion, it can evoke an empathetic and positive response. In fact, understanding other people’s grief provokes a social response.

Why do people listen to sad songs?

The purpose of listening to sad music is not necessarily to convey sadness; Rather, it is creating a sense of connection.

Dr. Nob, along with Dr. Venkatsan and George Newman, a psychologist at the Rotman School of Management, designed a two-stage experiment to test the hypothesis. In the first part of the experiment, they gave one of four song descriptions to more than 400 participants. In the description of the first song, it was written: “transmitting complex and deep emotions, but technically full of errors.” The second track was described as: “music without technical errors that do not convey complex and deep emotions.” The third song was described as “highly emotional and technically flawless” and the fourth song was described as “technically flawed and non-emotional”.

Sad girl playing guitar

Subjects were asked to indicate on a seven-point scale whether their song conveyed the intent of the music or not. Their goal was to show how important it is for music to express emotion and generally happiness, sadness, hate, or any other emotion on an intuitive level. Overall, subjects reported that deeply emotional but technically flawed songs best reflected the nature of music. In other words, the emotional expression had a more prominent value than the technical aspect.

In the second part of the experiment, which included 450 new subjects, the researchers gave each participant 72 descriptions of emotional songs that convey feelings such as “humiliation,” “narcissism,” “inspiration,” and “lust.” For comparison, they gave participants phrases that convey conversational interaction in expressing people’s feelings. For example, one of the phrases was: “An acquaintance is talking to you about the past week and his feeling of passion”. In general, the emotions that the subjects receive are strongly rooted in the “purpose of the music” and are similar to the emotions that make people feel close to each other in conversation: emotions such as love, joy, loneliness, sadness, ecstasy, and relaxation.

Mario Etti Picker, a philosopher at Lowell University of Chicago, finds the results of this study interesting. After reviewing the data, he came up with a relatively simple idea: “Perhaps the reason we listen to music is not just an emotional response, but we do it to understand the connection with others; Because, according to the reports of many subjects, sad music is not necessarily enjoyable despite its artistic dimensions. In other words, according to the paradox of sad music, our love of music is not the result of direct praise of sadness; Rather, it is the result of valuing communication with others.”

Dr. Irola also concluded in his research that empathic people are likely to be moved by unfamiliar sad music. They tend to engage in this kind of imaginary grief. These people also show significant hormonal changes in response to sad music. But sad music, like an onion, has many layers, and this explanation can give rise to other questions. For example, who should we communicate with? Artist or with our own past? Or even with an imaginary person?

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Inventing a new drug to treat influenza




Inventing a new drug to treat influenza!

A new drug developed to treat severe influenza works in a unique way, unlike what a drug would expect, to treat lung disease and infection.

Inventing a new drug to treat influenza!

A new drug to treat severe flu successfully keeps patients at the right level of lung inflammation to protect against lung damage while still allowing the immune system to fight infection. This drug has been effective in mice even a few days after infection.

According to New Atlas, if you’ve ever had the flu, you’ve most likely contracted the influenza A virus (IAV). Compared to influenza B virus, infection with type A often causes more severe symptoms. But, while many of us have experienced the fever and chills, headache and muscle aches, fatigue, sore throat, and cough of the common flu, severe infection with the animal IAV strain is different and potentially life-threatening.

Severe infection of this type of influenza causes a special type of cell death called necroptosis in infected cells. While this is a natural process designed to limit viral spread by actively eliminating infected cells and mobilizing the immune system to respond, necroptosis can activate a hyperinflammatory response and cause collateral lung damage that is potentially fatal. Is. Other than managing its symptoms, there are few treatment options for treating severe influenza.

In a new study, researchers from Tufts University School of Medicine, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, the University of Houston, and Fox Chase Cancer Center collaborated to test a drug called UH15-38 that could prevent this flu-related lung damage in mice. It prevents and allows the immune system to fight the virus.

“Our drug significantly increased survival and reduced symptoms of influenza virus infection,” said Paul Thomas, co-author of the study. The new drug reduced dangerous inflammation and even seemed to improve the adaptive response to the virus.

Achieving the Goldilocks effect, or the effect of the right amount of the drug on inflammation, required researchers to use clever chemistry along with a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms of necroptosis.

Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) is an essential part of the necroptosis cell death pathway, but it also controls another cell death pathway called apoptosis. Both types of cell death trigger opposing immune responses. Apoptotic death usually results in muted immunological responses, while necroptosis releases molecules that cause inflammation. UH15-38 was designed to prevent the stimulation of the necroptosis pathway by RIPK3, while still allowing cell death and removing infected cells in a less inflammatory manner.

Alexei Degterev, an associate professor of developmental, molecular, and chemical biology at Tufts University School of Medicine and one of the authors of the paper, says: “If you eliminate necroptosis, you will still limit virus replication without severe damage to the lungs.” Necroptosis does not appear to be necessary to limit viral activity, so if we can block it, we can protect the host by reducing inflammation in the lungs.

Read more: Testing a vaccine that reduces liver tumors

The researchers tested the drug UH15-38 in mouse models and found that high doses of the drug provided protection against the usually fatal IAV influenza. At low doses, the UH15-38 drug protected mice against similar amounts of influenza that humans experience. Notably, the mice were protected even if they received the drug several days after being infected with the disease.

“This drug can do something we haven’t seen before,” says Thomas. We can start five days after the initial infection and still see benefits. Completely removing the RIPK3 protein is not a great choice because then the immune system cannot clear the virus. When we removed only the necroptosis, the animals did better because they still had apoptosis and could still get rid of the infectious cells, but their condition was not as severely inflammatory.

UH15-38 improved survival by preventing collateral necroptosis damage to type 1 alveolar epithelial cells, a special type of cell in the lungs that facilitates gas exchange. Damage to these cells can make it difficult for oxygen to enter the blood and carbon dioxide from it, and cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness. The drug also reduced the number of immune cells associated with inflammation, such as neutrophils, in the mice.

Often, the worst part of the flu happens after the virus is under control when inflammation destroys lung cells, Thomas says. UH15-38 can reduce influenza-induced inflammation while leaving viral clearance and other functions of tissue and immune responses intact. This makes the drug a promising option to move towards clinical use.

The next step is clinical and human trials safely. Researchers are testing whether UH15-38 is effective in treating other respiratory diseases.

While the worst of COVID-19 may be upon us, another pandemic is expected, and we need something that protects the host regardless of how it is infected, Degtref says. This study demonstrates the possibility of achieving such a goal and renews interest in how cell death occurs against infections.

This study was published in the journal Nature.

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Testing a vaccine that reduces liver tumors




Testing a vaccine that reduces liver tumors

Testing a vaccine that reduces liver tumors. A combination of a vaccine and an immunotherapy drug has reduced advanced liver cancer in trials.

Testing a vaccine that reduces liver tumors

A third of patients with advanced liver cancer who received a personalized vaccine in a small trial saw their liver tumors shrink.

According to IA, Geneos Therapeutics has announced the publication of positive safety data, immunogenicity, and effectiveness of its solution in Nature Medicine magazine.

According to this study, hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of primary liver cancer and is also one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The disease is responsible for more than 12,000 deaths each year in the United States alone.

Hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults and is currently the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis. This disease is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.

Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs in conditions of chronic inflammation of the liver and is most associated with chronic viral hepatitis infection (hepatitis B or C) or exposure to toxins such as alcohol, aflatoxin, or pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

Although advances have been made in the treatment of advanced liver cancer, the five-year survival rate remains below 10%.

current study

The first and last patients were enrolled in the study on June 16, 2020, and June 14, 2023, respectively, and all 36 patients in this study received their personalized vaccine.

In this study, researchers used samples from patients’ tumors to make vaccines based on the new mutations found in each patient’s tumor.

Liver cancer contains fewer mutations that reduce the effectiveness of immunotherapies. The results show that vaccines based on mutations present only in the patient’s tumor can boost the immune system. This is done in a way that improves the ability to detect and attack cancers.

The vaccine essentially trains the immune system to recognize antigens that are being ignored, says Dr. Mark Yarkwan, who led the study.

Read more: The relationship between high blood insulin levels and pancreatic cancer

Patients were given vaccines along with widely used immunotherapy. With this combination, they experienced a 30% tumor reduction. Three of them had a complete response, meaning no detectable signs of tumor remained after a median follow-up of 21.5 months.

“This certainly shows that the vaccine has indeed increased clinical efficacy,” Yarkvan added.

Side effects and adverse reactions

There were no serious side effects for the patients, and the only complication was pain at the injection site.

Genius’ innovative treatment involves a DNA vaccine that delivers the genetic code of mutated proteins to cells via a tiny electrical impulse. Each vaccine can target up to 40 mutated genes.

Despite the small size of the study, its results are important for the advancement of the field, says Niranjan Sardsai, president of Genius. “Our mechanism validates every step from vaccination to tumor reduction that is necessary to explain the immunological basis of the observed clinical responses,” he said in a statement.

Yarkvan also said that larger trials were being planned, but declined to provide details.

According to this study, more than 800,000 people worldwide are diagnosed with this type of cancer every year. It is also the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and accounts for more than 700,000 deaths annually.

It is predicted that the number of new cases of liver cancer will increase by about 55% each year between 2020 and 2040. It is also predicted that 1.3 million people will die from liver cancer in 2040.

Preliminary findings of the study were presented at the American Association for Cancer Research in San Diego.

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