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Billions of planets in the Milky Way galaxy; Hope to find extraterrestrial life!

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Milky Way galaxy

How many planets does the Milky Way galaxy have? Do we know the number of stars? Has life ever been discovered on one of the planets?

Billions of planets in the Milky Way galaxy; Hope to find extraterrestrial life!

If you are one of those people who are interested in the night sky, you must have watched the arc of the Milky Way galaxy in a clear dark sky away from light pollution. Watching this astonishing sight is one of the most special experiences of every human being, which is accompanied by many questions. For example, maybe you want to know how many planets the Milky Way has. Or how many stars are inside this galaxy? Has life been found elsewhere in this galaxy? In this article, we are going to answer these questions.

Planets beyond the solar system

The existence of other planets in the Milky Way galaxy, especially planets that are similar to the planets of the solar system, has always been attractive to science enthusiasts. The quest to find these planets and understand their properties dates back to the distant past—especially when people were more excited about the subject when light pollution wasn’t around.

The question of whether there is life on other planets has been among other issues that mankind has been trying to answer for a long time. However, historical studies have shown that Earth was originally thought to be the only rocky planet in the universe, so no other living organisms would be found in the universe. This claim goes back to the belief of the Greeks at the time of the great scientist ” Aristotle “. At that time, it was believed that the Earth was the center of the universe and that everything in the universe revolves around the earth.

With this idea, the Greeks following Aristotle believed that there is no other rocky planet in the universe; Because soil, as the heaviest element in the universe, always tends to accumulate in the center of the universe (Earth). Therefore, no soil and stone can exist anywhere else in the world.

The planets of the Milky Way galaxy

It took centuries for medieval thinkers to oppose Aristotle. The great scientist ” Copernicus ” discovered that the earth is not the center of the universe and everything does not revolve around it, but the sun is what the earth and other planets revolve around.

Thus, the debate about the existence and number of planets in the Milky Way continued until the studies of two great scientists, ” Galileo ” and ” Newton “, showed that the solar system with all its planets is only one of the countless planetary systems in the universe. But is it possible to provide an estimate of the number of planets in the Milky Way galaxy? The answer to this question required decades of technological progress for astronomers to make advanced observations of the cosmos and find planets outside the solar system that orbit a star like the Sun. These planets are called ” extrasolar planets “.

Discovery of the first exoplanet in the Milky Way galaxy

The first evidence of exoplanets was found in 1984. The ” Las Campanas ” observatory in Chile was able to record the gas and dust around the star ” Beta Pictoris “, which is a historical image in its own right. Previously, the scientist ” Emanuel Swedenborg ” proposed the theory that planets are formed from the accumulation of gas and dust particles, so planets can be found anywhere in the universe. At the time of the discovery of the first exoplanet, Swedenborg’s theory was highly accepted in the scientific community, and scientists suspected that the gas and dust observed was actually a protoplanet being formed.

Tripod beta dust disk
The dust disk around the tripod beta star

In 1992, Alexander Welchchan and Dale Friel discovered the first extrasolar planet—not just the surrounding gas and dust—called PSR B1620-26 b. However, it was still unclear what star the planet was orbiting.

In subsequent studies, finally in 1995, ” Didier Clouse ” and ” Michel Maior ” managed to discover a planet orbiting a Sun-like star, thus the first extrasolar planet was discovered in history. This planet is called ” 51 Pegasi b ” and it revolves around the star ” 51 Pegasi “. This planetary system is about 50 light years away from Earth.

This discovery attracted the attention of scientists towards exoplanets. Now that the existence of other planets outside the solar system was proven, astronomers were curious to discover the secrets of the other planets of the Milky Way.

Trying to find more planets

Despite the discoveries made, the Earth’s atmosphere was an obstacle for further studies; Because it can simply make it impossible to discover exoplanets or study their atmosphere. So to find more exoplanets, ground-based telescopes were not very efficient. At first, scientists went to the only available option, the Hubble Space Telescope. They planned to use this telescope to study the light of the star that the exoplanet revolves around. Periodic changes in the brightness of this star indicate the rotation of the planets around it, and in this way, the rotation period of the planets can also be determined.

As the market for finding and studying these planets heated up, other telescopes were launched.

In 2003, Canada launched the MOST space telescope. The telescope was the size of a suitcase and was specifically designed to detect changes in the brightness of stars. MOST studied exoplanets for more than 15 years.

In the same year, NASA launched the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spitzer was a telescope equipped with an infrared observation instrument. Although this telescope was not specifically designed to study the planets of the Milky Way, its instruments provided a good opportunity to study the atmospheres of these objects. For example, astronomers made the first map of the atmospheric temperature of an exoplanet with the help of this telescope.

Spitzer Space Telescope studying the Milky Way galaxy Spitzer Space Telescope

In continuation of these studies, the European Space Agency deployed the ” CoRoT ” telescope in the Earth’s orbit in 2006. The purpose of this telescope was to identify the changes in the light of the stars when the planets pass in front of them. CoRoT was retired in 2014. This telescope discovered 34 exoplanets and more than 600 possible planets.

The most important event in identifying and studying other planets of the Milky Way was the launch of the Kepler space telescope in 2009. Kepler’s plan was to observe the light changes of more than 150,000 stars by observing a wide area of ​​the sky in order to discover possible exoplanets.

Kepler space telescope

Kepler’s advanced technology allowed astronomers to discover smaller planets that were previously undetectable. Kepler -10b was the first planet discovered by Kepler. This planet was actually the smallest planet discovered until that time. This rocky planet is only 1.4 times that of Earth.

Kepler continued to operate for 4 years until the first phase of its mission ended due to a technical failure. During this time, this space telescope was able to find more than a thousand exoplanets. In 2014, NASA engineers were able to readjust the Kepler telescope to begin the second phase of its mission.

During the peak of the second phase of its mission, Kepler discovered more than 1,200 more planets in the Milky Way. Astronomers estimate that about 40% of these planets are rocky and similar to Earth. The discovery of the closest exoplanet to Earth in the orbit of the star Proxima Centauri, the fascinating TRAPPIST-1 system with seven Earth-like planets, and the Kepler 90 system with eight planets are some of Kepler’s notable discoveries.

Kepler ended its mission in the fall of 2018. A few months before this date, NASA had sent the space telescope ” TESS ” into Earth’s orbit for a mission to detect exoplanets. The program of this telescope was two years, but it continues to operate. The James Webb Space Telescope, which is currently operating, is equipped with the most advanced tools for discovering and studying exoplanets.

Kepler space telescope Kepler space telescope

The planets of the Milky Way galaxy

Having said that, the number of exoplanets discovered by space and ground telescopes will exceed 5500 by 2024 . The Kepler space telescope has found a large part of these planets. Of course, it should be said that this is only the number of planets that astronomers have confirmed to be planets; There are thousands of other candidates among the findings of these telescopes that have not yet been definitively confirmed as planets. Accordingly, astronomers continue to discover exoplanets in older data.

With all that history we’ve covered, NASA says the age of Milky Way planet exploration has just begun. The number of planets discovered in the Milky Way is expected to increase at an unprecedented rate as data from the James Webb Space Telescope increases and artificial intelligence algorithms are used to detect planetary footprints in the vast amount of data.

However, scientists believe that the planets that have been discovered so far are only a small fraction of the planets that exist in the Milky Way galaxy. Astronomers state that in order to correctly estimate the number of planets, one must first estimate the number of stars. Then by estimating how many planets each star has around it on average, we can find the exact number of planets in the Milky Way. In this count, we should not forget the planets that do not revolve around a star or revolve around objects such as black holes.

Estimating the number of planets in the Milky Way is not an easy task. Astronomers estimate that the Milky Way has between 100 billion and 400 billion stars. This estimate was obtained using observational data from various telescopes such as the GAIA telescope, which studied about 1.7 billion stars.

The Kepler 90 system in the Milky Way Kepler’s 90 system with eight planets

Considering these points, it is difficult to estimate the number of planets. Some astronomers believe that on average one or two planets orbit each star in the Milky Way galaxy. In this case, it can be estimated that the number of planets in the Milky Way galaxy is probably equal to the number of its stars or a little more. So, our galaxy has about 100 billion stars in the lowest state and probably about 800 billion stars in the highest state.

Read More: What would happen if gravity stopped?

Of course, we should not forget that this estimate is based on our limited observations. Instrumental limitations in observations still make it difficult for us to detect stars with multiple planets—except in the rare cases where stars with more than two have been discovered. Some also believe that these stars probably have more than two planets and this is the inability of our observational equipment to discover them. In other words, our observational equipment is not yet advanced enough to detect all the planets in a star. Many of the planets we have seen are very large or orbit very close to the star, making them easy to spot.

They believe that the solar system is a common system in the Milky Way and we must assume that each star has an average of 8 planets in its orbit. With this assumption, the possible number of planets in the Milky Way reaches 3.2 trillion in the maximum state. It should also be kept in mind that our information about the planets that are not in the orbit of the stars is very little and we cannot estimate them. With this calculation, the number of planets in the Milky Way galaxy can be estimated as several trillion!

Kepler extraterrestrial planets

Life on the planets of the Milky Way

The discovery of life on other planets requires the discovery of certain elements such as water and oxygen and some gases, which are known as the necessities of life. For this, astronomers use the spectroscopic method. However, the existence of these compounds is not the final confirmation of the presence of life on a planet, and more extensive studies should be done to be able to claim that life exists on a planet. Be careful that life does not necessarily mean what is observed on Earth, but other types of life can be witnessed on other planets.

However, so far, none of the millions of studies conducted with the aim of finding life on other planets have been successful, and the existence of life on a planet other than Earth remains an unsolved mystery.

Conclusion

In this article, we reviewed our knowledge about the planets of the Milky Way. We saw that these planets have had a prominent presence in the minds of humans since ancient times. We learned about the history of the discovery of the first exoplanets and saw what telescopes were sent to space to identify them. We read how many stars and planets the Milky Way has and how these numbers were estimated. Finally, we mentioned life on the planets of the Milky Way galaxy.

Frequently asked questions

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Black holes may be the source of mysterious dark energy

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The expansion of black holes in the universe can be a sign of the presence of dark energy at the center of these cosmic giants. The force that drives the growth of the world.

Black holes may be the source of mysterious dark energy

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According to new research, supermassive black holes may carry the engines driving the universe’s expansion or mysterious dark energy. The existence of dark energy has been proven based on the observation of stars and galaxies, but so far no one has been able to find out its nature and source.

The familiar matter around us makes up only 5% of everything in the universe. The remaining 27% of the universe is made up of dark matter, which does not absorb or emit any light. On the other hand, a large part of the universe, or nearly 68% of it consists of dark energy.

According to new evidence, black holes may be the source of dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of the universe. This research is the result of the work of 17 astronomers in nine countries, which was conducted under the supervision of the University of Hawaii. British researchers from Raleigh Space, England’s Open University, and King’s College London collaborated in this research.

Black hole accretion pillAn artist’s rendering of a supermassive black hole complete with a fiery accretion disk.

By comparing supermassive black holes spanning 9 billion years of the universe’s history, researchers have found a clue that the greedy giant objects at the heart of most galaxies could be the source of dark energy. The articles of this research were published in The Astrophysical Journal and The Astrophysical Journal Letters on February 2 and 15. Chris Pearson, one of the authors of the study and an astrophysicist at the Appleton Rutherford Laboratory (RAL) in the UK says:

If the theory of this research is correct, it could revolutionize the whole of cosmology, because at least we have found a solution to the origin of dark energy, which has puzzled cosmologists and theoretical physicists for more than twenty years.

The theory that black holes can carry something called vacuum energy (an embodiment of dark energy) is not new, and the discussion of its theory actually goes back to the 1960s; But the new research assumes that dark energy (and therefore the mass of black holes) increases over time as the universe expands. Researchers have shown how much of the universe’s dark energy can be attributed to this process. According to the findings, black holes could hold the answer to the total amount of dark energy in the current universe. The result of this puzzle can solve one of the most fundamental problems of modern cosmology.

Rapid expansion

Our universe began with the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago. The energy from this explosion of space once caused the universe to expand so rapidly that all the galaxies were moving away from each other at breakneck speed. However, astronomers expected the rate of this expansion to slow down due to the gravitational influence of all the matter in the universe. This attitude toward the world prevailed until the 1990s; That is when the Hubble Space Telescope made a strange discovery. Observations of distant exploding stars have shown that in the past the universe was expanding at a slower rate than it is now.

Therefore, contrary to the previous idea, not only the expansion of the universe has not slowed down due to gravity, but it is increasing and speeding up. This result was very unexpected and astronomers sought to justify it. Thus, it was assumed that “dark energy” pushes objects away from each other with great power. The concept of dark energy was very similar to a cosmic constant proposed by Albert Einstein that opposes gravity and prevents the universe from collapsing but was later rejected.

Stellar explosions

But what exactly is dark energy? The answer to this question seems to lie in another cosmic mystery: black holes. Black holes are usually born when massive stars explode and die. The gravity and pressure in these intense explosions compress a large amount of material into a small space. For example, a star roughly the same mass as the Sun can be compressed into a space of only a few tens of kilometers.

The gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that even light cannot escape it and everything is attracted to it. At the center of the black hole is a space called singularity, where matter reaches the point of infinite density. The point is that singularities should not exist in nature.

Speed ​​up dark energyDark energy explains why the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.

Black holes at the center of galaxies are much more massive than black holes from the death of stars. The mass of galactic “massive” black holes can reach millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun. All black holes increase in size by accreting matter and swallowing nearby stars or merging with other black holes; Therefore, we expect these objects to become larger as they age. In the latest paper, researchers investigated the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies and found that the mass of these objects has increased over billions of years.

Fundamental revision

The researchers compared the past and present observations of elliptical galaxies that lack the star formation process. These dead galaxies have used up all their fuel, and as a result, their increase in the number of black holes over time cannot be attributed to normal processes that involve the growth of black holes by accreting matter.

Instead, the researchers suggested that these black holes actually carry vacuum energy, which has a direct relationship with the expansion of the universe, so as the universe expands, their mass also increases.

Black hole visualizationVisualization of a black hole that could play a fundamental role in dark energy.

Revealing dark energy

Two groups of researchers compared the mass of black holes at the center of two sets of galaxies. They were a young, distant cluster of galaxies with lights originating nine billion years ago, while the closer, older group was only a few million light-years away. Astronomers found that supermassive black holes have grown between seven and twenty times larger than before so this growth cannot be explained simply by swallowing stars or colliding and merging with other black holes.

As a result, it was hypothesized that black holes are probably growing along with the universe, and with a type of hypothetical energy known as dark energy or vacuum that leads to their expansion, they overcome the forces of light absorption and destruction of the stars in their center.

If dark energy is expanding inside the core of black holes, it can solve two long-standing puzzles of Einstein’s general relativity; A theory that shows how gravity affects the universe on massive scales. The new finding firstly proves how the universe does not fall apart due to the overwhelming force of gravity, and secondly, it eliminates the need for singularities (points of infinity where the laws of physics are violated) to describe the workings of the dark heart of black holes.

To confirm their findings, astronomers need more observations of the mass of black holes over time, and at the same time, they need to examine the increase in mass as the universe expands.

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Scientists’ understanding of dark energy may be completely wrong

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The standard model of cosmology says that the strength of dark energy should be constant, But inconclusive findings suggest that this force may have weakened.

Scientists’ understanding of dark energy may be completely wrong

On April 4th, astronomers who created the largest and most detailed 3D map ever made of the universe announced that they may have found a major flaw in their understanding of dark energy, the mysterious force driving the universe’s expansion.

Dark energy has been postulated as a stable force in the universe, both in the current era and throughout the history of the universe; But new data suggests that dark energy may be more variable, getting stronger or weaker over time, reversing or even disappearing.

Adam Reiss, an astronomer at Johns Hopkins University and the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, who was not involved in the new study, was quoted by the New York Times as saying, “The new finding may be the first real clue we’ve had in 25 years about the nature of dark energy.” In 2011, Reiss won the Nobel Prize in Physics along with two other astronomers for the discovery of dark energy.

The recent conclusion, if confirmed, could save astronomers and other scientists from predicting the ultimate fate of the universe. If the dark energy has a constant effect over time, it will eventually push all the stars and galaxies away from each other so much that even the atoms may disintegrate and the universe and all life in it, light, and energy will be destroyed forever. Instead, it appears that dark energy can change course and steer the universe toward a more fruitful future.

Dark energy may become stronger or weaker, reverse or even disappear over time

However, nothing is certain. The new finding has about a 1 in 400 chance of being a statistical coincidence. More precisely, the degree of certainty of a new discovery is three sigma, which is much lower than the gold standard for scientific discoveries called five sigma or one in 1.7 million. In the history of physics, even five-sigma events have been discredited when more data or better interpretations have emerged.

The recent discovery is considered an initial report and has been published as a series of articles by the group responsible for an international project called “Dark Energy Spectroscopy Instrument” or DESI for short. The group has just begun a five-year effort to create a three-dimensional map of the positions and velocities of 40 million galaxies over the 11 billion-year history of the universe. The researchers made their initial map based on the first year of observations of just six million galaxies. The results were presented April 4 at the American Physical Society meeting in Sacramento, California, and at a conference in Italy.

“So far we’re seeing initial consistency with our best model of the universe,” DESI director Michael Levy said in a statement released by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the center overseeing the project. “But we also see some potentially interesting differences that may indicate the evolution of dark energy over time.”

“The DESI team didn’t expect to find the treasure so soon,” Natalie Palanque-Delaberville, an astrophysicist at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and project spokeswoman, said in an interview. The first year’s results were designed solely to confirm what we already knew. “We thought we would basically approve the standard model.” But the unknowns appeared before the eyes of the researchers.

The researchers’ new map is not fully compatible with the standard model

When the scientists combined their map with other cosmological data, they were surprised to find that it didn’t completely fit the Standard Model. This model assumes that dark energy is stable and unchanging; While variable dark energy fits the new data. However, Dr. Palanque-Delaberville sees the new discovery as an interesting clue that has not yet turned into definitive proof.

University of Chicago astrophysicist Wendy Friedman, who led the scientific effort to measure the expansion of the universe, described the team’s results as “tremendous findings that have the potential to open a new window into understanding dark energy.” As the dominant force in the universe, dark energy remains the greatest mystery in cosmology.

Imaging the passage of quasar light through intergalactic clouds
Artistic rendering of quasar light passing through intergalactic clouds of hydrogen gas. This light provides clues to the structure of the distant universe.
NOIRLab/NSF/AURA/P. Marenfeld and DESI collaboration

The idea of ​​dark energy was proposed in 1998; When two competing groups of astronomers, including Dr. Rees, discovered that the rate of expansion of the universe was increasing rather than decreasing, contrary to what most scientists expected. Early observations seemed to show that dark energy behaved just like the famous ” fudge factor ” denoted by the Greek letter lambda. Albert Einstein included lambda in his equations to explain why the universe does not collapse due to its own gravity; But later he called this action his biggest mistake.

However, Einstein probably judged too soon. Lambda, as formulated by Einstein, was a property of space itself: as the universe expands, the more space there is, the more dark energy there is, which pushes ever harder, eventually leading to an unbridled, lightless future.

Dark energy was placed in the standard model called LCDM, consisting of 70% dark energy (lambda), 25% cold dark matter (a collection of low-speed alien particles), and 5% atomic matter. Although this model has now been discredited by the James Webb Space Telescope , it still holds its validity. However, what if dark energy is not as stable as the cosmological model assumes?

The problem is related to a parameter called w, a special measure for measuring the density or intensity of dark energy. In Einstein’s version of dark energy, the value of this parameter remains constant negative one throughout the life of the universe. Cosmologists have used this value in their models for the past 25 years.

Albert Einstein included lambda in his equations to explain why the universe is collapsing under its own gravity.

But Einstein’s hypothesis of dark energy is only the simplest version. “With the Desi project we now have the precision that allows us to go beyond that simple model to see if the dark energy density is constant over time or if it fluctuates and evolves over time,” says Dr. Palanque-Delabreville.

The Desi project, 14 years in the making, is designed to test the stability of this energy by measuring the expansion rate of the universe at different times in the past. In order to do this, scientists equipped one of the telescopes of the Keith Peak National Observatory in Arizona, USA, with five thousand optical fiber detectors that can perform spectroscopy on a large number of galaxies at the same time to find out how fast they are moving away from Earth.

The researchers used fluctuations in the cosmic distribution of galaxies, known as baryonic acoustic variations , as a measure of distance. The sound waves in the hot plasma accumulated in the universe, when it was only 380,000 years old, carved the oscillations on the universe. At that time, the oscillations were half a million light years across. 13.5 billion years later, the universe has expanded a thousandfold, and the oscillations, now 500 million light-years across, serve as convenient rulers for cosmic measurements.

Desi scientists divided the last 11 billion years of the universe into 7 time periods and measured the size of the fluctuations and the speed of the galaxies in them moving away from us and from each other. When the researchers put all the data together, they found that the assumption that dark energy is constant does not explain the expansion of the universe. Galaxies appeared closer than they should be in the last three periods; An observation that suggests dark energy may be evolving over time.

“We’re actually seeing a clue that the properties of dark energy don’t fit a simple cosmological constant, and instead may have some deviations,” says Dr. Palanque-Delaberville. However, he believes that the new finding is too weak and is not considered proof yet. Time and more data will determine the fate of dark energy and the researchers’ tested model.

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Why the James Webb telescope does not observe the beginning of the universe?

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James Webb telescope

The James Webb Space Telescope is one of the most advanced telescopes ever built. Planning to launch James Webb began more than 25 years ago, and construction efforts took more than a decade. On December 25, 2021, this telescope was launched into space and within a month it reached its final destination, 930,000 miles away from Earth. Its position in space gives it a relatively unobstructed view of the world.

Why the “James Webb” telescope does not observe the beginning of the universe?

The design of this telescope was a global effort led by NASA and aims to push the boundaries of astronomical observation with revolutionary engineering. Its mirror is huge, about 21 feet (6.5 meters) in diameter, which is about three times the size of the Hubble Space Telescope, which was launched in 1990 and is still operating.

According to SF, it’s the telescope’s mirror that allows it to gather light. James Webb is so big that it can see the faintest and most distant galaxies and stars in the universe. Its advanced instruments can reveal information about the composition, temperature, and motion of these distant cosmic bodies.

Astrophysicists constantly look back to see what stars, galaxies, and supermassive black holes looked like when their light began its journey toward Earth, and use this information to better understand their growth and evolution. For the space scientist, the James Webb Space Telescope is a window into that unknown world. How far can James Webb look into the universe and its past? The answer is about 13.5 billion years.

Time travel

A telescope does not show stars, galaxies, and exoplanets as they are. Instead, astrologers have a glimpse of how they were in the past. It takes time for light to travel through space and reach our telescope. In essence, this means that looking into space is also a journey into the past.

This is true even for objects that are quite close to us. The light you see from the sun has left about eight minutes and 20 seconds earlier. This is how long it takes for sunlight to reach the earth.

You can easily do calculations on this. All light, whether it’s sunlight, a flashlight, or a light bulb in your home, travels at a speed of 186,000 miles (approximately 300,000 kilometers) per second. This is more than 11 million miles, which is about 18 million kilometers per minute. The sun is about 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) from the earth. which brings the time of reaching the light to about eight minutes and 20 seconds.

Why the “James Webb” telescope does not observe the moment of the beginning of the universe?

But the farther something is, the longer it takes for its light to reach us. That’s why the light we see from the closest star to us other than the Sun, Proxima Centauri, dates back four years. This star is about 25 trillion miles (about 40 trillion kilometers) from Earth, so it takes a little over four years for its light to reach us.

Recently, James Webb has observed the star Earendel, which is one of the most distant stars ever discovered and the light that James Webb sees is about 12.9 billion years old.

The James Webb Space Telescope travels much further into the past than other telescopes such as the Hubble Space Telescope. For example, although Hubble can see objects 60,000 times fainter than the human eye, James Webb can see objects almost 9 times fainter than even Hubble.

Read more: How can solar storms destroy satellites so easily?

Big Bang

But is it possible to go back to the beginning of time?

Big Bang is the term used to define the beginning of the universe as we know it. Scientists believe that this happened about 13.8 billion years ago. This theory is the most accepted theory among physicists to explain the history of our universe.

However, the name is a bit misleading because it suggests that some kind of explosion, like a firework, created the universe. The Big Bang more accurately represents space that is rapidly expanding everywhere in the universe. The environment immediately after the Big Bang resembled a cosmic fog that covered the universe and made it difficult for light to pass through. Eventually, galaxies, stars, and planets began to grow.

That’s why this period is called the “Cosmic Dark Age” in the world. As the universe continued to expand, the cosmic fog began to lift and light was finally able to travel freely through space. In fact, few satellites have observed the light left over from the Big Bang some 380,000 years after it happened. These telescopes are designed to detect the glow left over from the nebula, whose light can be traced in the microwave band.

However, even 380,000 years after the Big Bang, there were no stars or galaxies. The world was still a very dark place. The cosmic dark ages did not end until several hundred million years later when the first stars and galaxies began to form.

The James Webb Space Telescope was not designed to observe the time to the moment of the Big Bang, but to see the period when the first objects in the universe began to form and emit light.

Before this time period, due to the conditions of the early universe and the lack of galaxies and stars, there was little light for the James Webb Space Telescope to observe.

By studying ancient galaxies, scientists hope to understand the unique conditions of the early universe and gain insight into the processes that helped them flourish. This includes the evolution of supermassive black holes, the life cycles of stars, and what exoplanets are made of.

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