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What would happen if gravity stopped?



Have you ever imagined the earth without gravity? You might think it all boils down to floating objects. But a much more terrifying scenario will emerge.

What would happen if gravity stopped?

You may have thought about this interesting question at least once: what if humans were not naturally attached to the earth? Unlike many birds and insects, humans are not born with the biological ability to defy gravity, or the force that literally keeps our feet on the ground.

Along with strong nuclear forces, weak nuclear forces, and electromagnetism, gravity is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. Gravity is the force of attraction between two specific objects. Anything in the universe that has mass, whether it’s a coral reef, a spider, or a popular pop singer, attracts other objects with mass. The strength of this attraction depends on how heavy the objects are and their distance from each other.

When you hear the word gravity, planets come to mind, and because of this, it becomes a little difficult to imagine it on smaller scales. Maybe that’s why this basic prerequisite for our existence is ignored; But what happens if gravity fails? What if gravity disappeared or was reduced to one-tenth? According to the laws of physics, the scenario of sudden removal of gravity from Earth is impossible, and the planet is lucky because of this because if gravity is removed, very bad things will happen. In this article, we mention the consequences of the disappearance of gravity, which you may find interesting to read.

Loss of muscle mass and bone strength

Checking the muscles of the bodyThe lack of gravity can cause irreparable damage to the muscles and bones of the body.

Obviously, if gravity is lost, many problems will occur. On smaller scales, the body’s performance will be impaired.

Astronauts have a lot of experience in living in a microgravity environment. “Zero G-force” or what is commonly mistakenly called “zero gravity” is equivalent to “weightlessness” in nature. This happens when the spacecraft’s acceleration cancels out Earth’s gravity. On paper, this may seem attractive, but in practice and for a long time, it can be dangerous and even fatal for human health.

Since humans are born on Earth, which is an environment under the influence of gravity, the growth of the body is strongly affected by the downward pulling force of gravity. In fact, our body is under constant pressure and our muscles and bones are resistant to this pressure. Now, if gravity disappears for a long time and the mechanical pressure loses its effect, the body produces fewer bone-forming cells, and thus the bones lose their mass and become vulnerable to fracture.

The absence of gravity will have more severe consequences. In this situation, the calcium that is normally stored in the bones enters the bloodstream and will lead to consequences such as kidney stones, abdominal movement problems, and many other complications. According to research, the bone strength (14% after six months of space stay) and the muscle mass of astronauts (up to 20% within 5 to 11 days) are significantly reduced.

Your sense of balance is disturbed

A man standing on one leg
The sense of balance is the result of gravity.

It is interesting to know that humans have more than five senses. The sense of balance is one of the most important senses that helps us distinguish between up and down and prevents falls. This inner sense of balance is the one that allows you to ride a bicycle, walk on a straight line, stand on one leg, or move your head and legs without swaying.

All the mentioned tasks are made possible by a complex system inside the inner ear of people. This system maintains the movement path of the body, different paths and their connection with the current position of people, and gravity plays an important role in all these activities.

The balance-regulating organs in the ear, which include the pinna and semicircular canals, are not essential for human survival. However, removing them will cause many problems. To better understand, imagine that you are on a roller coaster and you feel sick from the constant back-and-forth motion, but there is no escape. This situation occurs when there is a problem in the organs of the inner ear.

The number of red blood cells decreases

blood cellsIn the absence of gravity, the production of blood cells in the body decreases.

The human heart pumps more than 7500 liters of blood daily. Gravity plays a vital role in this process, and since the human body is used to living on Earth, the amount of effort the heart makes depends on the force of gravity. Removing the force of gravity from this equation can deprive vital parts of the body such as hands and feet and the digestive system of blood.

According to Nature, the sudden disappearance of gravity strongly affects blood pressure. Under normal conditions, the brain can withstand a pressure of about 60 to 80 mm Hg, while the pressure in the legs reaches 200 mm Hg due to bearing the entire body weight. This ideal balance in blood pressure is established thanks to gravity.

Now, if gravity suddenly disappears, this is what will happen: the blood pressure in the whole body will reach 100 mmHg, and the effects will show quickly. First of all, the face swells due to fluid drainage, the legs swell, the vision is severely reduced, the blood vessels are torn, and you may also have a stroke, which can lead to permanent damage to the brain. Also, the number of red blood cells decreases, which is known as anemia, which can lead to a lack of oxygen, a longer recovery time after the accident, and a severely compromised immune system.

You can’t sleep well

insomniaYou cannot sleep well in weightlessness.

Despite numerous researches, it is still not clear why humans need sleep for survival. What experts do know is that there is a strong connection between gravity and sleep patterns and sleep quality, and without it, sleep will be severely disrupted.

Astronauts rarely experience good sleep. This problem occurs especially in long-duration spaceflights or long-term low-gravity experiences. Even the simple act of lying down is very difficult for them; Because how can they lie on a certain spot when there is no up and down? Also, their body clock is disrupted which affects sleep patterns. Plus, since there’s no gravity to hold them while they sleep, using sturdy sleeping bags is a must.

Also, if you can even sleep in zero gravity, you are unlikely to have a good sleep experience. According to a 2018 study, since gravity affects the body during waking hours, it also affects the body during sleep. This study shows that gravity affects REM (rapid eye movement) sleep while dreaming. REM sleep is possible when the body is lying in a proper position in zero gravity.

Nothing remains in place

Floating objects in the environmentIn the absence of gravity, all objects will float in the environment.

Perhaps the most obvious effect of suddenly removing gravity is that nothing stays in place. You can imagine zero gravity as everything floats in the sky. However, the reality will be far beyond this scenario. Everything will be much more chaotic and somewhat funny and of course very chaotic.

Gravity is the reason why your car and belongings are in the workplace and the reason why family members are in their homes. However, remember that the Earth is constantly moving. A person standing on the Earth’s equator actually moves at a speed of more than 1600 km/h. When a car accelerates suddenly, objects and people inside it shake violently. In this sense, removing gravity is just like removing all the belts that prevent everything on Earth from moving around.

In short, in the absence of gravity, everything is not placed on the ground with sufficient strength; Whether it’s a person, a table, or a car, everything will be thrown around at high speed. Even the houses and buildings will not be safe and eventually, there will be a lot of damage.

Everything will float in space

Kite and child in the skyWith the disappearance of gravity, everything will move towards space.

Anything that moves around after gravity is removed won’t stay on Earth very long. As the earth rotates, all objects, no matter how big, will float into space. Do you think being in a big building or a shopping center will keep you safe? think again In fact, you will find yourself floating towards the ceiling as everything gets messed up. If you can survive this stage (of course, it should be noted that the equipment and supplies will also float), you can see the whole building moving and floating at a high speed.

And if you think that only objects are affected by the absence of gravity, you are wrong. It is the gravity of the planets that keeps the moons in orbit. In other words, when the earth’s gravity says goodbye to us, the moon will also say goodbye to us.

Earth will lose all its water bodies

Sunset and seaWith gravity removed, oceans and seas would no longer remain on Earth

When we say everything disappears in the absence of gravity, we don’t mean just objects, but also larger environments and natural resources.

The bodies of water will not remain on the earth’s soil and there will definitely be a terrifying sight. The huge volume of water rises up and is launched into space like a rocket. As these water bodies move away from the earth, they collapse and form smaller bodies that gradually move away from each other.

At some point, you will probably see whales, dolphins, sharks octopuses, and all kinds of marine life flying and drifting away in bubble water prisons against their will. These scenes may be fun to watch at first, but many of these creatures can die from shock, dramatic temperature and pressure changes, and other dangerous consequences of unexpected flight.

Earth’s atmosphere will also escape

Blue SkyWith the removal of gravity, the Earth’s atmosphere will disappear.

You may not think of the Earth’s atmosphere as a body that is affected by gravity. However, the absence of gravity will definitely affect it. The lack of atmosphere will have terrible consequences for the planet Earth.

Like most of Earth’s water bodies, gravity is the only thing holding the Earth’s atmosphere together. In fact, the Moon’s relatively weak gravitational pull is the reason for its very weak atmosphere compared to Earth’s. Because in the absence of gravity, all the things on the earth assume a disorderly and chaotic state, the molecules of the atmosphere also suddenly come out of outer space. Obviously, the atmosphere contains oxygen, which gives life to most of the organisms on Earth.

Also, if the Earth’s atmosphere were to disappear, the air pressure would change rapidly and dramatically. In this situation, if you are on the plane, your ears may be seized, which you usually experience when the plane takes off. The absence of atmosphere makes this situation a hundred times worse.

The earth breaks up and forms several lumps

planet EarthIn the absence of gravity, the planet Earth breaks up into smaller masses

It should be emphasized that the probability of a zero gravity scenario is zero because the only way to change the gravity of the Earth is to change its mass. Since the mass of the Earth is constant and there is nothing to destroy large parts of our planet, we are not in danger. This is good news because if gravity were to disappear, our planet would be doomed.

Gravity is actually the factor that preserves the earth and connects the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust together like glue, and in this way, these layers remain fixed during the rotation of the earth around its axis and in the orbit of the sun; But in the absence of this glue or gravity, the inner core of the earth will be destroyed due to the intense pressure in a huge explosion. In this situation, the earth is divided into several masses that will float in space.

In the absence of gravity, the sun and other stars fall apart

Stars and galaxiesAs gravity is removed from the stars, these objects will explode.

According to NASA, the Sun is so big that it can fit a million Earths in it. This star controls the earth and other planets in certain orbits due to its size huge gravitational force and being in the center of the solar system. Gravity is the factor that keeps the burning solar gases in a ball-like state. This also applies to other stars. On the other hand, black holes are incredibly heavy; In such a way that even light cannot escape from their gravitational pull.

If you extend this thought experiment and remove gravity not only from the Earth but also from the Sun and other celestial bodies, you will not get a pleasant result. Without the gravitational force holding the Sun together, the intense pressures in the Sun’s core would cause a massive explosion. The same thing can happen to all the stars in the world. Due to the distance of other stars from Earth, it is unlikely that Earthlings will witness this celestial show.

The world will become a soup of atoms

the living worldRemoving gravity from the universe would turn it into a uniform soup of atoms

What would happen if we extended the thought experiment of eliminating gravity to the entire universe? What would be the result if there was no gravity not only on Earth but anywhere in the universe? Simply put, there will be nothing left to separate or admire. In such a situation, the whole world will be completely flat and featureless.

Suppose you could go outside the world and see it beyond its borders. In this case, you will only see a dull and empty void, because the gravity that caused the existence of planets, stars, and black holes is no longer there, and you will only see an empty version of the universe. Since there are no planets for life to form, life as we know it would not be possible to grow in this infinite void.

You will experience an unpleasant and quick death

A fading clockIn the absence of gravity, man will be destroyed in the worst possible way.

To better understand the absence of gravity and its terrible consequences, each of the consequences must be described separately. However, although it is impossible to remove gravity from the earth, without it all bad things will happen simultaneously. First of all, your body will be disturbed, objects will move around, oceans and atmosphere will escape the earth, and the planet itself will fall apart like a biscuit that has been hit with a hammer. In addition, the departure of the moon can lead to earthquakes.

It would be like a miracle if someone survived such a situation for just five minutes; Because in such a situation, no one can even run or escape.

There are still many unknowns about gravity, although it is clear that gravity is essential for life on Earth and that the planets depend on it. However, the question “What happens in the absence of gravity?” It is interesting to note; But until we experience it for real, we cannot speak of all its consequences.


Black holes may be the source of mysterious dark energy




black holes
The expansion of black holes in the universe can be a sign of the presence of dark energy at the center of these cosmic giants. The force that drives the growth of the world.

Black holes may be the source of mysterious dark energy


According to new research, supermassive black holes may carry the engines driving the universe’s expansion or mysterious dark energy. The existence of dark energy has been proven based on the observation of stars and galaxies, but so far no one has been able to find out its nature and source.

The familiar matter around us makes up only 5% of everything in the universe. The remaining 27% of the universe is made up of dark matter, which does not absorb or emit any light. On the other hand, a large part of the universe, or nearly 68% of it consists of dark energy.

According to new evidence, black holes may be the source of dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of the universe. This research is the result of the work of 17 astronomers in nine countries, which was conducted under the supervision of the University of Hawaii. British researchers from Raleigh Space, England’s Open University, and King’s College London collaborated in this research.

Black hole accretion pillAn artist’s rendering of a supermassive black hole complete with a fiery accretion disk.

By comparing supermassive black holes spanning 9 billion years of the universe’s history, researchers have found a clue that the greedy giant objects at the heart of most galaxies could be the source of dark energy. The articles of this research were published in The Astrophysical Journal and The Astrophysical Journal Letters on February 2 and 15. Chris Pearson, one of the authors of the study and an astrophysicist at the Appleton Rutherford Laboratory (RAL) in the UK says:

If the theory of this research is correct, it could revolutionize the whole of cosmology, because at least we have found a solution to the origin of dark energy, which has puzzled cosmologists and theoretical physicists for more than twenty years.

The theory that black holes can carry something called vacuum energy (an embodiment of dark energy) is not new, and the discussion of its theory actually goes back to the 1960s; But the new research assumes that dark energy (and therefore the mass of black holes) increases over time as the universe expands. Researchers have shown how much of the universe’s dark energy can be attributed to this process. According to the findings, black holes could hold the answer to the total amount of dark energy in the current universe. The result of this puzzle can solve one of the most fundamental problems of modern cosmology.

Rapid expansion

Our universe began with the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago. The energy from this explosion of space once caused the universe to expand so rapidly that all the galaxies were moving away from each other at breakneck speed. However, astronomers expected the rate of this expansion to slow down due to the gravitational influence of all the matter in the universe. This attitude toward the world prevailed until the 1990s; That is when the Hubble Space Telescope made a strange discovery. Observations of distant exploding stars have shown that in the past the universe was expanding at a slower rate than it is now.

Therefore, contrary to the previous idea, not only the expansion of the universe has not slowed down due to gravity, but it is increasing and speeding up. This result was very unexpected and astronomers sought to justify it. Thus, it was assumed that “dark energy” pushes objects away from each other with great power. The concept of dark energy was very similar to a cosmic constant proposed by Albert Einstein that opposes gravity and prevents the universe from collapsing but was later rejected.

Stellar explosions

But what exactly is dark energy? The answer to this question seems to lie in another cosmic mystery: black holes. Black holes are usually born when massive stars explode and die. The gravity and pressure in these intense explosions compress a large amount of material into a small space. For example, a star roughly the same mass as the Sun can be compressed into a space of only a few tens of kilometers.

The gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that even light cannot escape it and everything is attracted to it. At the center of the black hole is a space called singularity, where matter reaches the point of infinite density. The point is that singularities should not exist in nature.

Speed ​​up dark energyDark energy explains why the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.

Black holes at the center of galaxies are much more massive than black holes from the death of stars. The mass of galactic “massive” black holes can reach millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun. All black holes increase in size by accreting matter and swallowing nearby stars or merging with other black holes; Therefore, we expect these objects to become larger as they age. In the latest paper, researchers investigated the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies and found that the mass of these objects has increased over billions of years.

Fundamental revision

The researchers compared the past and present observations of elliptical galaxies that lack the star formation process. These dead galaxies have used up all their fuel, and as a result, their increase in the number of black holes over time cannot be attributed to normal processes that involve the growth of black holes by accreting matter.

Instead, the researchers suggested that these black holes actually carry vacuum energy, which has a direct relationship with the expansion of the universe, so as the universe expands, their mass also increases.

Black hole visualizationVisualization of a black hole that could play a fundamental role in dark energy.

Revealing dark energy

Two groups of researchers compared the mass of black holes at the center of two sets of galaxies. They were a young, distant cluster of galaxies with lights originating nine billion years ago, while the closer, older group was only a few million light-years away. Astronomers found that supermassive black holes have grown between seven and twenty times larger than before so this growth cannot be explained simply by swallowing stars or colliding and merging with other black holes.

As a result, it was hypothesized that black holes are probably growing along with the universe, and with a type of hypothetical energy known as dark energy or vacuum that leads to their expansion, they overcome the forces of light absorption and destruction of the stars in their center.

If dark energy is expanding inside the core of black holes, it can solve two long-standing puzzles of Einstein’s general relativity; A theory that shows how gravity affects the universe on massive scales. The new finding firstly proves how the universe does not fall apart due to the overwhelming force of gravity, and secondly, it eliminates the need for singularities (points of infinity where the laws of physics are violated) to describe the workings of the dark heart of black holes.

To confirm their findings, astronomers need more observations of the mass of black holes over time, and at the same time, they need to examine the increase in mass as the universe expands.

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Scientists’ understanding of dark energy may be completely wrong




dark energy
The standard model of cosmology says that the strength of dark energy should be constant, But inconclusive findings suggest that this force may have weakened.

Scientists’ understanding of dark energy may be completely wrong

On April 4th, astronomers who created the largest and most detailed 3D map ever made of the universe announced that they may have found a major flaw in their understanding of dark energy, the mysterious force driving the universe’s expansion.

Dark energy has been postulated as a stable force in the universe, both in the current era and throughout the history of the universe; But new data suggests that dark energy may be more variable, getting stronger or weaker over time, reversing or even disappearing.

Adam Reiss, an astronomer at Johns Hopkins University and the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, who was not involved in the new study, was quoted by the New York Times as saying, “The new finding may be the first real clue we’ve had in 25 years about the nature of dark energy.” In 2011, Reiss won the Nobel Prize in Physics along with two other astronomers for the discovery of dark energy.

The recent conclusion, if confirmed, could save astronomers and other scientists from predicting the ultimate fate of the universe. If the dark energy has a constant effect over time, it will eventually push all the stars and galaxies away from each other so much that even the atoms may disintegrate and the universe and all life in it, light, and energy will be destroyed forever. Instead, it appears that dark energy can change course and steer the universe toward a more fruitful future.

Dark energy may become stronger or weaker, reverse or even disappear over time

However, nothing is certain. The new finding has about a 1 in 400 chance of being a statistical coincidence. More precisely, the degree of certainty of a new discovery is three sigma, which is much lower than the gold standard for scientific discoveries called five sigma or one in 1.7 million. In the history of physics, even five-sigma events have been discredited when more data or better interpretations have emerged.

The recent discovery is considered an initial report and has been published as a series of articles by the group responsible for an international project called “Dark Energy Spectroscopy Instrument” or DESI for short. The group has just begun a five-year effort to create a three-dimensional map of the positions and velocities of 40 million galaxies over the 11 billion-year history of the universe. The researchers made their initial map based on the first year of observations of just six million galaxies. The results were presented April 4 at the American Physical Society meeting in Sacramento, California, and at a conference in Italy.

“So far we’re seeing initial consistency with our best model of the universe,” DESI director Michael Levy said in a statement released by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the center overseeing the project. “But we also see some potentially interesting differences that may indicate the evolution of dark energy over time.”

“The DESI team didn’t expect to find the treasure so soon,” Natalie Palanque-Delaberville, an astrophysicist at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and project spokeswoman, said in an interview. The first year’s results were designed solely to confirm what we already knew. “We thought we would basically approve the standard model.” But the unknowns appeared before the eyes of the researchers.

The researchers’ new map is not fully compatible with the standard model

When the scientists combined their map with other cosmological data, they were surprised to find that it didn’t completely fit the Standard Model. This model assumes that dark energy is stable and unchanging; While variable dark energy fits the new data. However, Dr. Palanque-Delaberville sees the new discovery as an interesting clue that has not yet turned into definitive proof.

University of Chicago astrophysicist Wendy Friedman, who led the scientific effort to measure the expansion of the universe, described the team’s results as “tremendous findings that have the potential to open a new window into understanding dark energy.” As the dominant force in the universe, dark energy remains the greatest mystery in cosmology.

Imaging the passage of quasar light through intergalactic clouds
Artistic rendering of quasar light passing through intergalactic clouds of hydrogen gas. This light provides clues to the structure of the distant universe.
NOIRLab/NSF/AURA/P. Marenfeld and DESI collaboration

The idea of ​​dark energy was proposed in 1998; When two competing groups of astronomers, including Dr. Rees, discovered that the rate of expansion of the universe was increasing rather than decreasing, contrary to what most scientists expected. Early observations seemed to show that dark energy behaved just like the famous ” fudge factor ” denoted by the Greek letter lambda. Albert Einstein included lambda in his equations to explain why the universe does not collapse due to its own gravity; But later he called this action his biggest mistake.

However, Einstein probably judged too soon. Lambda, as formulated by Einstein, was a property of space itself: as the universe expands, the more space there is, the more dark energy there is, which pushes ever harder, eventually leading to an unbridled, lightless future.

Dark energy was placed in the standard model called LCDM, consisting of 70% dark energy (lambda), 25% cold dark matter (a collection of low-speed alien particles), and 5% atomic matter. Although this model has now been discredited by the James Webb Space Telescope , it still holds its validity. However, what if dark energy is not as stable as the cosmological model assumes?

The problem is related to a parameter called w, a special measure for measuring the density or intensity of dark energy. In Einstein’s version of dark energy, the value of this parameter remains constant negative one throughout the life of the universe. Cosmologists have used this value in their models for the past 25 years.

Albert Einstein included lambda in his equations to explain why the universe is collapsing under its own gravity.

But Einstein’s hypothesis of dark energy is only the simplest version. “With the Desi project we now have the precision that allows us to go beyond that simple model to see if the dark energy density is constant over time or if it fluctuates and evolves over time,” says Dr. Palanque-Delabreville.

The Desi project, 14 years in the making, is designed to test the stability of this energy by measuring the expansion rate of the universe at different times in the past. In order to do this, scientists equipped one of the telescopes of the Keith Peak National Observatory in Arizona, USA, with five thousand optical fiber detectors that can perform spectroscopy on a large number of galaxies at the same time to find out how fast they are moving away from Earth.

The researchers used fluctuations in the cosmic distribution of galaxies, known as baryonic acoustic variations , as a measure of distance. The sound waves in the hot plasma accumulated in the universe, when it was only 380,000 years old, carved the oscillations on the universe. At that time, the oscillations were half a million light years across. 13.5 billion years later, the universe has expanded a thousandfold, and the oscillations, now 500 million light-years across, serve as convenient rulers for cosmic measurements.

Desi scientists divided the last 11 billion years of the universe into 7 time periods and measured the size of the fluctuations and the speed of the galaxies in them moving away from us and from each other. When the researchers put all the data together, they found that the assumption that dark energy is constant does not explain the expansion of the universe. Galaxies appeared closer than they should be in the last three periods; An observation that suggests dark energy may be evolving over time.

“We’re actually seeing a clue that the properties of dark energy don’t fit a simple cosmological constant, and instead may have some deviations,” says Dr. Palanque-Delaberville. However, he believes that the new finding is too weak and is not considered proof yet. Time and more data will determine the fate of dark energy and the researchers’ tested model.

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Why the James Webb telescope does not observe the beginning of the universe?




James Webb telescope

The James Webb Space Telescope is one of the most advanced telescopes ever built. Planning to launch James Webb began more than 25 years ago, and construction efforts took more than a decade. On December 25, 2021, this telescope was launched into space and within a month it reached its final destination, 930,000 miles away from Earth. Its position in space gives it a relatively unobstructed view of the world.

Why the “James Webb” telescope does not observe the beginning of the universe?

The design of this telescope was a global effort led by NASA and aims to push the boundaries of astronomical observation with revolutionary engineering. Its mirror is huge, about 21 feet (6.5 meters) in diameter, which is about three times the size of the Hubble Space Telescope, which was launched in 1990 and is still operating.

According to SF, it’s the telescope’s mirror that allows it to gather light. James Webb is so big that it can see the faintest and most distant galaxies and stars in the universe. Its advanced instruments can reveal information about the composition, temperature, and motion of these distant cosmic bodies.

Astrophysicists constantly look back to see what stars, galaxies, and supermassive black holes looked like when their light began its journey toward Earth, and use this information to better understand their growth and evolution. For the space scientist, the James Webb Space Telescope is a window into that unknown world. How far can James Webb look into the universe and its past? The answer is about 13.5 billion years.

Time travel

A telescope does not show stars, galaxies, and exoplanets as they are. Instead, astrologers have a glimpse of how they were in the past. It takes time for light to travel through space and reach our telescope. In essence, this means that looking into space is also a journey into the past.

This is true even for objects that are quite close to us. The light you see from the sun has left about eight minutes and 20 seconds earlier. This is how long it takes for sunlight to reach the earth.

You can easily do calculations on this. All light, whether it’s sunlight, a flashlight, or a light bulb in your home, travels at a speed of 186,000 miles (approximately 300,000 kilometers) per second. This is more than 11 million miles, which is about 18 million kilometers per minute. The sun is about 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) from the earth. which brings the time of reaching the light to about eight minutes and 20 seconds.

Why the “James Webb” telescope does not observe the moment of the beginning of the universe?

But the farther something is, the longer it takes for its light to reach us. That’s why the light we see from the closest star to us other than the Sun, Proxima Centauri, dates back four years. This star is about 25 trillion miles (about 40 trillion kilometers) from Earth, so it takes a little over four years for its light to reach us.

Recently, James Webb has observed the star Earendel, which is one of the most distant stars ever discovered and the light that James Webb sees is about 12.9 billion years old.

The James Webb Space Telescope travels much further into the past than other telescopes such as the Hubble Space Telescope. For example, although Hubble can see objects 60,000 times fainter than the human eye, James Webb can see objects almost 9 times fainter than even Hubble.

Read more: How can solar storms destroy satellites so easily?

Big Bang

But is it possible to go back to the beginning of time?

Big Bang is the term used to define the beginning of the universe as we know it. Scientists believe that this happened about 13.8 billion years ago. This theory is the most accepted theory among physicists to explain the history of our universe.

However, the name is a bit misleading because it suggests that some kind of explosion, like a firework, created the universe. The Big Bang more accurately represents space that is rapidly expanding everywhere in the universe. The environment immediately after the Big Bang resembled a cosmic fog that covered the universe and made it difficult for light to pass through. Eventually, galaxies, stars, and planets began to grow.

That’s why this period is called the “Cosmic Dark Age” in the world. As the universe continued to expand, the cosmic fog began to lift and light was finally able to travel freely through space. In fact, few satellites have observed the light left over from the Big Bang some 380,000 years after it happened. These telescopes are designed to detect the glow left over from the nebula, whose light can be traced in the microwave band.

However, even 380,000 years after the Big Bang, there were no stars or galaxies. The world was still a very dark place. The cosmic dark ages did not end until several hundred million years later when the first stars and galaxies began to form.

The James Webb Space Telescope was not designed to observe the time to the moment of the Big Bang, but to see the period when the first objects in the universe began to form and emit light.

Before this time period, due to the conditions of the early universe and the lack of galaxies and stars, there was little light for the James Webb Space Telescope to observe.

By studying ancient galaxies, scientists hope to understand the unique conditions of the early universe and gain insight into the processes that helped them flourish. This includes the evolution of supermassive black holes, the life cycles of stars, and what exoplanets are made of.

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