Examination of a fast radio burst suggests that the Milky Way is emptier than we thought.
The fascinating cosmic mystery of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) has now revealed another secret. By studying the signatures of an FRB from a nearby galaxy, astronomers found that the Milky Way contains much less matter than expected.
Fast radio bursts are precisely what their name suggests. They are bursts of radio signals from deep space that last only a few milliseconds. Some of them are surprising, while others are random or periodic. But what exactly causes them has yet to be explained. Still, with hundreds of cases recorded since the first diagnosis in 2007, we’re getting closer to a comprehensive answer with each observation.
New Radio bursts from Milky Way galaxy
For this new study, astronomers examined an FRB first detected in March 2022 by the Deep Synoptic Array, or DSA, in California. This FBR was caught in a galaxy 163 million light-years away. Knowing this distance and the direction from which the FBR came, the team could measure how much the signal was scattered before reaching the observatory. This, in turn, allows astronomers to work out how much material the radio signals have passed through on their journey.
By doing this, astronomers could calculate how much matter there is in the Milky Way’s circumstellar medium (CGM) – the halo of dust and gas surrounding our entire galaxy. Astronomers describe it as shining light through a fog to see how thick it is.
Hence, scientists calculated that the Milky Way’s CGM mass is less than 100 billion suns, meaning it is much lighter than expected. When combined with all the regular material in the rest of the galaxy, the total mass of the Milky Way is less than 60% of the average mass of other galaxies.
The group says this new evidence supports previous hypotheses that matter is often ejected from galaxies thanks to a range of processes such as stellar winds, supernovae, and supermassive black holes.
These results strongly support scenarios predicted by galaxy formation simulations in which feedback processes remove material from galaxy haloes, said Vikram Ravi, lead author of the study. This is essential for forming galaxies; using that, matter is directed into and out of galaxies in cycles.
Astronomers say that as the DSA becomes more powerful, it’s inevitable that new insights will emerge. Currently, only 63 out of 110 DSA dishes are in use, and this observatory will be equipped with 2,000 dishes in the long term. This will allow many more FRBs to be detected, giving us a clearer answer to this mystery and other discoveries like this new one about the Milky Way.
Recording the first X-ray image of an atom with a “quantum needle”
Recording the first X-ray image of an atom with a “quantum needle”. For the first time, Ohio University scientists have managed to record the first X-ray image of an atom using a quantum needle.
Water play in the space station is not just fun and games
Water play in the space station is not just fun and games
In this artice we’re going to read about why water play in the space station is not just fun and games .In an interview with Nature magazine, he said about his job: I am an astronaut of the European Space Agency. Last year, I spent five months—from late April to mid-October—on the International Space Station (ISS), with the last month as station commander. Before returning to the field, my team and I took some time to play with the water. Here, inside the International Space Station, I show how water behaves in zero gravity.
There are a few tricks you can use to make sure the water stays where you want it. Surface tension holds the water bubble together, and you can move it by gently pulling on it using a straw or blowing on it. If the bubble is small enough, you can drink it. We recycle all the water inside the spacecraft.
Weightlessness is not only exciting but also an opportunity to study fundamental physics. There is a lot of research on fluid dynamics in space stations. A study that I personally participated in deals with the loosening behavior of different types of liquids and mixtures of liquids and gases in containers. The results are very important for the design of fuel tanks, especially for space applications.
This photo was taken in the Japanese test module. It’s the largest single module on the ISS, so we often use it to talk to the media or school students. When we communicate with them, we use things like the balls behind my head that are models of the planets and the moon. The round thing behind me is the module airlock. We use it to deploy satellites as well as hardware like scanners for science experiments.
This was the second time I went to the International Space Station. I quickly adapt to the space and enjoy the feeling of weightlessness very much. It’s much harder for me to come back down to earth.
I don’t know when I will go there again. We’ll see how the US-led Artemis program to return humans to the moon evolves over the next decade. Maybe I will get another chance.
Cristoferti was a member of the Crew-4 mission carried out by SpaceX. At that time, he arrived at the space station with the “Dragon” capsule to begin his 6-month stay on April 27. It should be mentioned that the “Cro-4” mission was the second space flight of “Cristoforti”. He previously stayed on the space station from November 2014 to June 2015.
Why does time move forward?
Why does time move forward? No matter how ambiguous we are about the phenomenon of time, we agree on one thing, and that is that time always moves forward.
Why does time move forward?
Recently, a group in Australia has investigated the category of moving time forward and how it occurs. Before this, it was thought to be one of the fundamental principles of the natural world, but apparently there is a more important reason for this.
We all know that time only moves forward. No matter how many attempts have been made to change it, we know that broken glass will never repair itself and people will never be young again after aging. There are many hypotheses for the cause of this phenomenon, but for a long time, it has been thought that this one-way movement is one of the fundamental and integral parts of nature.
But based on new research conducted by Joan Vaccaro of Griffith University in Australia, it is said that this is not the main issue, and there is probably a deeper and more solid reason for time to move forward. In other words, it can be said that there must be a very careful difference between two different time directions. These two directions are actually the past and the future, and there is a factor that always leads us to the future and the opposite never happens.
Let’s back up for a second. It seems that this category is one of the most exciting and unimaginable aspects of physics. The mystery of time seems ambiguous because the forward movement of time is important in human life. But if we look at them individually at the atomic and molecular scale, then the movement of time forward or backward will not make much of a difference for these particles, and the particles will continue to behave regardless of the movement of time forward or backward.
We should keep in mind that our main discussion here is not about space, because you shouldn’t expect that moving objects in space won’t change their location anyway. Therefore, scientists believed for a long time that there must be a basic reason for the expansion of the universe as time moves forward, and they did not imagine this for the category of space itself. This view is actually known as the asymmetry between space and time. The best example to express inconsistency is that the equations of the laws of motion and stability have inhomogeneous functions in time and space. Vaccaro says:
In the relationship between space and time, it is easier to understand and receive space; Because space is something that simply exists. But time is something that always pushes us forward.
His new plan states that it is possible that the two mentioned directions for time (forward and backward) are not the same at all. Vaccaro continues: Experiments conducted on subatomic particles in the last fifty years show that nature does not behave the same in dealing with these two directions of time. Among these, we can especially mention the subatomic particles called B and K mesons, which exhibit anomalous behaviors in terms of time direction.
K and B mesons are very small subatomic particles that cannot be examined without the help of some advanced tools. But the evidence of their different behavior according to the time direction effective on them shows that the reason for this difference, instead of being related to a fundamental part of nature’s behavior, may be due to the direction in which we are moving in time. We are walking. Vaccaro explains in this context: As we move forward in time, there will always be some backward bounce, like the effects of motional instability, and in fact, this backward motion is what I intend to measure using the B and K mesons.
To carry out this research, Ms. Vaccaro rewrote the equations of quantum mechanics, taking into account that the nature of time will not be the same in two directions, and the results showed that the calculations performed can accurately explain the mechanism of our world. Vaccaro said about this: When we included this complex behavior in the model of the universe, we realized that the universe moves from a fixed state in one moment to moment-to-moment and continuous changes. In other words, this difference in the two directions of time seems to be the reason for forcing the universe to move forward.
If this issue is proven, it will mean that we have to rethink and revise our understanding and acceptance of the category of time passage and the equations affected by it. But on the other hand, this achievement may lead to new insights and findings about the more strange aspects of time. Vaccaro said in the end: Understanding how time passes and evolves brings us to a completely new perspective on the natural foundations of the phenomenon of time itself. Also, in this way, we may be able to get a better understanding and reception of amazing and exciting ideas such as traveling to the past.
Vaccaro’s calculations have been published in the Journal of Physical and Mathematical Engineering Sciences.
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