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Jupiter planet , its features, moons and wonders



jupiter planet

The Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system, which is highly regarded because of its attractive features such as the Great Red Spot and the mysterious icy moons like Europa and Ganymede.

The Jupiter’s planet, known as Burjis, Hormuz or Jupiter, is the fifth and largest planet in the solar system. The Jupiter has a major role in the transformation of the solar system history, and the earth owes to the Jupiter to some extent.

The planet, along with Saturn, are gas giant. The Jupiter is a combination of hydrogen and helium and because of its high speed of rotation, its shape is not completely spherical. The Jupiter’s external atmosphere is divided into several strips of different latitudes, creating storms, storms, and vortex currents. One of the points of sharing these strips is the famous red spots; A huge storm that was first observed in the seventeenth century with a telescope.

The Jupiter’s planet has a pale ring and a strong magnetosphere. The planet, also called the King of the planets, has four approved moons. The Jupiter ranks second in the solar system in terms of the number of moons and after Saturn (with 2 lunars). The most famous moons on the planet is a four-storey collection known as the Galileo moons that were discovered in the year 6 by Italian scientist Galileo Galileo. ganymede is the largest Jupiter’s moon and the largest moon in the solar system.

Jupiter planet

Robotic spacecraft have done a lot of research on the Jupiter. The most famous Jupiter missions include Woeeiger and Pioneer and then Galileo’s circuit. In late February, the New Huraznesian probe visited the Jupiter and used the planet’s attraction to speed up and be on the Pluto route. The last mission to the Jupiter was carried out by the Juno probe, which was to orbit the planet on July 1.

The titles you will read in this article:

  •      What is the Symbol of the Planet?
  •      How was Jupiter Planet formed?
  •      How many times is Jupiter Earth?
  •      Physical properties and internal composition of the Jupiter’s planet
  •      How many moons does the planet have?
  •      Jupiter loops
  •      Wonders of Jupiter Planet
  •      Seeing the Jupiter Planet from Earth
  •      Jupiter probes
  •      Future missions to the Jupiter

Ten Interesting Facts About Jupiter Planet

  1. The Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system, named after the God of heaven and thunder. The planet is mainly made up of gas (hydrogen and helium) and its inner core is almost the same as Earth.
  2. The Jupiter’s planet has at least 2 lunars, with four large reds: Io, europa, Ganimid and Calisto (these moons are also known as Galileo’s moons). Although the planet of Jupiter cannot host life, some of its moons have the potential for life because of the oceans below the level of life.
  3. The rotation of the Jupiter around it is faster than any other planet, and this leads to veins: Dark areas (belts) indicate the rise of clouds and gases; Bright areas (areas) represent a belt session.
  4. The speed of the Jupiter’s rotation in the equator is fast and in the poles is slow; Thus, the gas layers in the impulse collision areas cause white spots, spiral storms and vortexes. One of the most famous Jupiter storms is the large red spot three times the size of the earth. This is not a constant storm.
  5. The Jupiter’s planet has four rings. The Vaviger probe discovered these rings in year 2. These rings are very pale and, unlike the transparent rings of Saturn, made up of ice and rock, were made of dust particles.

During his mission, the Juno probe has come to the attractive facts about the planet’s Jupiter:

  1. The Jupiter’s atmosphere is amazing. According to Juno’s findings, this gas giant is much more turbulent than imagination. The cloud and wind climate is not only seen in the upper layer of the planet. Rather, but these winds also exist in the depths of the Jupiter for thousands of kilometres. Also, surprisingly, Jupiter strips disappear near its poles.
  2. According to hypotheses, the famous Jupiter’s gas clouds (a combination of water and ammonia) are equally combined. However, there is less ammonia at the surface and most of the ammonia is focused on the nucleus.
  3. At the north and south poles of the Jupiter, there are circular chains of massive tornadoes. These rotating storms are extremely dense on the continents of the earth. Their length is 2 kilometres and their width is hundreds of kilometres.
  4. The Jupiter’s solid core at its centre is not completely intensive. Rather, a swollen butter is half the Jupiter’s diameter. No one knows what the reason is, but according to hypotheses, a heavy crime has been treated by the Jupiter, which has made the core with other surrounding gases.
  5. The Jupiter has the strongest magnetic field in the solar system, but Juno shows that the field is even stronger and closer to the planet’s surface. Also, the north and south poles of the Jupiter are not similar.

What is the Symbol of the Planet?

Jupiter or Jupiter has been known since ancient times. The planet is also known in various cultures by numerous names such as Jupiter (Roman culture), Burjis, Urmd and Zavash. The Jupiter is visible in the night sky with an unarmed eye and sometimes during the day (when the sun is low). The Romans named the planet, inspired by one of the Roman myth gods, Jupiter (also known as the God of love).

The Babylonians knew the Jupiter in the name of their God, Mardok. They used the Jupiter’s 5 -year period alongside the circle to define zodiac constellations. The Romans considered the Jupiter the star. On the other hand, in Greece, the Jupiter was known as Zeus (the counterpart of the Roman God Jupiter). The ancient Greeks knew this planet as a shiny or ignorant star. The origin of the Jupiter’s astronomical symbol (image below) is unclear; But many consider it to be a thunderstorm, and according to new reports, it means eagle based on the Egyptian hieroglyphic line.

How was Jupiter Planet formed?

Jupiter is the oldest planet in the solar system. The planet, which is 1.5 times heavier than the rest of the solar system planets, has played an important role in the formation and evolution of its neighbours. Approximately 1.5 billion years ago, the solar system of gas and dust or solar nebulae was. Gravity collapsed this substance and began to rotate; The sun was created at its centre. With the formation of the sun, the rest of the materials were dense. The small particles with the gravitational force were close to each other and turned into larger particles.

Solar winds removed lighter elements, such as hydrogen and helium, and made stone and heavy materials near the sun making smaller stone worlds like Earth. Since the solar winds had less effect on lighter elements, they joined each other for the formation of gas giants.

According to the core accretion model, the planet’s stone cores initially formed, then formed lighter elements, mantles and shells of planets. In the stone worlds, the lighter elements of the atmosphere formed. The study of external planets (outside the solar system) confirms the theory of nucleus accumulation as the prevailing process. Stars that have more metal in their core (a term used by astronomers for elements other than hydrogen and helium) have larger planets in their system than stars made of metal only.

Disk instability model

The process of core accumulation for gas giants like the Jupiter requires a lot of time. The cloud of matter around the sun only lasts a short time; Either it turns into the planet or completely disappears. Giant planets were formed very quickly and only a few million years. As a result, based on a specific time range, the gas ring around the sun has only lasted 2 to 5 million years.

According to a relatively new theory called disk instability, gas masses and dust were joined early in the Solar System. Over time, these masses became larger planets. The speed of formation of these planets is, based on this theory, faster than the theory of nucleus accumulation, and sometimes even reaches several thousand years. Continuous Jupiter clashes (just like other planets) raised the temperature of the planet. Dense materials to the centre formed the nucleus. Some scientists believe that the core of the planet can be a hot sphere of liquids; However, according to other research, the Jupiter’s core is a solid stone 2 to 5 times the size of the Earth.

Team accumulation

The biggest challenge of nuclear accumulation theory is its time. According to another study, small bodies of pebbles for forming large planets at a speed of 5x faster than previous models joined each other. In year 2, two researchers, Michel Lampbracrt and Anders Johannes, from the University of Land Sweden, presented the theory of small particles. According to them, the remaining pebbles of the formation processes (previously considered trivial) can have the key to the problem of forming planets.

Jupiter relocation

In year 4, scientists unveiled the Grand Tack. According to this theory, the Jupiter had a two-step immigration after forming a two-step migration. Jupiter has formed exactly about 1.5 astronomical units of the sun and is located in the current position of 1.5 astronomical units after a two-step transfer.

During these transfers, the Jupiter is thought to have destroyed many objects, including some planets of the solar system. Without a Jupiter probably there was no earth; This planet has made the way to Earth easier to destroy smaller worlds.

How many times is Jupiter bigger than Earth?

If we combine the mass of the entire planets of the solar system, the Jupiter’s mass will be more than twice. This gas giant can accommodate four planets on Earth. As a result, if you assume Jupiter is the size of a basketball ball, the Earth will be the same as a grape seed. The planet is also 5 times heavier than Earth. In the Jupiter’s diameter, there are four planets Earth.

Physical properties and internal composition of the Jupiter’s planet

jupiter moons

Much of the Jupiter is made up of fluid and gas materials. The diameter of the giant reaches 1.2 kilometres. Its average density is 5 grams per cubic centimetre and is ranked second among gas giants. Much of the Jupiter is made up of gas and liquid materials and denser materials are in the lower layer. 2 to 5 percent of the upper atmosphere of the planet is hydrogen and 2 to 5 percent the helium. Overall, 5 % of the planet’s mass is hydrogen, 2 % of it is helium and the remaining one percent are other elements.

Jupiter’s atmosphere includes methane, water, steam, ammonia and silicone compounds. Carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine and sulfur are also traced. The outermost layer of barley consists of frozen ammonia crystals. Material density is higher in the inner layers.

Using ultraviolet and infrared measurements, benzene and hydrocarbons have also been discovered on the planet. Based on spectroscopy results, the Jupiter’s composition is almost similar to Saturn’s composition; But the other two gas giants, Uranus and Neptune, have less hydrogen and helium than the Jupiter, and are therefore called ice giants.

Jupiter’s planet can accommodate 1300 Earth


According to gravity measurements at 2, the planet’s nucleus mass was estimated at 2 to 5 times more than Earth’s mass. The Jupiter’s core accounts for 2 to 5 percent of its overall mass. Jupiter radius is approximately one-tenth of the sun’s radius and one thousand mass; So the density of both is the same. Jupiter mass is usually used as a unit to describe the mass of other objects, especially external planets or brown dwarfs.

If the Jupiter was heavier, he would have been a hydrogen fusion and would become a star; However, the radius of the smallest red dwarf is only 5 % more Jupiter. However, the Jupiter spreads more heat than the heat received from the sun.

The amount of heat generated by the Jupiter is equal to the total solar radiation received by the planet. This process makes the Jupiter smaller every year. While it was much hotter at the beginning of the formation, its diameter was twice that of its current diameter. According to existing hypotheses, the core of the rocky Jupiter is; But its exact composition is still unknown. The nucleus may be surrounded by concentrated metal hydrogen, which makes up a 2 % radius of the planet. Raindrops, such as helium and neon, precipitate at the bottom of this layer, and the abundance of these elements in the upper atmosphere is minimized.


Like the sun’s atmosphere, much of the Jupiter’s atmosphere is made up of hydrogen and helium. Dark and light-coloured strips on Jupiter’s atmosphere are created by strong east-west winds that move more than 5 km / h. Clouds in bright areas are a combination of frozen ammonia crystals; While clouds in darker areas are formed more than other chemicals. At the deepest surface of the planet are blue clouds. Jupiter cloud tapes change over time and fall into the client’s atmosphere of diamonds.

It can hardly be said to be exactly what the Jupiter’s atmosphere is formed, as 2 % of the planet is hydrogen and 2 percent is helium. On the ground all of these gases are considered; But the strong Jupiter attraction makes the atmosphere of the planet become a multi-layer, each of which has attractive and unique features. Unlike the Earth, there is no clear boundary between the client’s atmosphere and the planet itself. With more penetration to the client’s depths, the density and temperature of hydrogen and helium change, and scientists describe the different layers of the Jupiter’s atmosphere based on these changes. Jupiter’s atmospheric layers include the troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere and exhaustion.

Since the Jupiter lacks an integrated surface, scientists estimate the lower part of the atmosphere to be 5 kg; The planet’s atmosphere is exactly above this point. The client’s atmosphere, like the ground, decreases with height until it reaches its minimum value. The minimum amount of atmosphere can be found at the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere, the tropopause (approximately 2 kilometres above the Jupiter’s surface).

The stratosphere stretches to a height of 2 kilometres and reduces the pressure in the direction, with a decrease in temperature pressure. At this point, the boundary between the stratosphere and the thermosphere is defined. The thermosphere temperature at a height of 2 kilometres reaches 2 degrees Celsius. All the clouds and storms visible are placed at the bottom of the Jupiter’s troposphere and consist of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and water.

Jupiter’s large red spots


The most prominent feature of the Jupiter is its large red spot. This stain is a steady tornado storm larger than the Earth, located at an angle of the equator, based on one hypothesis of 1 and based on another hypothesis of 2. This stain is large enough to be easily visible with an amateur telescope with a 5cm aperture. To rotate this storm, unlike clockwise and its 4 -day circulation interval. The maximum height of this storm is 2 kilometres above the cloud.

According to mathematical models, this storm is stable and may be one of the sustainable features of the planet. However, the size of this stain has always declined. At the end of the century, the width of the stain was estimated at 2.5 kilometres, four times the diameter of the Earth. After the Voyager spacecraft arrived on the planet in year 2, the storm had doubled to the planet’s width.

Studies of the Jupiter’s red stain show that the size of the stain is still decreasing. On April 1, the width of the stain was estimated at 1.5 kilometres, which is 1.5 times the diameter of the Earth. The longest storm on the earth lasts 2 days, But the Jupiter has more sustainable storms because of the thousands of kilometres of the atmosphere at a much higher speed than the Earth’s rotation.

Jupiter Magnetic Square

The Jupiter’s magnetic field is fourteen times stronger than the Earth’s magnetic field. The field is thought to be created by vortex currents in the planet’s hydrogen core. Some features of the Jupiter’s magnetic field are unique and there are no such as the Earth’s magnetic field.

The Jupiter’s Jupiter’s lunar volcanoes release large quantities of sulfur dioxide, resulting in a gas halo around the orbit. This gas is ionized in the Jupiter’s magnetosphere and released sulfur and oxygen ions.

These ions, along with the Jupiter Hydrogen ion, form a plasma plate in the tropical body of the planet, the plasma on this planet rotates along with this planet, resulting in bipolar magnetic disk deformation to a magnetic disk. The electrons on the plasma plate create a powerful radio effect that produces explosions in the range of 1.2 to 5 MHz.

The Jupiter’s magnetosphere is the cause of the intense spread of radio material from the polar parts of the planet. Ivy’s volcanic activity of the planet leads to the spread of gas in the Jupiter’s magnetosphere and creates a halo of particles around it. As Io moves in this aura, the waves of alpha are created. Alfon wave is a type of hydrodynamic magnetic wave in which the ions fluctuate in response to an effective voltage on the magnetic field lines. These waves carry ionic materials in the polar areas of the Jupiter.

Rotation and Jupiter circuit

The average distance between the Jupiter and the sun is 2 million kilometres (approximately 1.5 times more than the distance between the Earth and the sun), and every 2.5 years rotate around the sun. The elliptical circuit of the Jupiter has a 1.5 -degree deviation compared to the ground. Exit from the centre of the planet’s orbit is 1.5 %, so its distance from the sun between the nearest call (peak) varies by 5 million kilometres.

Read more: How could Big Bang arise from nothing

The pivotal oscillation of this planet is relatively low: 1.5 degrees. As a result, there are not many seasonal changes compared to Earth and Mars. The Jupiter rotates around the planets of the solar system at the highest speed and completes the rotation around its axis in less than ten hours due to the high speed of a tropical protrusion, which is easily visible through an amateur telescope based on the Earth. . The Jupiter’s equator is 5 kilometres more than the diameter of its poles. Because the Jupiter is not a rigid body, its upper atmosphere has a different rotation. The rotation of the Jupiter’s polar atmosphere is approximately 5 minutes longer than its tropical atmosphere.

How many moons does Jupiter planet have?

The Jupiter has 2 approved moons. The Jupiter ranks second in the solar system in terms of the number of moons (with 2 lunars); But according to the latest research, Canadian astronomers found evidence of the existence of four small moons in the Jupiter’s orbit, and according to speculation, the number of moons on the planet could reach 5; But they have not yet reached the approval and observation stage.

Overall, of the 5 -approved Jupiter moon, the four largest Galileo moon is more popular. The moons were discovered independently by Galileo Galileo and Simon Marinus in the year 9. Early in the early days, more of the Jupiter’s moons were discovered and the names of the lovers or girls of Jupiter, the Roman God or Zeus (its Greek counterpart). Galileo moons are the largest and heaviest objects in the Jupiter’s circuit.

Eight Jupiters are from regular moons with almost circular circuits. Galileo’s moons are almost spherical due to a planetary mass. If these moons were in the orbit of the sun, they would be in the category of dwarf planets. The other four are smaller and are less than the Jupiter’s planet; These moons are resources for the formation of Jupiter circles. Other Jupiter moons are irregular and their circuit is far from the Jupiter. These moons are likely to be trapped in the attraction of the solar circuits. Twenty-two irregular Jupiters have not yet been officially named.

Regular Jupiter moons are thought to be formed from the planet’s rotary disk; A ring of gas and stone-like that is similar to the initial planetary disc. On the other hand, irregular moons are composed of asteroids that are trapped in the attraction of the Jupiter. According to many scientists, these asteroids are crushed and then formed by other small bodies, forming irregular Jupiter moons.

Lunar Group

In general, Jupiter moons are divided into two categories regular and irregular. The irregular moons themselves are divided into two groups internal moons (Amalia) and Galileo moons.

  • Internal Lunches (Amalia): Matthews, Adrastia, Amalia and Group are the Jupiter’s internal moons; Because they are close to the planet. Two of the most internal moons in less than a day complete the orbit of the planet. The other two are the fifth and seventh largest moons in the Lunar System, respectively. According to the observations, the minimum member of this group, Amalia, was not formed on the current circuit but was previously farther away from the Jupiter.
  • Galileo’s main group of moons: Io, europa, ganymede and Calisto are the largest moons of the solar system in terms of mass and size. The diameter of the moon is even more mass than Mercury, but its mass is less mass. These moons are the fourth (Io), the sixth (europa), the first (ganymede) and the third (Calisto) of the natural moons of the solar system accounting for approximately 1.5 % of the total mass orbit of the Jupiter. The Jupiter’s planet is 5 times heavier than its moons.

Jupiter’s irregular moons

Jupiter’s irregular moons are small objects with different circuits and farther away from the Jupiter. These moons have similarities such as deviation, exit from the centre, semi-primary axis and chemical composition. According to scientists, these are a group of colliding moons created by the clash of larger parent objects with the asteroids affected by the gravitational field.


Galileo is one of the most well-known Jupiter moons that have been studied during various excavations and more information is available. Here are some features and excavations related to these moons.


Io moon jupiter

Io is the fifth largest Jupiter moon and has the most volcanic activity in the solar system. It has sulfur ducts that are published up to 2 kilometres. The surface of the iO is full of lava seas and flood plains with liquid rocks. Astronomers discovered a map of four volcanoes on the moon, some of which publishes up to 2 kilometres in the lava space. Io is a Jupiter host of 1.5 billion years old. The average orbital distance of the Io to the Jupiter is 4,000 kilometres. It takes 4.3 days to complete the Jupiter orbit. Io has a tidal lock and always one side to the Jupiter. The diameter of the Io is approximately 2 kilometres, which is slightly higher than the moon.

Io is the only moon in the solar system with active volcanoes

IO has a relatively oval shape. Among Galileo’s moons, Io is ranked higher in terms of mass and volume than Ganymed and Calisto and higher than in europa. The mean temperature of the IO -negative level is 2 degrees Celsius. For this reason, sulfur dioxide snow bodies are abundant on their surface. It is also called ice and fire.

Io was discovered by Galileo Galileo on January 1, 2008. He discovered the moon a day before, But he failed to recognize Io and europa. Galileo’s discovery was the first lunar discovery at the time. Galileo’s discoveries proved that the planets rotate around the sun, not the earth. Galileo initially named the moon Jupiter; But in the mid-nineteenth century, its name changed to Io. In Greek mythology, Io Keen Hera (wife of Zeus) and the daughter of Inchchus, King Argus. Zeus (Greek counterpart of the Roman god Jupiter) fell in love with Io, But he turned him into a cow to safeguard his wife Hera.

Io Features: The interior of the Io includes a sulfide iron kernel and an outer layer of silicate brown. This combination gives the moon a tattoo with orange, black, yellow, red and white. According to data obtained from computer models, Io was formed in an area around the Jupiter whose abundance of ice was initially high. The heat of the IO with the water on its surface within a short distance after the formation can be a sign of ancient life; Even in an environment where Jupiter radiation destroys surface water.

The most prominent features of this moon are its volcanoes. Io after the earth is the only mass of the solar system with an active volcano. Galileo left notes of volcanic activity, and the NASA Voyager spacecraft confirmed the IO volcanoes in the year. Due to volcanic activity, much of the Io is sulfur dioxide. According to the observations of the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii and the TEXES spectrometer in year 2, the olive atmosphere is likely to collapse. Io’s sulfur dioxide gas coating is frozen every day in shade mode. When Io returns to sunlight, frozen sulfur dioxide becomes gas once again.



Callisto is one of the big moons in the Jupiter’s circuit. This moon has an ancient surface full of collisions that indicate that there are no geological processes; But the moon has an underground ocean, and because of its old surface, the existence of life in this ocean is still certain.

Like the other four moons, Callisto was discovered in the year 9. The name of this moon was initially Jupiter IV, But in the nineteenth century, it was called Callisto . Callisto was investigated by numerous probes, including the long-term mission of the Galileo spacecraft in the 1980s and decades. The Juno spacecraft has also recorded remote images of Callisto . Callisto is a Jupiter with its host -packed 5.5 billion years. This moon is the heaviest mass of the collision cavity in the entire solar system, But its level has remained intact for about 5 billion years ago.

Among Galileo’s moons, Callisto is the foremost moon. The moon is about one million eight hundred and eighty thousand kilometres from the Jupiter. It takes almost seven days to complete the Jupiter’s Callisto . Callisto has fewer tidal effects than other Galileo moons; Because across the belt is the main radiation of the Jupiter. Callisto has a tidal lock to the Jupiter and is always on one side of the Jupiter.

Callisto , with a diameter of 2 kilometres, is almost the same as the planet Mercury. This moon is the third largest moon in the solar system after Ganim and Titan (Saturn’s moon). The month is fifth after Io. The temperature of the Callisto level reaches -1.5 degrees Celsius. The Galileo spacecraft sent detailed information about Calisto in Year 2. In this mission, much of the moon was mapped, and its thin carbon dioxide atmosphere and evidence of the underground ocean were discovered. According to the images obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope in Year 2, Callisto’s effect on the clerical climate explosions was revealed. Their Jupiter has the aurora, But some of the Jupiter’s aurora phenomena stem from its interaction with its four large moons.

Future missions, including Juice, dedicated to the study of Jupiters’ ice moons, will reveal more facts about Calisto and the possibility of life. Articles have also been published on the modelling of the Jupiter’s and Callisto magnetic field interaction (this review provides evidence of the Callisto subsurface ocean) and the finding of atomic oxygen in the atmosphere. Other articles focus on dimensions such as the water below the surface, the number of collision openings and atmospheric characteristics.



Ganymede is the largest Jupiter’s moon and the largest moon in the solar system. This moon is even larger than Mercury and Pluto, and slightly smaller than Mars; As a result, if it were in the orbit of the sun, it would easily have been in the category of planets. ganymede is likely to have a saltwater ocean beneath its icy surface; As a result, it becomes one of the strong candidates for life discoveries. ganymede is one of the goals of the Juice mission that will be launched in the 1980s.

Callisto, Ganymede and europa have a saline underground ocean

Ganymede, like Callisto and Io, is a Jupiter’s age at the age of 1.5 billion years. The moon is more than one million and seventy thousand kilometres from the Jupiter and completes the planet’s orbit within seven days. The average radius of ganymede is 1.5 km. ganymede is larger than Mercury but its mass is half the mass of Mercury and therefore has little density. The average temperature of the day at the Ganymede level reaches a negative of 2 to 2 degrees Celsius. Astronomers with the Hubble Telescope, in the year 6, obtained evidence from the Oxygen Ganymede Joe. However, this atmosphere is too thin to support the vital we know, and it is unlikely that living things will be able to settle on ganymede.

Ganymede only has a magnetosphere in the entire solar system. The magnet, commonly found on planets such as Jupiter and Earth, is a sequel in which pregnant particles are trapped and deviated. ganymede magnetism is embedded in the Jupiter’s magnetism. Galileo changed its name to Jupiter III after discovering ganymede. With the increase in the number of objects discovered in the mid -19th century, the name of the moon was renamed Genmod according to Greek myths.

Ganymede Features: Ganymede has an iron core, a stone mantle and a high thick shell, most of which are ice. There are also traces of stone formation on the ganymede surface. On February 4, NASA unveiled a precise map of ganymede in the form of video images and animation created using NASA’s Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft as well as the Galileo Circuit.

The Ganymede surface consists of two types of main surfaces: approximately 2 % of the dark ganmod surface with multiple collision openings and 2 % is light-coloured with grooves that give Ganymede a special look. The grooves are caused by tectonic activities or the spread of water below the surface.

According to scientists, Ganymede has an underground saline ocean. Scientists, using the Hubble Space Telescope, examined the Aurora and the changes between the Jupiter’s magnetic fields and ganymede. According to the evidence of these aurorae, Ganymede probably has a saline underground ocean that is even saltier than the oceans of the earth.

Some scientists have pointed to the possibility of life in ganymede. Due to the internal structure of ganymede, the pressure of the ocean floor is so high that any water that reaches it becomes ice. For this reason, hot water flows can hardly bring nutrients to the oceans.


Europa is Galileo’s smallest moon. The surface of this frozen moon and covered with a layer of ice; But to scientists, there is an ocean beneath this ice surface. The ice surface has made europa one of the most reflective moons of the solar system.

Researchers, using the Hubble Space Telescope, identified signs of waterfalls from the South europaan region in year 6. After numerous efforts, the research team saw the waterfalls in years 1 and 2. europaan moon was formed about 1.5 billion years ago with its host planet, the Jupiter. On average, europa’s distance from the Jupiter is 1,800 kilometres. It takes three and a half days for europa to complete the Jupiter orbit. europa has a tidal lock to the Jupiter; So there is always one side to the Jupiter.

Europa is 5 kilometres in diameter than the moon and larger than Pluto. The europaan surface temperature at the equator is never above 2 degrees Celsius and at the poles of this moon is no more than 2 degrees Celsius. Galileo discovered europa on January 2. Of course, it had observed it a day ago on January 6; But he could not distinguish this moon from Iowa. In Greek myths, Greece is stolen by Zeus (Jupiter’s counterpart, the Roman God) and becomes a white cow to seduce europa. He brings the cow with flowers and sends it to the city of Crete. Zeus returns to their normal way in Crete and seduces europa. europa was a queen of Crete and gave birth to several children for Zeus.

One of the prominent features of europa is the high reflection capability due to the icy shell. According to scientists, europa’s level is 2 to 5 million years old. Galileo’s spacecraft images and data show that europa has a combination of silicate stone, iron core and stone mantle just like Earth. Unlike the interior of the Earth, the europaan stone space is surrounded by a layer of water or ice that reaches 1 to 2 kilometres. According to europaan magnetic field fluctuations, there is probably an ocean below the surface of the moon that can host life. The possibility of europaan extraterrestrial life has made it an attractive destination for space exploration.

The europaan level is full of fractures and gaps. According to many scientists, these gaps are the result of the tidal forces of the ocean below the europaan level. When europa approaches the Jupiter, the sea level under the ice reaches above normal. In these conditions, the continuous tidal of the sea causes gaps in the surface of the moon. In year 2, scientists realized that europa could host tectonic pages. In the solar system, only the earth has a variable shell that is useful for the evolution of life on earth.

Life in europa: The presence of water under the frozen shell has made europa the moon one of the potential candidates for hosting life in the solar system. The Deep Ice of the moon probably has channels to the mantle like the ground. These channels provide the warm environment needed to evolve life. According to a study in Year 2, europa’s oxygen was estimated at ten times its hydrogen, which is similar to Earth’s. Thus, the ocean below the europaan level becomes a better environment for life.


Jupiter loops

Jupiter’s rings are made of dust and stone and are divided into three sections of aura, the main ring and the thin ring. Jupiter’s rings were discovered by the Vaviger probe. The combination of Jupiter rings is different from Saturn’s rings made of ice. Jupiter’s rings are very dim and delicate.

  •      Internal: The internal part of the Jupiter’s rings made of dust surrounds the space on the planet. This is the brightest and thickest part of the Jupiter’s rings.
  •      The main ring section: The main part of the ring is the thinnest part and consists of dust and stone. The dust particles in this section date back to 5 years or even 5 years. This means that it is caused by the collision with larger rocks of the new dust.
  •      Gossamer: Gosmer is the outside of the Jupiter’s rings. This section is, like the previous two parts, a combination of dust particles; But the word gossamer means a narrow material that is suitable for this part because of its very small dust particles.

Jupiter’s rings are not shining like Saturn’s because they are composed of particles and dust, and only the strongest telescopes can observe them. Jupiter’s moons are the cause of the rings of this planet. The most internal moons, such as the Metis, Adrastea, and Amalthea, were hit by many meteors, and their dust and rock particles reached the Jupiter’s orbit, thus forming the rings of the planet.

Wonders of Jupiter Planet

Jupiter planet has many wonders because of its strong attraction and magnetic field as well as its strange moons. Here are some examples of these wonders:

The influence of the Jupiter on the solar system: The Jupiter is also famous for the vacuum cleaner of the solar system for its severe attraction and internal position of the solar system. The planet experiences the most collision with comets among the planets of the solar system and is thought to act as a shield for the internal planets of the solar system.

If the sequel to Shoemaker–Levy 2 was hit by the earth, there would be no trace of life on earth

But according to recent computer simulations, the Jupiter has not had a significant role in reducing the bombing of the internal planets of the solar system, although the debate is still going on. At least it can be said that it has rescued internal planets from a disaster called Shoemaker–Levy. Schmidker Levi 3 has experienced one of the most exciting ends. Shoemaker–Levy’s treatment of the Jupiter caused injuries to the surface of the planet that are even visible from Earth. This is the first accident in the two internal crimes of the solar system, and the traces of this comet on the Jupiter’s atmosphere are far beyond expectation.

Shoemaker–Levy comet encountered the Jupiter in year 6, and this encounter had a great deal of fear in public opinion because if a similar comet had hit Earth, life would be destroyed on the planet.

Two Armageddon films were inspired by the confrontation and were made on the subject of land-threatening objects. Congress, after the release of these films, called for NASA to search for objects close to Earth. Schumacher Levi was first discovered in March by three comets from Eugene and Caroline Shoemaker and David Levy. The group had previously collaborated and discovered other comets. For this reason, the name Schumicar Levi was chosen for this comet.

The comet was rotating around the Jupiter decades ago but was not in the trap of a strong attraction. The orbital calculations showed more that this comet had treated the Jupiter in July. At that time, the Galileo spacecraft was still on the path of the planet and could not record a close view of the collision.

Strange Aurora: This year, the Juno probe discovered a new aurora that fluctuates on the Jupiter’s poles. Juno’s UVSA (UVS) tool recorded this bright phenomenon. This aurora extends in the form of high-speed rings between 1.2 and 2.5 km / s. According to scientists, these aurorae have been created due to pregnant particles from the edge of the massive Jupiter’s magnetosphere. Jupiter Aurora, like the earth, depends on the pregnant magnet particles. However, the Jupiter’s magneto science is 5 times stronger than the Earth’s magnetism.


New Facts of Hot Jupiter Dots: A generation after the discovery of the hot and dense atmosphere in the Jupiter, Juno’s mission came to newer answers to these points. Juno discovered hot spots that were much wider and deeper than past models and observations. The results were announced on December 5 at the annual conference of the US Geophysics Union.

More water discovery in Jupiter’s atmosphere: According to Juno probe data in year 2, approximately 2.5 % of the Jupiter’s equator molecules are water molecules. However, this does not appear to be three times higher than that of the solar water molecules based on the calculations of the components of the water, hydrogen and oxygen in the Jupiter. Juno’s measurements discovered more water than previous missions. This discovery can help scientists in search of the real Jupiter origin.

The similarity of Jupiter Wajar Clouds to Earth Clouds: Jupiter and Earth may seem like two completely different planets, but the atmosphere of the two planets is more like each other. The Juno probe captured images of small-scale wave patterns in the Jupiter’s atmosphere during the year. These images, captured by the Junocam tool, reveal the similarity of these cloud shapes to the earth. These waves in the Earth’s atmosphere are called meniscus or medium scale. Now the same waves have been discovered in the Jupiter’s atmosphere called atmospheric wave strands.


Seeing the Jupiter Planet from Earth

Jupiter is the fourth bright object in the night sky (after the sun, moon and venom). The close to Jupiter’s position varies from the sun and the earth. The mean range of the planet’s vision is 1.5 % and its standard deviation is 1.2.

Since the Jupiter’s orbit is out of the ground, the phase angle of the planet from Earth is never more than 1.5 degrees. For this reason, the planet is always seen from telescopes based on Earth. With a small telescope, even Galileo’s moon and cloud belts around the Jupiter can be observed.

Preturecopian Research

Jupiter observation dates back to Babylonian astronomers in the seventh or eighth centuries BC. Chinese astronomers also observed the Jupiter’s orbit and built the ground-branch cycle based on their approximate years.

Telescopic research based on Earth

In January, Galileo Galileo examined the planet’s Jupiter with its small telescope. His observations changed the current understanding of the universe. Galileo saw three small stars near the Jupiter. The next afternoon he was able to see the stars again, but this time they were on the other side of the planet. During a few weeks, these stars were moving around the Jupiter. Galileo gave the names of the stars of Medici to their supporters, but today they are known as Galileo’s moons.


This was the first telescopic observation of the solar system (other than the moon). The day after Galileo Simon Marinus independently discovered the moons around the Jupiter but did not publish the results of his discoveries until year 6. This discovery was a turning point in the Copernican Central Sun theory of the movement of planets. Galileo was questioned for supporting this theory for insulting the sacred.

In the 1980s, Juvan Cassini used a new telescope to discover colourful tapes and Jupiter stains and was able to estimate the rotation period of the planet. Cassini discovered the difference between the rotation of the Jupiter’s atmosphere with the planet itself. The large red spot in the southern hemisphere of the Jupiter was probably monitored by Robert Hook and at Cassini at 2, though there is still debate. Astronomy named Henry Schwab released the first design of the Great Red Spot details at 2.

Borley and Cassini both made detailed tables of Jupiters’ lunar movements and predicted the movements of these moons. At 2, Bernard discovered the fifth Jupiter at the California Observatory. The discovery of this relatively small object made him famous. This is called the Mohammed. It was the last planet’s moon that was discovered directly with an eye observatory.

At 1, Robert Wildt discovered the immense methane tapes. Three rotating rings (large-scale wind rotation around a high-pressure central point unlike clockwise) called white rings were also discovered. Finally, two rings were merged in 2, and the third ring known as BA was absorbed in 2

Radiottic research

Based on radio signals, Bernard Burke and Kent Franklin were able to discover explosions of 1.2 MHz. The explosions were consistent with the rotation of the planet, and they used this information to correct the rotation ratio. Jupiter radio explosions have two major forms: Long explosions (L explosions) last for a few seconds and short explosions (S) last less than one hundred seconds.

Jupiter probes

Eight spacecraft and probes have so far examined the planet: Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini, Yolis, New Horizons and Juno.

Pioneer 10 and 11 (Pioneer)

Pioneer 1 and 2 were the first spacecraft to review the Jupiter. The two probes recorded the first scientific observations from the planets Jupiter and Saturn and paved the way for Voyager’s missions. The external tools of these ships examined the climate of the Jupiter and Saturn, the magnetic fields, the moons and the rings, as well as the intermediate dust and magnetic areas, solar winds and cosmic rays. The two probes left the Solar System on their way.


Voyager 1 and 2 (Voyager)

NASA sent two Voyager spacecraft to the Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune in late summer. The nearest Voyager 2 contact with the Jupiter is registered on March 5. The closest gap between Voyager 2 to the planet was recorded on July 5.


Jupiter photography began in January. Wower 2 completed his mission for the Jupiter in early April, after registering 4.3 images and many other scientific measurements. The Voyager mission was from late April to early August. The two spacecraft recorded more than 1.5 % of the Jupiter and five moon images. Voyager 1 and 2 provided a lot of information on moons, magnetic fields and more to researchers. The biggest achievement of the two spacecraft was the discovery of volcanoes active on the moon.

Galileo spacecraft (Galileo Spacecraft)

The Galileo spacecraft was launched on October 5 with the Atlantis Space Shuttle missile and reached the Jupiter on 2. The probe has been in the Jupiter’s circuit for almost eight years and examined its moon. Based on the information obtained from the camera and the other four tools of the probe, the possibility of the ocean under the europaan moon was investigated. According to the discoveries, the volcanoes of the moon are very active. Another discovery of Galileo was ganymede’s separate magnetic field. Galileo was carrying a small probe that was sent deep into the Jupiter’s atmosphere and was destroyed about an hour later due to too much pressure.

Cassini spacecraft (Cassini)

Cassini was a cooperation between NASA and the europaan Space Agency (ESA) and the Italian Space Agency, and its main purpose was to investigate Saturn, the system and moons of the planet. The probe was at the closest distance to the Jupiter on December 5 and recorded numerous scientific measurements. Cassini recorded 6,000 images of the planet, rings and moon during six months of flight around the Jupiter. Cassini’s biggest achievement for the Jupiter was the most accurate colour portrait of the planet (until then).

Other Cassini observations include the dark cloud of the spinning at the top of the Jupiter’s atmosphere, almost the size of a large red spot, near the North Pole. Based on the evidence that Cassini obtained from the Jupiter’s rings, the loop is composed of an irregular structure that is probably due to the collapse of the stone from the Metis and Adrastea moons.

Ulysses’ spacecraft (Ulysses)

Ulysses was the result of NASA’s cooperation and the europaan Space Agency launched in October, with the main purpose of examining the space zone above the sun’s poles. Since Ulysses needed a lot of energy to put it in the sun’s orbit and the earth could not provide it, it was necessary to supply this space from another planet. The Jupiter was the nearest planet that could provide the prerequisites for the trip.

Ulysses reached the Jupiter six months after his departure from Earth, and on February 4, he was closest to the planet. Although the secondary goal of Ulysses was to investigate the Jupiter, in this short trip he was able to find very useful information about the very strong magnetic field of the planet.

New Horizons spacecraft

New Hurazenz was a mid-range probe built at the Johns Hopkins University Physical Laboratory (APL) and the Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) and was launched into space in year 6 to investigate Pluto. New Hurazenz used Jupiter attraction (2 times the gravity of the Earth) to be on the Pluto route.

New Hurahiznes used the Lorri tool to capture its images of the Jupiter on September 9, from 2 million kilometres. More careful Jupiter reviews continued in January with the capture of the infrared image of Calisto’s moon and a few blacksopoid images of the Jupiter itself.

One of the main goals of this probe was to examine the weather conditions and analyze the structure of Jupiter clouds. The probe for the first time was able to capture the Jupiter’s small red spots from the distance. He also succeeded in capturing images of the planet’s circular system from different angles. New Hurahizenz moved to the Jupiter’s magnetosphere with valuable information about it.

Juno spacecraft (Juno)

NASA’s Space Explorer Juno was launched on August 1 and entered the Jupiter’s orbit on July 5 to begin careful scientific investigations. The spacecraft has been rotated 2 times around the Jupiter so far and has been over the clouds of clouds for approximately one year.

The purpose of the Juno mission is to measure the composition, the gravity field, the magnetic field and the polar magnetosphere of the planet. It also looks at clues to the formation of the planet, the stone kernel, the amount of water in the atmosphere, the distribution of its crime, and its deep winds, reaching a speed of 3 km / h.

Unlike other exploratory sent to the solar system planets, Juno is reinforced with solar arrays similar to that of the ground satellites, while their isotopic thermoelectric generators are usually used inside the Solar System.

During the Juno mission, infrared tools and microwaves measured heat radiation from the Jupiter’s atmosphere. These are supplements for previous studies of the planet’s composition of abundance and distribution of water and oxygen. Data provide new views on Jupiter origin.

Juno has also found unprecedented findings about Jupiters’ atmospheric winds. According to these findings, the planet’s atmospheric winds last longer than the atmospheric processes on Earth. Juno’s measurements from Jupiter Square Square prove the asymmetry of the north and south of the planet, which is similar to the asymmetry observed in the belts and tapes of the planet. The deeper the winds, the more mass increases.

According to another Juno finding, the climate of the planet is a rigid body. This is a wonderful result, and Juno’s future measurements help to understand this transition from the air to the rigid body. Before Juno’s discovery, there was no information about the atmosphere close to the client poles. According to the information obtained from this probe, the Jupiter poles are more violent than the white and orange belts located in the lower latitudes of the planet.

The north pole of the planet is surrounded by a central tornado, surrounded by eight tornadoes with variable diameters from 1 to 2.5 km. Jupiter Antarctica also has a central tornado with five more tornadoes with variable diameters from 1 to 2 kilometres. The Juno spacecraft is currently reviewing the planet’s orbit, sending amazing images, atmospheric data and other observations about the planet.

James Web Telescope images from Jupiter

The James Webb Space Telescope, which has been working since last year, has had significant observations in recent months. One of these remarkable observations is accurate images of the Jupiter’s planet and its polar Aurora. Both images of the telescope are a combination of several images made with a camera near the NIRCAM camera with different filters.

jupiter jwst image

In the wider image, you can see the narrow rings of the Jupiter as well as the two moons. Almatia’s moon is a bright spot on the left and Adracetia’s moon is on the edge of the rings between Alamalea and the Jupiter. The second image is recorded from a close-up of the Jupiter’s planet. This image uses three filters to record details of the planet’s stormy atmosphere, especially the polar Aurora. You might think about why the colours of these images are not like what we see in other Jupiter images.

Read more: Meerkat telescope a new tool to observe extraterrasial signals

In these images, the James Web Telescope records light in the infrared spectrum, not the visible light spectrum; So the colours of the two images are not the same as the unarmed eye colours. The infrared data were written on the visible light spectrum, so these images are “false colour”, not “real colour”.

jupiter jwst image

Future missions to the Jupiter

Juice (Jupiter Ice Coordinator): Juice is a europaan Space Agency’s mission, which has been selected as part of the Cosmic Vision Scientific Program. The probe is expected to be launched in year 6 and reaches the Jupiter after visits to the interior of the solar system in the 1980s. The probe is dedicated to studying Galileo’s ice moons: ganymede, Calisto and europa. All three moons have subsurface oceans, which increases their potential for life.

europa Clipper: The NASA europaan probe is dedicated to europa’s review of the Jupiter’s ice moon and will examine the living conditions under the ice shell. The probe will be in the Jupiter’s orbit for accurate europa. The europaan probe will be launched in the early 1980s and will reach the Jupiter’s planet after a 6.5 -year trip.

Chinese and Russian missions: China will launch its first Jupiter probe in year 6. The probe will reach the Jupiter planet in year 6. Russia is also looking to send a survey to the Jupiter that will be launched in year 6. It takes 6 months and first visits the moon and Venus. He then examines the Jupiter and its moons.


What are the obstacles on the way for humans to reach Mars?





Sending the first humans to Mars has not only been a dream for countless generations, but also dates back to the early modern era. Also, one of the topics of the space age is the planning of such missions, and it is considered an integral part of the current vision for the future of space exploration, but this long-standing dream has not yet been realized.

What are the obstacles on the way for humans to reach Mars?

In the last 20 years, the public has heard claims that NASA will send the first humans to Mars by the early 2030s. First the moon, then to Mars! This is the plan NASA seemed to be sticking to for a while.

According to IA, in recent years, other players, including the China National Space Agency (CNSA) and Elon Musk’s commercial space giant, SpaceX, have joined the “race for Mars“. According to several sources, China, like NASA, plans to build infrastructure on the moon that will help the country send its first astronauts to Mars as early as 2033.

SpaceX’s plans are even more ambitious, with missions planned for the late 2020s and plans to build a self-sufficient city on Mars before the end of the decade. Unfortunately, many naysayers have said that reaching Mars by 2033 or sooner is unrealistic.

There have also been numerous delays along the way, showing how the entire Moon-to-Mars mission could fall behind its planned timeline.

2040 may be a more likely year for a manned mission to the surface of Mars, according to statements issued last summer by Deputy Administrator Jim Reuter. While delays are common in spaceflight, a seven-year delay seems significant and raises questions.

For example, why does such a mission take so long? And what would it take to send the first humans to Mars?

Answering these questions requires recalling memories.

The journey begins

Efforts to carry out missions to Mars began in 2004 with the announcement of a project called Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) by NASA. This vision came in response to the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, the state of human spaceflight at NASA, and a desire to rekindle public interest in space exploration.


The project’s specific goals included completing the International Space Station (ISS), retiring the Space Shuttle by 2010, and creating a new fleet of heavy launch vehicles that would enable manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

The plan included a series of robotic missions to the Moon to prepare and support future human exploration activities that began in 2008.

The plan also supports the use of lunar exploration, science, and resources to develop the technologies and systems necessary to support sustainable human space exploration to Mars and other destinations.

Meanwhile, NASA will resume sending robotic missions to Mars to search for evidence of life and prepare for the eventual arrival of manned missions. This led to the formation of NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover (MER) program, which consisted of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers and the Curiosity and Perseverance rovers.

Following this, the NASA Authorization Act of 2005 officially launched the Constellation Program.

The program called for a new group of launch vehicles, including a crew launch vehicle (CLV) and a cargo launch vehicle (CaLV), which led to the design of the Ares I and Ares V rockets.

Other vehicles included the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM).

NASA planned to use Eriz 1 and 5 back-to-back to send astronauts to the Moon and Mars. The crew was to be launched using a two-stage Ariz-1 rocket capable of delivering 56,000 pounds (25,400 kg) to low Earth orbit (LEO). The payload was sent separately on Ariz 5, which was capable of sending 88,000 kg into low Earth orbit. This program came to fruition in 2009 when NASA completed the Launch Stop System (LAS) and the first stage of the Ariz 1 rocket. The second one was successfully tested on October 28 of the same year.

Unfortunately, the Constellation program was canceled in 2010 due to the global financial crisis known as the “Great Recession” that began in 2007-2008. Almost a year later, the Obama administration signed off on the Mission to Mars.

Details and goals of the program were published in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 and the US National Space Policy of the same year. NASA’s priorities in this matter are summarized as follows:

Our next step is deep space, where NASA will send a robotic mission to capture and guide an asteroid into lunar orbit. Astronauts aboard the Orion spacecraft will explore the asteroid in the 2020s and return to Earth with samples. This experience in human spaceflight beyond low-Earth orbit will help NASA test new systems and capabilities, such as solar electric propulsion.

Beginning in fiscal year 2018, NASA’s powerful Space Launch System rocket will enable these missions to test new capabilities. Human missions to Mars will rely on Orion, an evolved version of the Space Launch System rocket that will be the most powerful launcher ever to fly.

In many ways, “Journey to Mars” picked up where the Constellation program left off.

While the Ariz 1 rocket and lunar lander were discarded, the Ariz 5 launcher and crewed exploration spacecraft were retained and became the basis for the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Orion spacecraft.

Timelines were also updated, with missions to Mars planned for the early 2030s.

The proposed journey will include three phases and 32 launches of the Space Launch System between 2018 and 2030. These missions send all the necessary components to space between the Earth and the Moon and then to space near Mars before landing the crew on the surface of Mars.

Phase one, called the Earth-based phase, will focus on further long-term studies on the International Space Station until 2024 and testing the Space Launch System and Orion spacecraft. This included Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2018, the first flight of the Space Launch System, and the second unmanned test flight of Orion.

As with the Constellation program, NASA also planned to launch an Asteroid Redirection Mission (ARM) in 2020, in which a robotic spacecraft would rendezvous with a near-Earth asteroid and pull it into lunar orbit.

Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2) will include a manned flyby of the Moon and asteroid ARM between 2021 and 2023. At this point, NASA moves to Phase Two, shifting the focus from Earth to the space between the Earth and the Moon. The multiple launches of the space launch system will bring the important components of the mission to the lunar surface and orbit at this stage.

Since 2012, these elements have included the lunar gateway known as the Deep Space Habitat, an orbiting space station consisting of a Power and Propulsion Element (PPE), a Habitat and Logistics Base (HALO), a refueling supply system, and infrastructure. and has a communication module (ESPRIT), an international habitation module (I-Hab), and a reusable lunar lander.

Other elements include the Artemis Base Camp, which consists of a lunar base surface habitat, a habitable mobile platform, a Lunar Ground Vehicle (LTV), and a Deep Space Vehicle (DST). The spacecraft will integrate with Orion to transport a crew of up to four to Mars and other deep space destinations.

In the early 2030s, phase three (ground-independent) will begin, which will include essential elements delivered to Mars by a deep space vehicle. This second space station will be equipped with a reusable Mars lander that will allow the crew to perform scientific operations on the surface and then return to orbit.

A road map is formed

In 2017, NASA’s long-term vision to return astronauts to the Moon and Mars began. According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s 2017 Transfer Authorization Act, NASA’s priorities for the Moon to Mars program were determined.

These priorities included continued development of the Space Launch System, Orion, the Lunar Gateway, and other critical mission elements. The bill also directed NASA to scrap the asteroid reorientation mission in favor of something more cost-effective. Other priorities included expanding the US commitment to the ISS and restoring domestic launch capability through the Commercial Orbital Transportation Service (COTS) and the Commercial Crew Program (CCP).

According to their timeline, the construction of the Moongate space station will be completed by 2028. The first manned missions to Mars will be launched from the Moon Gate in 2033. The crew will spend up to a year conducting science operationsthen make their return trip to Earth.


The spacecraft and crew will then spend 6 to 9 months en route, returning to the lunar gateway and landing on Earth with the Orion capsule. Subsequent missions are carried out once every 26 months. These missions will lead to the establishment of a long-term habitat on Mars, allowing for return visits. It could also deliver the first Mars sample to Earth, similar to how the Apollo astronauts returned moon rocks for analysis.

Read more: Can humans endure the psychological torment of living on Mars? 

However, by 2019, NASA was forced to reevaluate its priorities and long-term goals as the Trump administration inaugurated a new program.

As you can see, NASA’s long-term vision for the first manned missions to Mars has evolved since its inception 20 years ago, and even in its early stages, there were doubts that the timelines and commitments were realistic. With all these challenges, the most important pressure factors had not yet arrived. You can read these factors in the second part of this report.

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History of the world; From the Big Bang to the creation of the planet Earth




History of the world
The universe started from a singularity and continues to expand until today, 13.8 billion years old. in this article we’re going to examine the history of the world.

History of the world; From the Big Bang to the creation of the planet Earth

Since its launch in 2021, the James Webb Space Telescope has sent us spectacular images of the universe’s deep field. This telescope revealed fine details like a galaxy with an age of 13.1 billion. Such distant objects may not be visually impressive, appearing as fuzzy red blobs in images, but they can provide a fascinating glimpse into the universe’s infancy.

Space and time are intertwined. Light travels at a constant speed, so the images captured by telescopes like James Webb’s are actually images of the universe from millions or even billions of years ago. The higher the sensitivity and accuracy of a telescope, the more distant objects it can observe and thus display more distant times. As the most powerful telescope ever launched, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is extremely sensitive. This telescope can theoretically see objects within 100 million years since the formation of the universe.

Table of Contents
  • The first moments
  • Initial plasma
  • The world becomes transparent
  • Cosmic Dark Age
  • The first habitable age
  • The first lights in the dark
  • Blooming cosmos with stars
  • Star seeds
  • The oldest known star
  • The oldest known planet
  • The formation of galaxies
  • Large-scale structures of the universe
  • Collision of galaxies
  • Massive black holes
  • The formation of the Milky Way disc
  • Overcoming dark energy
  • The birth of the sun
  • The formation of the earth
  • The first forms of life
  • Extraterrestrial life and alien civilizations

There are still many unknowns about the history of the universe, but telescopes like Webb’s can unravel these mysteries and reveal unprecedented detail.

History of the world

The first moments

The first moments of the worldThe universe was born about 13.8 billion years ago from the Big Bang.

The entire universe was created from an ancient and vast explosion that continues to this day. This spark , called the Big Bang, happened nearly 13.8 billion years ago. The Big Bang is the best hypothesis ever proposed for the existence of the universe. Although there is still no way to directly observe the Big Bang, this theory is well established and has been confirmed by many scientists over the past few decades.

In the first moments of the universe, a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, everything was inside a singularity, which is an infinitesimally small point of space with a very strange and high density that encompasses everything. In a few moments after the birth of the universe, the world was in an era known as Planck’s age. In this era, the whole world was so small that space and time had no meaning. Then, in less than a second, the universe entered a phase known as cosmic inflation, and for a moment, it expanded greatly. The infant universe consisted of a hot soup of subatomic particles and radiation, preventing any kind of structure from forming.

Initial plasma

The beginning plasma of the worldThe universe was initially filled with turbid, hot plasma.

The early universe was a highly viscous place filled with turbid plasma for several thousand years. This murky plasma was a mass of subatomic particles that were too hot to contract into atoms. The lack of transparency of the early world makes it impossible to see the events of that time; However, the early chapters of the universe’s history are of interest to many cosmologists because they represent a stage for the existence of everything.

Scientists believe that the early universe was filled with equal amounts of matter and antimatter, which eventually annihilated each other, leaving only a small amount of matter in the present universe. The question of why one of them was more remains a mystery and physicists are still trying to answer this question.

Eventually, the universe cooled and atoms and then strange molecules began to form. The first molecule that was formed in the world was made of only two elements, hydrogen and helium. These molecules finally made a compound called helium hydride. This chemical reaction actually created a helium compound that looks like it shouldn’t exist.

The world becomes transparent

Transparency map of the universeThe world became transparent after 300 thousand years.

On its 300,000 birthday, the world entered an era known as the age of recombination. It was during this period that atoms began to form, although the word “recombination” is a bit of a misnomer because it was during this period that everything was combined together for the first time. As the universe cooled enough, matter began to form atoms, and the universe became transparent for the first time. This transparency allowed the light left over from the Big Bang to spread throughout the universe.

The ancient Big Bang radiation marks the edge of the visible universe and can still be observed. As the universe continues to expand, the light in it is stretched, which astronomers witness in the form of the redshift phenomenon. The older the light of an object, the more it is stretched and moves to the red side of the spectrum like infrared and finally to longer wavelengths.

The initial light of the birth of the world is the most stretched light and the human eye cannot observe it. This light can be seen in all directions today as the cosmic background radiation (CMB). As seen in the image above, some speckled areas show slight fluctuations left over from cosmic inflation. These faint background rays are the last reflections of the birth of the universe.

Cosmic Dark Age

darkness of the universeThe world had no stars in the dark ages.

With the universe filled with atoms, light was finally able to move freely in open space. However, there was nothing in the universe capable of producing light. In fact, this age of the world is known as the age of cosmic darkness. In this period, the stars were not yet born and the space was full of silence and infinite darkness. The universe was in its infancy and there was nothing but dark matter with neutral helium and hydrogen, But it was in this darkness that the materials of the world gradually joined each other.

Finally, with the formation of the first stars, the world entered an era known as the Bazion, and the first stars shone. They emitted intense ultraviolet light in the dark and eventually removed the electrons from the new atoms; But even though the stars were shining for the first time in the universe, their light could not travel very far. Because the entire space was filled with a fog of hydrogen gas and blocked the light of the first stars. After some time, the starlight traveled further distances and reached us today.

The first habitable age

Early habitable ageAccording to calculations, the first habitable age started in 10-17 million years of the world.

According to human earth standards, any place with liquid water can be classified as habitable. As the early Earth cooled, the surprising truth was revealed that the entire universe was once at a habitable temperature. According to an article published in the International Journal of Astrophysics, this period is called the early habitable age. Based on this hypothesis, the question arises as to what exactly happened in a world where life theoretically existed everywhere. According to calculations, this cosmic age corresponds to the time when the universe was still 10 to 17 million years old.

Of course, scientists have differences in this hypothesis. According to an article in Nature that argues against this idea, life requires a hot-to-cold energy flow and cannot exist in a uniformly warm universe. Furthermore, at this early age it is not known whether the universe had stars or planets, or even oxygen to produce water. However, this hypothesis cannot be completely rejected. The first planets were probably formed in the first few billion years of the universe; So the hypothesis of an early habitable age is little more than a fascinating thought experiment.

History of the world

The first lights in the dark

The first lights of the worldThe first stars of the universe were composed of light elements.

The first stars of the universe were formed from the virgin material left over from the Big Bang and were the cause of the formation of the first heavy elements of the universe. These stars, which lacked elements heavier than helium, are known as population 3 stars (confusingly named stellar populations in the wrong order). Since these stars were responsible for the formation of the heavy elements of the universe, they must have existed at some point in history. These objects are expected to have formed between 100 million and 250 million years after the Big Bang.

According to the models, Population 3 stars were very massive and short-lived by today’s stellar standards. The lifetime of some of these stars reached only 2 million years, which is a long time from the human point of view; But on a stellar scale, it’s like a blink of an eye. When these stars ended their lives, they likely perished in unstable binary supernova explosions, the most violent type of stellar explosion in the universe. Although no stars belonging to this group have been observed so far, perhaps this trend will change with powerful instruments such as the James Webb Space Telescope.

Blooming cosmos with stars

The formation of starsSome stars of the Milky Way date back to 11 to 13 billion years ago.

We live in a season of the world known as the age of star formation. This age is the beginning of the stars shining in the dark and is actually the modern age of the world, in which the cosmic matter turns into stars, planets and galaxies. According to scientists, the era of star formation began approximately one million years after the Big Bang and will continue until the universe is 100 trillion years old. Until the very distant future, the birth, life and death of stars in the universe and the fusion of hydrogen into heavier elements will continue until hydrogen disappears completely.

Although stars are actively forming in the universe, there is a wide range from newly born stars to very old stars. Stars can live for billions of years. Red dwarfs, the smallest and most populous stars in the universe, live so long that their deaths have not been recorded until now because the universe is not old enough. Astronomers have also observed very old stars in the universe, some of which date back to the earliest days of the Milky Way, between 11 and 13 billion years ago. Stars like this have been observed for most of the history of the universe.

Star seeds

A star nebulaNebulae are breeding grounds for the formation of new stars

By weight, most of Earth is made up of chemical elements heavier than helium, which are made in the cores of stars. This process is known as nucleation. During the lifetime of a star, nuclear reactions combine light elements and produce heavier elements. In this way, elements such as carbon, oxygen, silicon, sulfur and iron are formed in the hearts of stars. When stars run out of fuel, they throw the elements they made back into the universe.

Stars fill the galaxy with elements by their birth and death over billions of years. Carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are among the most abundant elements made by smaller stars. As these stars die, their outer layers form a stellar nebula. From this example, we can refer to the Southern Ring Nebula, whose image was published by the James Webb telescope.

The life of the biggest stars also ends in a supernova explosion. These explosions not only fill galaxies with heavy elements such as iron, but their shock waves can be the basis for the birth of new stars.

History of the world

The oldest star in the worldThe oldest star in the universe was formed only 100 million years after the Big Bang

The hunt for the oldest stars in the universe is one of the fascinating fields of astronomy that can help scientists understand the early days of the universe. The oldest star ever discovered is HD 140283. The star is so old that the first estimates of its age are older than the universe itself. However, this effect is an illusion caused by the uncertainty in the estimates. Therefore, measuring the age of a star is not an easy task.

According to another research in the Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the age of HD 140283 was estimated to be almost the same as the age of the universe, i.e. 13.7 billion years. In other words, this star was probably born a hundred million years after the Big Bang, and thus it is one of the first generation of stars that were born in the world. This star is metal-poor, or in other words, has a small number of chemical elements heavier than helium, and thus it is placed in the category of population 2 stars. Such stars are among the oldest objects that have ever shone in the universe. Based on the ratio of chemical elements, these stars are survivors of early stars from the early days of the universe.

The oldest known planet

The oldest planet in the worldThe oldest planet in the world is nearly 12.7 billion years old.

No one knows exactly when the first planets formed, but they seem to be able to outlive stars. The oldest known planet orbits two dead stars, one of which is a pulsar and the other a white dwarf. Both stars are stellar wrecks that have run out of fuel and have released much of their chemical material into their galaxy. The mentioned pulsar is called PSR B1620 and the planet located in its orbit is known by the nickname Methuselah. This planet, which is a kind of gas giant, is not unlike the planet Jupiter.

According to estimates, the lifespan of Methuselah reaches 12.7 billion years, but this age is not exact. There is no good way to estimate the age of planets, so this estimate is based on other stars in the Methuselah cluster. Globular clusters, such as the Methuselah host cluster, are full of stars that formed at the same time.

According to the research of Science magazine, the existence of the ancient planet Methuselah offers interesting hints about the time of formation of the oldest planets. If the estimates are correct and Methuselah is really 12.7 billion years old, we can say that the planets were formed earlier than we think. In other words, Methuselah may not be the only ancient planet in our galaxy.

The formation of galaxies

The formation of galaxiesGalaxies usually come together in several clusters

When the universe was only 200 million years old, the first galaxies were formed. The discovery initially surprised astronomers because they thought galaxies formed much later. Early galaxies were not similar to today’s massive galaxies. Rather, they were shapeless clouds of irregular gas and dust. These galaxies, accompanied by a wave of star birth, eventually became the massive galaxies that fill the universe today. It seems that the Milky Way galaxy was formed approximately 13.6 billion years ago. Our galaxy was then an unrecognizable mass of stars, not unlike the present spiral.

The oldest galaxy ever discovered was formed 300 million years after the Big Bang. This galaxy is called HD1 and the James Webb telescope played an important role in determining its age. HD1, if confirmed, would be the oldest galaxy ever seen by astronomers and could offer fascinating insights into the formation of the universe’s first galaxies. The formation of galaxies is still a mysterious research field full of unanswered questions. Helping to solve these questions will be one of the main goals of the James Webb telescope.

Large-scale structures of the universe

The large-scale structure of the universeGalaxies are held together by gravity and form large-scale cosmic structures

Much of the world seems to be an empty void, But the universe has complex structures on very large scales. The universe is covered with an array of dark matter filaments that form a web-like structure. This network of dark matter, called large-scale structure, shapes the universe and causes galaxies to fall into regular patterns. The gravity of the large-scale structure causes both dark and visible matter to lie next to each other. By examining this structure, we can find signs of the youth of the world.

Deep background images, such as the James Webb Telescope image, can reveal how galaxies fit together. These structures are actually the largest visible structures or galaxy strings in the universe, held together by gravity. In addition, the structures are not random but have an order that still fascinates researchers. Galaxies and large galaxy clusters appear to be evenly spaced in the galactic strings, resembling a pearl necklace. There are still many uncertainties about large-scale structures.

Collision of galaxies

Collision of galaxiesSome galaxies collide and form larger galaxies.

Gravity pulls everything in the universe together, and the heavier the mass, the greater this attraction. Galaxies are among the heaviest objects in the universe, whose formation and evolution are still a matter of discussion and their evolution is strongly influenced by their interaction with each other.

Galaxies usually tend to form groups or clusters that come together due to gravity and start interacting when they are close to each other. The gravitational pull of galaxies leads to the creation of lethal forces. In the most dramatic examples, galaxies can collide and their merger may take billions of years.

Galactic collisions can lead to the formation of new stars; Because the change of gravitational forces causes disturbances on huge scales. Some stars are ejected into the dark intergalactic space, while others are trapped by the gravity of supermassive black holes at the center of colliding galaxies. As the galaxies merge, their spiral arms are eventually destroyed, and the two galaxies eventually become one massive elliptical galaxy. In this way, some of the largest galaxies in the universe are formed. Some galaxies also grow by absorbing smaller galaxies. According to some evidence, the Milky Way has experienced such a collision in the past, and its signs can be seen in the form of remnants of galaxies that it has absorbed in the past.

History of the world

Massive black holes

QuasarQuasars are caused by the feeding of the black hole from the surrounding matter.

The largest galaxies, such as the Milky Way, have a supermassive black hole at their center; Although how these black holes formed is still a mystery, it is clear that they are very old. The European Space Agency has released an image of an ancient galaxy known as UDFj-39546284, which appears to be a small red dot in the image. This spot is actually the oldest quasar observed by astronomers and dates back to 380 million years after the Big Bang.

Quasars are among the brightest objects in the world, which are created by the feeding of the supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy from the surrounding material. The big question here is how these black holes have reached these dimensions at a high speed. According to a study published in the journal Nature, supermassive black holes appear to have formed suddenly from turbulent cold gas in the early universe. In the right conditions, black holes were formed with great intensity and suddenly as a result of the collapse of streams of initial materials grew to dimensions exceeding 40,000 times the mass of the Sun.

The formation of the Milky Way disc

milky way discIn the first 3 billion years of its existence, the Milky Way had no spiral arm.

Today, the Milky Way is a spiral galaxy, but it hasn’t always been this way. The spiral galaxy formed in a galactic disk, but the Milky Way disk formed about ten billion years ago. This means that our galaxy spent its first three billion years without a disk and therefore had no spiral arm.

The disk of a spiral galaxy contains a large part of the material of that galaxy. In such galaxies, star birth often occurs in spiral arms, as stars are formed from vast clouds of gas and dust slowly swirling around the galactic core. How and why spiral arms and disks are formed is still not completely clear, although this phenomenon has been observed frequently in the sky.

Some galactic disks appear to be very old. The oldest galactic disk ever seen is the Wolf disk. This old spiral galaxy dates back to when the universe was only 1.5 billion years old. Of course, due to the distance of this galaxy, we have no information about its new appearance.

Overcoming dark energy

Dark energyMysterious dark energy is responsible for accelerating the expansion of the universe.

One of the milestones in world history can be related to dark energy; The mysterious force that controls the expansion of the universe. No one knows exactly what dark energy is, although astronomers can measure its effects. Until a long time ago, the universe was in a tug-of-war between the force of gravity and the repulsive force of dark energy. At some point around 5-6 billion years ago, dark energy won the race. As the universe continued to expand, dark energy overcame gravity and accelerated the expansion of the universe.

The effect of dark energy on the future of the universe is still unclear. Without knowing more about dark energy or how it works, there’s no way to know. Although dark energy appears to make up a large part of the universe, its specifics are still shrouded in mystery. According to a possibility, this energy can be one of the inherent characteristics of space itself.

The birth of the sun

The birth of the sunThe sun was formed about 4.6 billion years ago from a cloud of gas and dust.

The sun is almost a third of the entire universe. This star was formed about 4.6 billion years ago. With the formation of the sun, the clouds of gas and dust around it formed planets such as Earth and many moons of the solar system.

The sun is one of the population’s 1 stars. Such stars are among the newest stars in the universe and are rich in heavy elements, examples of which can be found on Earth. According to a hypothesis, the shock wave resulting from a supernova was the cause of the formation of the solar system from vast dust clouds. The traces of this supernova exist in the form of radioactive isotopes in the entire solar system; So a star died so we could live.

The formation of the earth

The formation of the earthEarth was formed from the joining of asteroids.

According to scientists, the story of the formation of the earth goes back to 4.6 billion years ago. Our planet formed in a disk-like cloud of gas and dust around the primordial Sun. Inside this disk, gas and dust particles of different sizes were rotating at different speeds in the orbit of the sun and in this way, they collided and stuck to each other. Finally, the tiny particles turned into huge rock fragments and objects called asteroids, whose diameters ranged from one to hundreds of kilometers.

Asteroids eventually gained enough gravity to clear their orbits and attract other bodies through collisions, becoming larger bodies several thousand kilometers in diameter and forming planets.

Single cell lifeThe first life on earth dates back to 3.7 billion years ago.

Life on Earth is the only life we ​​know of in the entire universe. Life first appeared about 3.7 billion years ago, shortly after the formation of the Earth itself. Thus known life is roughly a quarter of the age of the universe, although the complex life that would eventually become humans is much more recent.

Carbon is an essential element for life and appears to have been unavailable until 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang. For this reason, it is still not possible to estimate with certainty the first form of life in the entire universe. Maybe other parts of the world have different chemistry or different elements than life on Earth.

Extraterrestrial life and alien civilizations

planet EarthLife in other parts of the world may be chemically different from life on Earth.

To quote the late astronomer Carl Sagan, “We are a way of knowing the world.” Humans are part of the world like the most distant stars or galaxies. In other words, at least a part of the world is capable of thinking and observing other parts. The oldest early humans appeared on earth approximately 2.4 million years ago; This means that humans and our direct ancestors only existed in 0.02% of the entire history of the world. On a cosmic scale, it seems like we were born just yesterday. However, humans may not be the only civilization in the world.

The question about the existence of other civilizations in the galaxy has a long history. Half of all Sun-like stars could host habitable universes; Therefore, there is no shortage for the formation of civilizations. According to a relatively conservative study, there should be at least 36 space civilizations capable of communicating in the Milky Way. According to another research, there are more than 42 thousand civilizations in the Milky Way. Currently, there is no way to find out the existence of these civilizations. With more accurate telescopes, we may be able to find evidence that we are not alone in this infinite universe.

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A mystery that is solved by the China’s Chang’e-6 probe!




Chinese explorer

China’s Chang’e-6 probe, launched to retrieve samples from the far side of the moon, has a big mystery to solve about Earth’s moon.

A mystery that is solved by the China’s Chang’e-6 probe!

China’s Chang’e-6 mission, which is currently on its way to bring back samples from the far side of the moon, will help investigate theories about why the far and near sides of the moon differ.

According to Space, Changi 6 is expected to land in early June in the Apollo impact basin, which is located within the larger South Pole–Aitken basin.

The Aitken Antarctic Basin is the largest collisional feature of its kind in the solar system, with an area of 2,400 x 2,050 km. This basin was formed about 4.3 billion years ago, which is very early in the history of the solar system.

Although the Apollo Basin is younger, it is the largest impact site within the Aitken Antarctic Basin. Apollo has a two-ring structure, the inner ring consists of mountain peaks with a diameter of 247 km, and the outer ring is about 492 km wide.

The Chang’e-6 mission was launched on May 3 from the Wenchang Satellite Launch Center in Hainan Province, located in southern China, and went to the moon on a Long March 5 rocket.

As the first mission to bring samples from the far side of the moon, Changi 6 is supposed to bring back about two kilograms of precious lunar material. The far side of the moon is a relatively unknown place. The fact that we can’t see the far side of the moon from Earth adds to its mystery. For the first time, the Soviet Union’s “Luna 3” spacecraft photographed the far side of the moon in 1959.

With that photo, scientists around the world were amazed to see how different the far side of the moon is from the side we are familiar with. Although both the far and near sides have many craters, the near side also contains vast volcanic plains called “lunar maria” that cover about 31% of it.

The far side of the moon is opposite and volcanic plains cover only about 1% of it.

So how did the far side and the near side become so different? It seems that the thickness of the shell is one of the factors. In fact, NASA’s GRAIL mission found in 2011 that the far-side crust is on average 20 kilometers thicker than the near-side crust.

The reason for this is thought to be that our moon was formed from debris from the impact of a Mars-sized planet on Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. As the Moon formed from that debris, it became tidally locked. This means that it always shows the face of our planet.

The surface of the earth was completely melted by that big impact and it radiated heat towards the near side of the moon and kept itself molten for a longer time. Scientists believe that the rock vaporizes on the near side and condenses on the colder side, thickening the crust on the far side.

Hong Kong University (HKU) researcher Yuqi Qian is one of the lead researchers on a new project that shows that a sample to be returned to Earth by Chang’e 6 could test this theory. Keyan said: Basic findings show that the difference in crustal thickness between the near and far sides may be the main cause of the difference in the moon’s volcanism.

In places like most distant parts where the Moon’s crust is thick, magma can’t seep through fractures to the surface. In areas such as the near side where the crust is thin, fractures can allow magma to seep in and lead to lava eruptions.

The Aitken and Apollo Antarctic Basins, despite both being on the far side of the Moon, create contradictions. That’s because they’ve gouged deeply into the Moon’s crust, and at the base of these giant impact sites, the crust is thinner than elsewhere on the far side. Volcanic plains also exist within these basins, but only five percent of their area is covered by basalt lava. This limited amount of volcanism seems to contradict the conventional idea that crustal thickness dictates volcanic activity. This creates a paradox in lunar science that has been known for a long time.

An alternative possibility suggests that the near side could contain more radioactive elements than the far side. These elements may have generated heat and led to the melting of the lower mantle. As a result, much more magma has formed and a thinner crust has formed on the near side. Hence, the volcano is more in this area.

However, by landing on one of the few volcanic plains on the far side, Chang’e 6 could provide samples to directly test such theories. In particular, the Apollo Basin area where Chang’e 6 will land contains a variety of materials that require investigation.

Some evidence shows that there were two major volcanic eruptions in this area. Scientists believe that one of them covered the entire region in magma containing a small amount of titanium around 3.35 billion years ago. The other, which probably occurred 3.07 billion years ago, probably contained titanium-rich magma and erupted near the Chaffee S crater. Thus, the thickness is reduced.

Read more: Discovering new evidence of the impact that formed the Earth’s moon

New research shows that bringing samples from near the Chafi S crater will bring the most scientific benefits. This area has titanium-rich basalt in the upper part, titanium-free basalt in the lower part, and various pieces of projectile material from the impact.

“Joseph Michalski” (Joseph Michalski), a researcher at the University of Hong Kong and one of the researchers of this project said: “Diverse sample sources provide important information to answer a set of scientific questions about the Moon and the Apollo Basin.”

These diverse samples can also provide scientists with information about magmatic processes occurring on the far side of the moon. By comparing them with nearby samples brought back to Earth by the Apollo missions, scientists may be able to answer the question of why the number of volcanoes on the far side of the Moon is so limited.

This research was published in the journal “Earth and Planetary Science Letters”.

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