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Jupiter planet , its features, moons and wonders



jupiter planet

The Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system, which is highly regarded because of its attractive features such as the Great Red Spot and the mysterious icy moons like Europa and Ganymede.

The Jupiter’s planet, known as Burjis, Hormuz or Jupiter, is the fifth and largest planet in the solar system. The Jupiter has a major role in the transformation of the solar system history, and the earth owes to the Jupiter to some extent.

The planet, along with Saturn, are gas giant. The Jupiter is a combination of hydrogen and helium and because of its high speed of rotation, its shape is not completely spherical. The Jupiter’s external atmosphere is divided into several strips of different latitudes, creating storms, storms, and vortex currents. One of the points of sharing these strips is the famous red spots; A huge storm that was first observed in the seventeenth century with a telescope.

The Jupiter’s planet has a pale ring and a strong magnetosphere. The planet, also called the King of the planets, has four approved moons. The Jupiter ranks second in the solar system in terms of the number of moons and after Saturn (with 2 lunars). The most famous moons on the planet is a four-storey collection known as the Galileo moons that were discovered in the year 6 by Italian scientist Galileo Galileo. ganymede is the largest Jupiter’s moon and the largest moon in the solar system.

Jupiter planet

Robotic spacecraft have done a lot of research on the Jupiter. The most famous Jupiter missions include Woeeiger and Pioneer and then Galileo’s circuit. In late February, the New Huraznesian probe visited the Jupiter and used the planet’s attraction to speed up and be on the Pluto route. The last mission to the Jupiter was carried out by the Juno probe, which was to orbit the planet on July 1.

The titles you will read in this article:

  •      What is the Symbol of the Planet?
  •      How was Jupiter Planet formed?
  •      How many times is Jupiter Earth?
  •      Physical properties and internal composition of the Jupiter’s planet
  •      How many moons does the planet have?
  •      Jupiter loops
  •      Wonders of Jupiter Planet
  •      Seeing the Jupiter Planet from Earth
  •      Jupiter probes
  •      Future missions to the Jupiter

Ten Interesting Facts About Jupiter Planet

  1. The Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system, named after the God of heaven and thunder. The planet is mainly made up of gas (hydrogen and helium) and its inner core is almost the same as Earth.
  2. The Jupiter’s planet has at least 2 lunars, with four large reds: Io, europa, Ganimid and Calisto (these moons are also known as Galileo’s moons). Although the planet of Jupiter cannot host life, some of its moons have the potential for life because of the oceans below the level of life.
  3. The rotation of the Jupiter around it is faster than any other planet, and this leads to veins: Dark areas (belts) indicate the rise of clouds and gases; Bright areas (areas) represent a belt session.
  4. The speed of the Jupiter’s rotation in the equator is fast and in the poles is slow; Thus, the gas layers in the impulse collision areas cause white spots, spiral storms and vortexes. One of the most famous Jupiter storms is the large red spot three times the size of the earth. This is not a constant storm.
  5. The Jupiter’s planet has four rings. The Vaviger probe discovered these rings in year 2. These rings are very pale and, unlike the transparent rings of Saturn, made up of ice and rock, were made of dust particles.

During his mission, the Juno probe has come to the attractive facts about the planet’s Jupiter:

  1. The Jupiter’s atmosphere is amazing. According to Juno’s findings, this gas giant is much more turbulent than imagination. The cloud and wind climate is not only seen in the upper layer of the planet. Rather, but these winds also exist in the depths of the Jupiter for thousands of kilometres. Also, surprisingly, Jupiter strips disappear near its poles.
  2. According to hypotheses, the famous Jupiter’s gas clouds (a combination of water and ammonia) are equally combined. However, there is less ammonia at the surface and most of the ammonia is focused on the nucleus.
  3. At the north and south poles of the Jupiter, there are circular chains of massive tornadoes. These rotating storms are extremely dense on the continents of the earth. Their length is 2 kilometres and their width is hundreds of kilometres.
  4. The Jupiter’s solid core at its centre is not completely intensive. Rather, a swollen butter is half the Jupiter’s diameter. No one knows what the reason is, but according to hypotheses, a heavy crime has been treated by the Jupiter, which has made the core with other surrounding gases.
  5. The Jupiter has the strongest magnetic field in the solar system, but Juno shows that the field is even stronger and closer to the planet’s surface. Also, the north and south poles of the Jupiter are not similar.

What is the Symbol of the Planet?

Jupiter or Jupiter has been known since ancient times. The planet is also known in various cultures by numerous names such as Jupiter (Roman culture), Burjis, Urmd and Zavash. The Jupiter is visible in the night sky with an unarmed eye and sometimes during the day (when the sun is low). The Romans named the planet, inspired by one of the Roman myth gods, Jupiter (also known as the God of love).

The Babylonians knew the Jupiter in the name of their God, Mardok. They used the Jupiter’s 5 -year period alongside the circle to define zodiac constellations. The Romans considered the Jupiter the star. On the other hand, in Greece, the Jupiter was known as Zeus (the counterpart of the Roman God Jupiter). The ancient Greeks knew this planet as a shiny or ignorant star. The origin of the Jupiter’s astronomical symbol (image below) is unclear; But many consider it to be a thunderstorm, and according to new reports, it means eagle based on the Egyptian hieroglyphic line.

How was Jupiter Planet formed?

Jupiter is the oldest planet in the solar system. The planet, which is 1.5 times heavier than the rest of the solar system planets, has played an important role in the formation and evolution of its neighbours. Approximately 1.5 billion years ago, the solar system of gas and dust or solar nebulae was. Gravity collapsed this substance and began to rotate; The sun was created at its centre. With the formation of the sun, the rest of the materials were dense. The small particles with the gravitational force were close to each other and turned into larger particles.

Solar winds removed lighter elements, such as hydrogen and helium, and made stone and heavy materials near the sun making smaller stone worlds like Earth. Since the solar winds had less effect on lighter elements, they joined each other for the formation of gas giants.

According to the core accretion model, the planet’s stone cores initially formed, then formed lighter elements, mantles and shells of planets. In the stone worlds, the lighter elements of the atmosphere formed. The study of external planets (outside the solar system) confirms the theory of nucleus accumulation as the prevailing process. Stars that have more metal in their core (a term used by astronomers for elements other than hydrogen and helium) have larger planets in their system than stars made of metal only.

Disk instability model

The process of core accumulation for gas giants like the Jupiter requires a lot of time. The cloud of matter around the sun only lasts a short time; Either it turns into the planet or completely disappears. Giant planets were formed very quickly and only a few million years. As a result, based on a specific time range, the gas ring around the sun has only lasted 2 to 5 million years.

According to a relatively new theory called disk instability, gas masses and dust were joined early in the Solar System. Over time, these masses became larger planets. The speed of formation of these planets is, based on this theory, faster than the theory of nucleus accumulation, and sometimes even reaches several thousand years. Continuous Jupiter clashes (just like other planets) raised the temperature of the planet. Dense materials to the centre formed the nucleus. Some scientists believe that the core of the planet can be a hot sphere of liquids; However, according to other research, the Jupiter’s core is a solid stone 2 to 5 times the size of the Earth.

Team accumulation

The biggest challenge of nuclear accumulation theory is its time. According to another study, small bodies of pebbles for forming large planets at a speed of 5x faster than previous models joined each other. In year 2, two researchers, Michel Lampbracrt and Anders Johannes, from the University of Land Sweden, presented the theory of small particles. According to them, the remaining pebbles of the formation processes (previously considered trivial) can have the key to the problem of forming planets.

Jupiter relocation

In year 4, scientists unveiled the Grand Tack. According to this theory, the Jupiter had a two-step immigration after forming a two-step migration. Jupiter has formed exactly about 1.5 astronomical units of the sun and is located in the current position of 1.5 astronomical units after a two-step transfer.

During these transfers, the Jupiter is thought to have destroyed many objects, including some planets of the solar system. Without a Jupiter probably there was no earth; This planet has made the way to Earth easier to destroy smaller worlds.

How many times is Jupiter bigger than Earth?

If we combine the mass of the entire planets of the solar system, the Jupiter’s mass will be more than twice. This gas giant can accommodate four planets on Earth. As a result, if you assume Jupiter is the size of a basketball ball, the Earth will be the same as a grape seed. The planet is also 5 times heavier than Earth. In the Jupiter’s diameter, there are four planets Earth.

Physical properties and internal composition of the Jupiter’s planet

jupiter moons

Much of the Jupiter is made up of fluid and gas materials. The diameter of the giant reaches 1.2 kilometres. Its average density is 5 grams per cubic centimetre and is ranked second among gas giants. Much of the Jupiter is made up of gas and liquid materials and denser materials are in the lower layer. 2 to 5 percent of the upper atmosphere of the planet is hydrogen and 2 to 5 percent the helium. Overall, 5 % of the planet’s mass is hydrogen, 2 % of it is helium and the remaining one percent are other elements.

Jupiter’s atmosphere includes methane, water, steam, ammonia and silicone compounds. Carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine and sulfur are also traced. The outermost layer of barley consists of frozen ammonia crystals. Material density is higher in the inner layers.

Using ultraviolet and infrared measurements, benzene and hydrocarbons have also been discovered on the planet. Based on spectroscopy results, the Jupiter’s composition is almost similar to Saturn’s composition; But the other two gas giants, Uranus and Neptune, have less hydrogen and helium than the Jupiter, and are therefore called ice giants.

Jupiter’s planet can accommodate 1300 Earth


According to gravity measurements at 2, the planet’s nucleus mass was estimated at 2 to 5 times more than Earth’s mass. The Jupiter’s core accounts for 2 to 5 percent of its overall mass. Jupiter radius is approximately one-tenth of the sun’s radius and one thousand mass; So the density of both is the same. Jupiter mass is usually used as a unit to describe the mass of other objects, especially external planets or brown dwarfs.

If the Jupiter was heavier, he would have been a hydrogen fusion and would become a star; However, the radius of the smallest red dwarf is only 5 % more Jupiter. However, the Jupiter spreads more heat than the heat received from the sun.

The amount of heat generated by the Jupiter is equal to the total solar radiation received by the planet. This process makes the Jupiter smaller every year. While it was much hotter at the beginning of the formation, its diameter was twice that of its current diameter. According to existing hypotheses, the core of the rocky Jupiter is; But its exact composition is still unknown. The nucleus may be surrounded by concentrated metal hydrogen, which makes up a 2 % radius of the planet. Raindrops, such as helium and neon, precipitate at the bottom of this layer, and the abundance of these elements in the upper atmosphere is minimized.


Like the sun’s atmosphere, much of the Jupiter’s atmosphere is made up of hydrogen and helium. Dark and light-coloured strips on Jupiter’s atmosphere are created by strong east-west winds that move more than 5 km / h. Clouds in bright areas are a combination of frozen ammonia crystals; While clouds in darker areas are formed more than other chemicals. At the deepest surface of the planet are blue clouds. Jupiter cloud tapes change over time and fall into the client’s atmosphere of diamonds.

It can hardly be said to be exactly what the Jupiter’s atmosphere is formed, as 2 % of the planet is hydrogen and 2 percent is helium. On the ground all of these gases are considered; But the strong Jupiter attraction makes the atmosphere of the planet become a multi-layer, each of which has attractive and unique features. Unlike the Earth, there is no clear boundary between the client’s atmosphere and the planet itself. With more penetration to the client’s depths, the density and temperature of hydrogen and helium change, and scientists describe the different layers of the Jupiter’s atmosphere based on these changes. Jupiter’s atmospheric layers include the troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere and exhaustion.

Since the Jupiter lacks an integrated surface, scientists estimate the lower part of the atmosphere to be 5 kg; The planet’s atmosphere is exactly above this point. The client’s atmosphere, like the ground, decreases with height until it reaches its minimum value. The minimum amount of atmosphere can be found at the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere, the tropopause (approximately 2 kilometres above the Jupiter’s surface).

The stratosphere stretches to a height of 2 kilometres and reduces the pressure in the direction, with a decrease in temperature pressure. At this point, the boundary between the stratosphere and the thermosphere is defined. The thermosphere temperature at a height of 2 kilometres reaches 2 degrees Celsius. All the clouds and storms visible are placed at the bottom of the Jupiter’s troposphere and consist of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and water.

Jupiter’s large red spots


The most prominent feature of the Jupiter is its large red spot. This stain is a steady tornado storm larger than the Earth, located at an angle of the equator, based on one hypothesis of 1 and based on another hypothesis of 2. This stain is large enough to be easily visible with an amateur telescope with a 5cm aperture. To rotate this storm, unlike clockwise and its 4 -day circulation interval. The maximum height of this storm is 2 kilometres above the cloud.

According to mathematical models, this storm is stable and may be one of the sustainable features of the planet. However, the size of this stain has always declined. At the end of the century, the width of the stain was estimated at 2.5 kilometres, four times the diameter of the Earth. After the Voyager spacecraft arrived on the planet in year 2, the storm had doubled to the planet’s width.

Studies of the Jupiter’s red stain show that the size of the stain is still decreasing. On April 1, the width of the stain was estimated at 1.5 kilometres, which is 1.5 times the diameter of the Earth. The longest storm on the earth lasts 2 days, But the Jupiter has more sustainable storms because of the thousands of kilometres of the atmosphere at a much higher speed than the Earth’s rotation.

Jupiter Magnetic Square

The Jupiter’s magnetic field is fourteen times stronger than the Earth’s magnetic field. The field is thought to be created by vortex currents in the planet’s hydrogen core. Some features of the Jupiter’s magnetic field are unique and there are no such as the Earth’s magnetic field.

The Jupiter’s Jupiter’s lunar volcanoes release large quantities of sulfur dioxide, resulting in a gas halo around the orbit. This gas is ionized in the Jupiter’s magnetosphere and released sulfur and oxygen ions.

These ions, along with the Jupiter Hydrogen ion, form a plasma plate in the tropical body of the planet, the plasma on this planet rotates along with this planet, resulting in bipolar magnetic disk deformation to a magnetic disk. The electrons on the plasma plate create a powerful radio effect that produces explosions in the range of 1.2 to 5 MHz.

The Jupiter’s magnetosphere is the cause of the intense spread of radio material from the polar parts of the planet. Ivy’s volcanic activity of the planet leads to the spread of gas in the Jupiter’s magnetosphere and creates a halo of particles around it. As Io moves in this aura, the waves of alpha are created. Alfon wave is a type of hydrodynamic magnetic wave in which the ions fluctuate in response to an effective voltage on the magnetic field lines. These waves carry ionic materials in the polar areas of the Jupiter.

Rotation and Jupiter circuit

The average distance between the Jupiter and the sun is 2 million kilometres (approximately 1.5 times more than the distance between the Earth and the sun), and every 2.5 years rotate around the sun. The elliptical circuit of the Jupiter has a 1.5 -degree deviation compared to the ground. Exit from the centre of the planet’s orbit is 1.5 %, so its distance from the sun between the nearest call (peak) varies by 5 million kilometres.

Read more: How could Big Bang arise from nothing

The pivotal oscillation of this planet is relatively low: 1.5 degrees. As a result, there are not many seasonal changes compared to Earth and Mars. The Jupiter rotates around the planets of the solar system at the highest speed and completes the rotation around its axis in less than ten hours due to the high speed of a tropical protrusion, which is easily visible through an amateur telescope based on the Earth. . The Jupiter’s equator is 5 kilometres more than the diameter of its poles. Because the Jupiter is not a rigid body, its upper atmosphere has a different rotation. The rotation of the Jupiter’s polar atmosphere is approximately 5 minutes longer than its tropical atmosphere.

How many moons does Jupiter planet have?

The Jupiter has 2 approved moons. The Jupiter ranks second in the solar system in terms of the number of moons (with 2 lunars); But according to the latest research, Canadian astronomers found evidence of the existence of four small moons in the Jupiter’s orbit, and according to speculation, the number of moons on the planet could reach 5; But they have not yet reached the approval and observation stage.

Overall, of the 5 -approved Jupiter moon, the four largest Galileo moon is more popular. The moons were discovered independently by Galileo Galileo and Simon Marinus in the year 9. Early in the early days, more of the Jupiter’s moons were discovered and the names of the lovers or girls of Jupiter, the Roman God or Zeus (its Greek counterpart). Galileo moons are the largest and heaviest objects in the Jupiter’s circuit.

Eight Jupiters are from regular moons with almost circular circuits. Galileo’s moons are almost spherical due to a planetary mass. If these moons were in the orbit of the sun, they would be in the category of dwarf planets. The other four are smaller and are less than the Jupiter’s planet; These moons are resources for the formation of Jupiter circles. Other Jupiter moons are irregular and their circuit is far from the Jupiter. These moons are likely to be trapped in the attraction of the solar circuits. Twenty-two irregular Jupiters have not yet been officially named.

Regular Jupiter moons are thought to be formed from the planet’s rotary disk; A ring of gas and stone-like that is similar to the initial planetary disc. On the other hand, irregular moons are composed of asteroids that are trapped in the attraction of the Jupiter. According to many scientists, these asteroids are crushed and then formed by other small bodies, forming irregular Jupiter moons.

Lunar Group

In general, Jupiter moons are divided into two categories regular and irregular. The irregular moons themselves are divided into two groups internal moons (Amalia) and Galileo moons.

  • Internal Lunches (Amalia): Matthews, Adrastia, Amalia and Group are the Jupiter’s internal moons; Because they are close to the planet. Two of the most internal moons in less than a day complete the orbit of the planet. The other two are the fifth and seventh largest moons in the Lunar System, respectively. According to the observations, the minimum member of this group, Amalia, was not formed on the current circuit but was previously farther away from the Jupiter.
  • Galileo’s main group of moons: Io, europa, ganymede and Calisto are the largest moons of the solar system in terms of mass and size. The diameter of the moon is even more mass than Mercury, but its mass is less mass. These moons are the fourth (Io), the sixth (europa), the first (ganymede) and the third (Calisto) of the natural moons of the solar system accounting for approximately 1.5 % of the total mass orbit of the Jupiter. The Jupiter’s planet is 5 times heavier than its moons.

Jupiter’s irregular moons

Jupiter’s irregular moons are small objects with different circuits and farther away from the Jupiter. These moons have similarities such as deviation, exit from the centre, semi-primary axis and chemical composition. According to scientists, these are a group of colliding moons created by the clash of larger parent objects with the asteroids affected by the gravitational field.


Galileo is one of the most well-known Jupiter moons that have been studied during various excavations and more information is available. Here are some features and excavations related to these moons.


Io moon jupiter

Io is the fifth largest Jupiter moon and has the most volcanic activity in the solar system. It has sulfur ducts that are published up to 2 kilometres. The surface of the iO is full of lava seas and flood plains with liquid rocks. Astronomers discovered a map of four volcanoes on the moon, some of which publishes up to 2 kilometres in the lava space. Io is a Jupiter host of 1.5 billion years old. The average orbital distance of the Io to the Jupiter is 4,000 kilometres. It takes 4.3 days to complete the Jupiter orbit. Io has a tidal lock and always one side to the Jupiter. The diameter of the Io is approximately 2 kilometres, which is slightly higher than the moon.

Io is the only moon in the solar system with active volcanoes

IO has a relatively oval shape. Among Galileo’s moons, Io is ranked higher in terms of mass and volume than Ganymed and Calisto and higher than in europa. The mean temperature of the IO -negative level is 2 degrees Celsius. For this reason, sulfur dioxide snow bodies are abundant on their surface. It is also called ice and fire.

Io was discovered by Galileo Galileo on January 1, 2008. He discovered the moon a day before, But he failed to recognize Io and europa. Galileo’s discovery was the first lunar discovery at the time. Galileo’s discoveries proved that the planets rotate around the sun, not the earth. Galileo initially named the moon Jupiter; But in the mid-nineteenth century, its name changed to Io. In Greek mythology, Io Keen Hera (wife of Zeus) and the daughter of Inchchus, King Argus. Zeus (Greek counterpart of the Roman god Jupiter) fell in love with Io, But he turned him into a cow to safeguard his wife Hera.

Io Features: The interior of the Io includes a sulfide iron kernel and an outer layer of silicate brown. This combination gives the moon a tattoo with orange, black, yellow, red and white. According to data obtained from computer models, Io was formed in an area around the Jupiter whose abundance of ice was initially high. The heat of the IO with the water on its surface within a short distance after the formation can be a sign of ancient life; Even in an environment where Jupiter radiation destroys surface water.

The most prominent features of this moon are its volcanoes. Io after the earth is the only mass of the solar system with an active volcano. Galileo left notes of volcanic activity, and the NASA Voyager spacecraft confirmed the IO volcanoes in the year. Due to volcanic activity, much of the Io is sulfur dioxide. According to the observations of the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii and the TEXES spectrometer in year 2, the olive atmosphere is likely to collapse. Io’s sulfur dioxide gas coating is frozen every day in shade mode. When Io returns to sunlight, frozen sulfur dioxide becomes gas once again.



Callisto is one of the big moons in the Jupiter’s circuit. This moon has an ancient surface full of collisions that indicate that there are no geological processes; But the moon has an underground ocean, and because of its old surface, the existence of life in this ocean is still certain.

Like the other four moons, Callisto was discovered in the year 9. The name of this moon was initially Jupiter IV, But in the nineteenth century, it was called Callisto . Callisto was investigated by numerous probes, including the long-term mission of the Galileo spacecraft in the 1980s and decades. The Juno spacecraft has also recorded remote images of Callisto . Callisto is a Jupiter with its host -packed 5.5 billion years. This moon is the heaviest mass of the collision cavity in the entire solar system, But its level has remained intact for about 5 billion years ago.

Among Galileo’s moons, Callisto is the foremost moon. The moon is about one million eight hundred and eighty thousand kilometres from the Jupiter. It takes almost seven days to complete the Jupiter’s Callisto . Callisto has fewer tidal effects than other Galileo moons; Because across the belt is the main radiation of the Jupiter. Callisto has a tidal lock to the Jupiter and is always on one side of the Jupiter.

Callisto , with a diameter of 2 kilometres, is almost the same as the planet Mercury. This moon is the third largest moon in the solar system after Ganim and Titan (Saturn’s moon). The month is fifth after Io. The temperature of the Callisto level reaches -1.5 degrees Celsius. The Galileo spacecraft sent detailed information about Calisto in Year 2. In this mission, much of the moon was mapped, and its thin carbon dioxide atmosphere and evidence of the underground ocean were discovered. According to the images obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope in Year 2, Callisto’s effect on the clerical climate explosions was revealed. Their Jupiter has the aurora, But some of the Jupiter’s aurora phenomena stem from its interaction with its four large moons.

Future missions, including Juice, dedicated to the study of Jupiters’ ice moons, will reveal more facts about Calisto and the possibility of life. Articles have also been published on the modelling of the Jupiter’s and Callisto magnetic field interaction (this review provides evidence of the Callisto subsurface ocean) and the finding of atomic oxygen in the atmosphere. Other articles focus on dimensions such as the water below the surface, the number of collision openings and atmospheric characteristics.



Ganymede is the largest Jupiter’s moon and the largest moon in the solar system. This moon is even larger than Mercury and Pluto, and slightly smaller than Mars; As a result, if it were in the orbit of the sun, it would easily have been in the category of planets. ganymede is likely to have a saltwater ocean beneath its icy surface; As a result, it becomes one of the strong candidates for life discoveries. ganymede is one of the goals of the Juice mission that will be launched in the 1980s.

Callisto, Ganymede and europa have a saline underground ocean

Ganymede, like Callisto and Io, is a Jupiter’s age at the age of 1.5 billion years. The moon is more than one million and seventy thousand kilometres from the Jupiter and completes the planet’s orbit within seven days. The average radius of ganymede is 1.5 km. ganymede is larger than Mercury but its mass is half the mass of Mercury and therefore has little density. The average temperature of the day at the Ganymede level reaches a negative of 2 to 2 degrees Celsius. Astronomers with the Hubble Telescope, in the year 6, obtained evidence from the Oxygen Ganymede Joe. However, this atmosphere is too thin to support the vital we know, and it is unlikely that living things will be able to settle on ganymede.

Ganymede only has a magnetosphere in the entire solar system. The magnet, commonly found on planets such as Jupiter and Earth, is a sequel in which pregnant particles are trapped and deviated. ganymede magnetism is embedded in the Jupiter’s magnetism. Galileo changed its name to Jupiter III after discovering ganymede. With the increase in the number of objects discovered in the mid -19th century, the name of the moon was renamed Genmod according to Greek myths.

Ganymede Features: Ganymede has an iron core, a stone mantle and a high thick shell, most of which are ice. There are also traces of stone formation on the ganymede surface. On February 4, NASA unveiled a precise map of ganymede in the form of video images and animation created using NASA’s Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft as well as the Galileo Circuit.

The Ganymede surface consists of two types of main surfaces: approximately 2 % of the dark ganmod surface with multiple collision openings and 2 % is light-coloured with grooves that give Ganymede a special look. The grooves are caused by tectonic activities or the spread of water below the surface.

According to scientists, Ganymede has an underground saline ocean. Scientists, using the Hubble Space Telescope, examined the Aurora and the changes between the Jupiter’s magnetic fields and ganymede. According to the evidence of these aurorae, Ganymede probably has a saline underground ocean that is even saltier than the oceans of the earth.

Some scientists have pointed to the possibility of life in ganymede. Due to the internal structure of ganymede, the pressure of the ocean floor is so high that any water that reaches it becomes ice. For this reason, hot water flows can hardly bring nutrients to the oceans.


Europa is Galileo’s smallest moon. The surface of this frozen moon and covered with a layer of ice; But to scientists, there is an ocean beneath this ice surface. The ice surface has made europa one of the most reflective moons of the solar system.

Researchers, using the Hubble Space Telescope, identified signs of waterfalls from the South europaan region in year 6. After numerous efforts, the research team saw the waterfalls in years 1 and 2. europaan moon was formed about 1.5 billion years ago with its host planet, the Jupiter. On average, europa’s distance from the Jupiter is 1,800 kilometres. It takes three and a half days for europa to complete the Jupiter orbit. europa has a tidal lock to the Jupiter; So there is always one side to the Jupiter.

Europa is 5 kilometres in diameter than the moon and larger than Pluto. The europaan surface temperature at the equator is never above 2 degrees Celsius and at the poles of this moon is no more than 2 degrees Celsius. Galileo discovered europa on January 2. Of course, it had observed it a day ago on January 6; But he could not distinguish this moon from Iowa. In Greek myths, Greece is stolen by Zeus (Jupiter’s counterpart, the Roman God) and becomes a white cow to seduce europa. He brings the cow with flowers and sends it to the city of Crete. Zeus returns to their normal way in Crete and seduces europa. europa was a queen of Crete and gave birth to several children for Zeus.

One of the prominent features of europa is the high reflection capability due to the icy shell. According to scientists, europa’s level is 2 to 5 million years old. Galileo’s spacecraft images and data show that europa has a combination of silicate stone, iron core and stone mantle just like Earth. Unlike the interior of the Earth, the europaan stone space is surrounded by a layer of water or ice that reaches 1 to 2 kilometres. According to europaan magnetic field fluctuations, there is probably an ocean below the surface of the moon that can host life. The possibility of europaan extraterrestrial life has made it an attractive destination for space exploration.

The europaan level is full of fractures and gaps. According to many scientists, these gaps are the result of the tidal forces of the ocean below the europaan level. When europa approaches the Jupiter, the sea level under the ice reaches above normal. In these conditions, the continuous tidal of the sea causes gaps in the surface of the moon. In year 2, scientists realized that europa could host tectonic pages. In the solar system, only the earth has a variable shell that is useful for the evolution of life on earth.

Life in europa: The presence of water under the frozen shell has made europa the moon one of the potential candidates for hosting life in the solar system. The Deep Ice of the moon probably has channels to the mantle like the ground. These channels provide the warm environment needed to evolve life. According to a study in Year 2, europa’s oxygen was estimated at ten times its hydrogen, which is similar to Earth’s. Thus, the ocean below the europaan level becomes a better environment for life.


Jupiter loops

Jupiter’s rings are made of dust and stone and are divided into three sections of aura, the main ring and the thin ring. Jupiter’s rings were discovered by the Vaviger probe. The combination of Jupiter rings is different from Saturn’s rings made of ice. Jupiter’s rings are very dim and delicate.

  •      Internal: The internal part of the Jupiter’s rings made of dust surrounds the space on the planet. This is the brightest and thickest part of the Jupiter’s rings.
  •      The main ring section: The main part of the ring is the thinnest part and consists of dust and stone. The dust particles in this section date back to 5 years or even 5 years. This means that it is caused by the collision with larger rocks of the new dust.
  •      Gossamer: Gosmer is the outside of the Jupiter’s rings. This section is, like the previous two parts, a combination of dust particles; But the word gossamer means a narrow material that is suitable for this part because of its very small dust particles.

Jupiter’s rings are not shining like Saturn’s because they are composed of particles and dust, and only the strongest telescopes can observe them. Jupiter’s moons are the cause of the rings of this planet. The most internal moons, such as the Metis, Adrastea, and Amalthea, were hit by many meteors, and their dust and rock particles reached the Jupiter’s orbit, thus forming the rings of the planet.

Wonders of Jupiter Planet

Jupiter planet has many wonders because of its strong attraction and magnetic field as well as its strange moons. Here are some examples of these wonders:

The influence of the Jupiter on the solar system: The Jupiter is also famous for the vacuum cleaner of the solar system for its severe attraction and internal position of the solar system. The planet experiences the most collision with comets among the planets of the solar system and is thought to act as a shield for the internal planets of the solar system.

If the sequel to Shoemaker–Levy 2 was hit by the earth, there would be no trace of life on earth

But according to recent computer simulations, the Jupiter has not had a significant role in reducing the bombing of the internal planets of the solar system, although the debate is still going on. At least it can be said that it has rescued internal planets from a disaster called Shoemaker–Levy. Schmidker Levi 3 has experienced one of the most exciting ends. Shoemaker–Levy’s treatment of the Jupiter caused injuries to the surface of the planet that are even visible from Earth. This is the first accident in the two internal crimes of the solar system, and the traces of this comet on the Jupiter’s atmosphere are far beyond expectation.

Shoemaker–Levy comet encountered the Jupiter in year 6, and this encounter had a great deal of fear in public opinion because if a similar comet had hit Earth, life would be destroyed on the planet.

Two Armageddon films were inspired by the confrontation and were made on the subject of land-threatening objects. Congress, after the release of these films, called for NASA to search for objects close to Earth. Schumacher Levi was first discovered in March by three comets from Eugene and Caroline Shoemaker and David Levy. The group had previously collaborated and discovered other comets. For this reason, the name Schumicar Levi was chosen for this comet.

The comet was rotating around the Jupiter decades ago but was not in the trap of a strong attraction. The orbital calculations showed more that this comet had treated the Jupiter in July. At that time, the Galileo spacecraft was still on the path of the planet and could not record a close view of the collision.

Strange Aurora: This year, the Juno probe discovered a new aurora that fluctuates on the Jupiter’s poles. Juno’s UVSA (UVS) tool recorded this bright phenomenon. This aurora extends in the form of high-speed rings between 1.2 and 2.5 km / s. According to scientists, these aurorae have been created due to pregnant particles from the edge of the massive Jupiter’s magnetosphere. Jupiter Aurora, like the earth, depends on the pregnant magnet particles. However, the Jupiter’s magneto science is 5 times stronger than the Earth’s magnetism.


New Facts of Hot Jupiter Dots: A generation after the discovery of the hot and dense atmosphere in the Jupiter, Juno’s mission came to newer answers to these points. Juno discovered hot spots that were much wider and deeper than past models and observations. The results were announced on December 5 at the annual conference of the US Geophysics Union.

More water discovery in Jupiter’s atmosphere: According to Juno probe data in year 2, approximately 2.5 % of the Jupiter’s equator molecules are water molecules. However, this does not appear to be three times higher than that of the solar water molecules based on the calculations of the components of the water, hydrogen and oxygen in the Jupiter. Juno’s measurements discovered more water than previous missions. This discovery can help scientists in search of the real Jupiter origin.

The similarity of Jupiter Wajar Clouds to Earth Clouds: Jupiter and Earth may seem like two completely different planets, but the atmosphere of the two planets is more like each other. The Juno probe captured images of small-scale wave patterns in the Jupiter’s atmosphere during the year. These images, captured by the Junocam tool, reveal the similarity of these cloud shapes to the earth. These waves in the Earth’s atmosphere are called meniscus or medium scale. Now the same waves have been discovered in the Jupiter’s atmosphere called atmospheric wave strands.


Seeing the Jupiter Planet from Earth

Jupiter is the fourth bright object in the night sky (after the sun, moon and venom). The close to Jupiter’s position varies from the sun and the earth. The mean range of the planet’s vision is 1.5 % and its standard deviation is 1.2.

Since the Jupiter’s orbit is out of the ground, the phase angle of the planet from Earth is never more than 1.5 degrees. For this reason, the planet is always seen from telescopes based on Earth. With a small telescope, even Galileo’s moon and cloud belts around the Jupiter can be observed.

Preturecopian Research

Jupiter observation dates back to Babylonian astronomers in the seventh or eighth centuries BC. Chinese astronomers also observed the Jupiter’s orbit and built the ground-branch cycle based on their approximate years.

Telescopic research based on Earth

In January, Galileo Galileo examined the planet’s Jupiter with its small telescope. His observations changed the current understanding of the universe. Galileo saw three small stars near the Jupiter. The next afternoon he was able to see the stars again, but this time they were on the other side of the planet. During a few weeks, these stars were moving around the Jupiter. Galileo gave the names of the stars of Medici to their supporters, but today they are known as Galileo’s moons.


This was the first telescopic observation of the solar system (other than the moon). The day after Galileo Simon Marinus independently discovered the moons around the Jupiter but did not publish the results of his discoveries until year 6. This discovery was a turning point in the Copernican Central Sun theory of the movement of planets. Galileo was questioned for supporting this theory for insulting the sacred.

In the 1980s, Juvan Cassini used a new telescope to discover colourful tapes and Jupiter stains and was able to estimate the rotation period of the planet. Cassini discovered the difference between the rotation of the Jupiter’s atmosphere with the planet itself. The large red spot in the southern hemisphere of the Jupiter was probably monitored by Robert Hook and at Cassini at 2, though there is still debate. Astronomy named Henry Schwab released the first design of the Great Red Spot details at 2.

Borley and Cassini both made detailed tables of Jupiters’ lunar movements and predicted the movements of these moons. At 2, Bernard discovered the fifth Jupiter at the California Observatory. The discovery of this relatively small object made him famous. This is called the Mohammed. It was the last planet’s moon that was discovered directly with an eye observatory.

At 1, Robert Wildt discovered the immense methane tapes. Three rotating rings (large-scale wind rotation around a high-pressure central point unlike clockwise) called white rings were also discovered. Finally, two rings were merged in 2, and the third ring known as BA was absorbed in 2

Radiottic research

Based on radio signals, Bernard Burke and Kent Franklin were able to discover explosions of 1.2 MHz. The explosions were consistent with the rotation of the planet, and they used this information to correct the rotation ratio. Jupiter radio explosions have two major forms: Long explosions (L explosions) last for a few seconds and short explosions (S) last less than one hundred seconds.

Jupiter probes

Eight spacecraft and probes have so far examined the planet: Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini, Yolis, New Horizons and Juno.

Pioneer 10 and 11 (Pioneer)

Pioneer 1 and 2 were the first spacecraft to review the Jupiter. The two probes recorded the first scientific observations from the planets Jupiter and Saturn and paved the way for Voyager’s missions. The external tools of these ships examined the climate of the Jupiter and Saturn, the magnetic fields, the moons and the rings, as well as the intermediate dust and magnetic areas, solar winds and cosmic rays. The two probes left the Solar System on their way.


Voyager 1 and 2 (Voyager)

NASA sent two Voyager spacecraft to the Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune in late summer. The nearest Voyager 2 contact with the Jupiter is registered on March 5. The closest gap between Voyager 2 to the planet was recorded on July 5.


Jupiter photography began in January. Wower 2 completed his mission for the Jupiter in early April, after registering 4.3 images and many other scientific measurements. The Voyager mission was from late April to early August. The two spacecraft recorded more than 1.5 % of the Jupiter and five moon images. Voyager 1 and 2 provided a lot of information on moons, magnetic fields and more to researchers. The biggest achievement of the two spacecraft was the discovery of volcanoes active on the moon.

Galileo spacecraft (Galileo Spacecraft)

The Galileo spacecraft was launched on October 5 with the Atlantis Space Shuttle missile and reached the Jupiter on 2. The probe has been in the Jupiter’s circuit for almost eight years and examined its moon. Based on the information obtained from the camera and the other four tools of the probe, the possibility of the ocean under the europaan moon was investigated. According to the discoveries, the volcanoes of the moon are very active. Another discovery of Galileo was ganymede’s separate magnetic field. Galileo was carrying a small probe that was sent deep into the Jupiter’s atmosphere and was destroyed about an hour later due to too much pressure.

Cassini spacecraft (Cassini)

Cassini was a cooperation between NASA and the europaan Space Agency (ESA) and the Italian Space Agency, and its main purpose was to investigate Saturn, the system and moons of the planet. The probe was at the closest distance to the Jupiter on December 5 and recorded numerous scientific measurements. Cassini recorded 6,000 images of the planet, rings and moon during six months of flight around the Jupiter. Cassini’s biggest achievement for the Jupiter was the most accurate colour portrait of the planet (until then).

Other Cassini observations include the dark cloud of the spinning at the top of the Jupiter’s atmosphere, almost the size of a large red spot, near the North Pole. Based on the evidence that Cassini obtained from the Jupiter’s rings, the loop is composed of an irregular structure that is probably due to the collapse of the stone from the Metis and Adrastea moons.

Ulysses’ spacecraft (Ulysses)

Ulysses was the result of NASA’s cooperation and the europaan Space Agency launched in October, with the main purpose of examining the space zone above the sun’s poles. Since Ulysses needed a lot of energy to put it in the sun’s orbit and the earth could not provide it, it was necessary to supply this space from another planet. The Jupiter was the nearest planet that could provide the prerequisites for the trip.

Ulysses reached the Jupiter six months after his departure from Earth, and on February 4, he was closest to the planet. Although the secondary goal of Ulysses was to investigate the Jupiter, in this short trip he was able to find very useful information about the very strong magnetic field of the planet.

New Horizons spacecraft

New Hurazenz was a mid-range probe built at the Johns Hopkins University Physical Laboratory (APL) and the Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) and was launched into space in year 6 to investigate Pluto. New Hurazenz used Jupiter attraction (2 times the gravity of the Earth) to be on the Pluto route.

New Hurahiznes used the Lorri tool to capture its images of the Jupiter on September 9, from 2 million kilometres. More careful Jupiter reviews continued in January with the capture of the infrared image of Calisto’s moon and a few blacksopoid images of the Jupiter itself.

One of the main goals of this probe was to examine the weather conditions and analyze the structure of Jupiter clouds. The probe for the first time was able to capture the Jupiter’s small red spots from the distance. He also succeeded in capturing images of the planet’s circular system from different angles. New Hurahizenz moved to the Jupiter’s magnetosphere with valuable information about it.

Juno spacecraft (Juno)

NASA’s Space Explorer Juno was launched on August 1 and entered the Jupiter’s orbit on July 5 to begin careful scientific investigations. The spacecraft has been rotated 2 times around the Jupiter so far and has been over the clouds of clouds for approximately one year.

The purpose of the Juno mission is to measure the composition, the gravity field, the magnetic field and the polar magnetosphere of the planet. It also looks at clues to the formation of the planet, the stone kernel, the amount of water in the atmosphere, the distribution of its crime, and its deep winds, reaching a speed of 3 km / h.

Unlike other exploratory sent to the solar system planets, Juno is reinforced with solar arrays similar to that of the ground satellites, while their isotopic thermoelectric generators are usually used inside the Solar System.

During the Juno mission, infrared tools and microwaves measured heat radiation from the Jupiter’s atmosphere. These are supplements for previous studies of the planet’s composition of abundance and distribution of water and oxygen. Data provide new views on Jupiter origin.

Juno has also found unprecedented findings about Jupiters’ atmospheric winds. According to these findings, the planet’s atmospheric winds last longer than the atmospheric processes on Earth. Juno’s measurements from Jupiter Square Square prove the asymmetry of the north and south of the planet, which is similar to the asymmetry observed in the belts and tapes of the planet. The deeper the winds, the more mass increases.

According to another Juno finding, the climate of the planet is a rigid body. This is a wonderful result, and Juno’s future measurements help to understand this transition from the air to the rigid body. Before Juno’s discovery, there was no information about the atmosphere close to the client poles. According to the information obtained from this probe, the Jupiter poles are more violent than the white and orange belts located in the lower latitudes of the planet.

The north pole of the planet is surrounded by a central tornado, surrounded by eight tornadoes with variable diameters from 1 to 2.5 km. Jupiter Antarctica also has a central tornado with five more tornadoes with variable diameters from 1 to 2 kilometres. The Juno spacecraft is currently reviewing the planet’s orbit, sending amazing images, atmospheric data and other observations about the planet.

James Web Telescope images from Jupiter

The James Webb Space Telescope, which has been working since last year, has had significant observations in recent months. One of these remarkable observations is accurate images of the Jupiter’s planet and its polar Aurora. Both images of the telescope are a combination of several images made with a camera near the NIRCAM camera with different filters.

jupiter jwst image

In the wider image, you can see the narrow rings of the Jupiter as well as the two moons. Almatia’s moon is a bright spot on the left and Adracetia’s moon is on the edge of the rings between Alamalea and the Jupiter. The second image is recorded from a close-up of the Jupiter’s planet. This image uses three filters to record details of the planet’s stormy atmosphere, especially the polar Aurora. You might think about why the colours of these images are not like what we see in other Jupiter images.

Read more: Meerkat telescope a new tool to observe extraterrasial signals

In these images, the James Web Telescope records light in the infrared spectrum, not the visible light spectrum; So the colours of the two images are not the same as the unarmed eye colours. The infrared data were written on the visible light spectrum, so these images are “false colour”, not “real colour”.

jupiter jwst image

Future missions to the Jupiter

Juice (Jupiter Ice Coordinator): Juice is a europaan Space Agency’s mission, which has been selected as part of the Cosmic Vision Scientific Program. The probe is expected to be launched in year 6 and reaches the Jupiter after visits to the interior of the solar system in the 1980s. The probe is dedicated to studying Galileo’s ice moons: ganymede, Calisto and europa. All three moons have subsurface oceans, which increases their potential for life.

europa Clipper: The NASA europaan probe is dedicated to europa’s review of the Jupiter’s ice moon and will examine the living conditions under the ice shell. The probe will be in the Jupiter’s orbit for accurate europa. The europaan probe will be launched in the early 1980s and will reach the Jupiter’s planet after a 6.5 -year trip.

Chinese and Russian missions: China will launch its first Jupiter probe in year 6. The probe will reach the Jupiter planet in year 6. Russia is also looking to send a survey to the Jupiter that will be launched in year 6. It takes 6 months and first visits the moon and Venus. He then examines the Jupiter and its moons.


Gas river has a star on the outskirts of the Milky Way




Gas river has a star on the outskirts of the Milky Way

Gas river has a star on the outskirts of the Milky Way. A mysterious river of gas flowing into the Milky Way, originating from two small galaxies on the Milky Way’s outskirts, hosts several stars, astronomers say.

Gas river has a star on the outskirts of the Milky Way

According to Space, a stream of hydrogen gas flows out of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, two dwarf galaxies on the outskirts of the Milky Way. The contents of this river, which is called the “Magellanic Stream”, have puzzled astronomers for decades.

Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has been able to find stars in the gas clouds of this stream. The discovery not only helps them better understand the evolution of the main galaxies in the stream but also the distribution of matter in the Milky Way itself.

Astronomers at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics found these stars using the 6.5-meter Magellan Baade telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile.

Using a detailed map of the Milky Way created by the European Space Agency’s Gaia space telescope, they found 200 stars sitting in the farthest reaches of our galaxy, in the direction of the Magellanic Stream.

Read More: France and Italy collaborate to build a lunar habitat

They analyzed the spectrum of light emitted by those stars and found that the chemical composition of 13 stars matched that of the Magellanic Clouds. The measurements also showed that those 13 stars should be between 150,000 and 400,000 light-years from Earth, about the same distance as expected from the Magellanic Stream.

Originally discovered in the 1970s, the stream spans an area of the southern sky as wide as 300 full moons as seen from Earth, but despite its enormity, observing it requires sensitive equipment.

Astronomers think that the gas that makes up this stream has been pulled away from the dwarf galaxies by the Milky Way’s gravitational pull. The new observations may reveal more about the nature of this stream and help scientists understand how it interacts with our galaxy.

The stream now appears to be falling into the Milky Way, scientists say.

Charlie Conroy, professor of astronomy at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) and one of the authors of the study, said in a statement: “With these results and others like them, we hope to provide a much greater understanding of the formation of the Magellanic Stream and the Magellanic Clouds, as well as past and future interactions.” They reach our galaxy.

Unlike the Magellanic Stream, the Magellanic Clouds have been known since ancient times because they are clearly visible to the naked eye. However, astronomers still have many questions about the origin and history of the two galaxies that appear to be colliding with the Milky Way. Mapping and modeling the Magellanic Stream is helping astronomers improve their understanding of the source galaxies, which are thought to trace their past paths.

“The beauty of having a massive stellar stream like the Magellanic Stream is that we can now do a lot of astrophysical research with it,” said Vedant Chandra, a doctoral student in astronomy and astrophysics at CfA and senior author of the study. As our spectroscopic survey continues and we find more stars, we’re excited to see what other surprises the galactic fringes have in store for us.

Scientists think that when hydrogen gas falls from this stream into the Milky Way, the right conditions for star formation are created. Analyzing the data, the researchers also found that the flow is almost twice as large as they thought, meaning there is much more gas than previously calculated.

The Magellanic Stream is the main source of stellar nutrition for the Milky Way, said Anna Bonaca, another author of the study, who is now an employee of the Carnegie Observatory. According to new estimates and a higher mass estimate for the Magellanic Stream, the Milky Way may be more massive than previously thought.

By better constraining the mass of this stream and by gaining a better understanding of the Magellanic Clouds, astronomers will be able to better estimate the mass distribution of the entire Milky Way, the scientists say.

Much of this matter, they concluded, is in the form of dark matter, which is still poorly understood. Better measurements of the mass of our galaxy in its distant regions will help calculate normal matter versus dark matter contents and determine the possible properties of dark matter.

The study was published in the Astrophysical Journal.

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France and Italy collaborate to build a lunar habitat




France and Italy collaborate to build a lunar habitat

France and Italy collaborate to build a lunar habitat. France and Italy plan to work together to create a multifunctional habitat for living on the moon.

France and Italy collaborate to build a lunar habitat

According to New Atlas, France and Italy are collaborating with the Franco-Italian technology company Thales Alenia Space and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to build habitats for future lunar bases and signed a contract with The creation of a multipurpose habitat for NASA’s Artemis project has been signed.
Recently, many efforts have been made in aerospace circles to provide a means of returning astronauts to the Moon and establishing a permanent human presence there as part of NASA’s Project Artemis. Once space travelers leave their probes, they’ll need a place to hang their space helmets and rest their feet.
Thales Alenia Space previously worked on orbital habitats such as “ESPRIT” and “I-HAB” belonging to the European Space Agency and “HALO” belonging to Northrop Grumman. have been designed to support NASA’s Lunar Gateway lunar base and support manned missions to the moon and deep space. Therefore, choosing this company by the Italian Space Agency to build a lunar habitat module seems logical.
The multi-purpose habitat is pretty much just a concept right now, but the design passed NASA’s review stage in mid-October and is set to complete a mission concept review early next year. In addition, Thales Alenia Space will have to work with multiple companies to set up the complex infrastructure and supply chains needed to create the actual habitat.
The published conceptual design looks very simple. The design is basically a metal cylinder on a pedestal with solar panels, topped with a communication dish and a small flag of the Italian Space Agency.
Once operational, the multi-purpose habitat could potentially protect its inhabitants from intense cosmic radiation as well as extreme temperatures on the moon’s surface, which range from 120 degrees Celsius during the day to minus 130 degrees Celsius at night or in the shadow. Also, the habitat must have a life support system that can provide air, water, and a stable, livable temperature for several days that the old Apollo lunar module was able to provide.
In addition, the habitat must be connected to a power source that can sustain the habitat during the lunar night, be invulnerable to sticky and destructive moon dust, and be compatible with other hardware needed to complete the base.
The decoration of the habitat has not been discussed yet, but considering the size of the habitat, it can be said that it will probably be a cozy place.
Franco Fenoglio, head of human planetary exploration and robotics programs at Thales Alenia Space, said: “The multipurpose habitat will mark a historic milestone as the first Italian habitable module to operate on the lunar surface.” It is a matter of pride for our company, which has unique technical and organizational skills to overcome such challenges.

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Solar system; Formation, planets, wonders and everything you need to know




Solar system
The solar system is one of the billions of star systems of the Milky Way galaxy, which includes eight planets and a huge collection of comets and asteroids.

Solar system; Formation, planets, wonders and everything you need to know

The solar system is one of the billions of star systems in the Milky Way galaxy, which consists of the average central star of the Sun. The order of placement of the planets in this system from the nearest mass to the sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and possibly the ninth planet.

The solar system starts from the sun continues to the Kuiper belt and finally reaches the boundary of the Heliopass. According to scientists, the edge of the solar system is approximately 15 billion kilometers away from the sun. On the other side of the Heliopass, there is a huge oval-shaped cloud called the Oort cloud, which surrounds our solar system.

Table of Contents

  • What is the solar system?
  • The origin of the solar system
  • Size and distance in the solar system
  • Sun
  • The planets of the solar system
  • What is a planet?
  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • planet Earth
  • planet mars
  • Jupiter
  • Saturn
  • Uranus
  • The planet Neptune
  • asteroid belt
  • Kuiper belt
  • Pluto
  • The ninth planet
  • edge of the solar system
  • The largest planets in the solar system
  • Discoveries and travels of the solar system
  • Photos of the solar system
  • Conclusion

What is the solar system?

The solar system is a collection of planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and gas and dust that revolve around the Sun star. This system consists of rocky planets including Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, gas giants including Jupiter and Saturn, and ice giants including Uranus and Neptune.

Between Mars and Jupiter, there is a set of asteroids known as the Asteroid Belt, and on the other side of Neptune, a set of small icy bodies known as the Kuiper Belt revolve around the Sun. Objects such as the dwarf planet Pluto are also considered part of the Kuiper belt.

Solar system

The origin of the solar system

About 4.6 billion years ago, a dark cloud of gas and dust underwent a gravitational collapse. This cloud compressed and turned into a rotating disk known as the solar nebula. The heat and pressure were eventually so great that the hydrogen atoms fused together to form helium. Nuclear interactions released large amounts of energy and the Sun was formed.

The Sun collected approximately 99% of the material in the solar nebula, and the rest of the material formed similar clumps inside the rotating disk. Some of these materials reached enough mass and gravity to form globular masses or planets, dwarf planets, and moons. The remaining fragments formed meteorites, comets, and other moons that make up the solar system.

Meteorites, or celestial rocks that fell to Earth, helped scientists estimate the age of the solar system. Some of these small fragments originated from moons or planets that can provide fascinating scientific information about the chemical properties and history of their parent matter. Some others were circulating in the solar system from the very beginning and before the formation of planets. The Allende meteorite, which fell to Earth in 1969, is the best-known meteorite with an age of 4.55 billion years.

According to scientists, the solar system was created during the explosion of a nearby star or the supernova process . According to this theory, the explosion caused shock waves to be sent into space and these waves compressed the solar nebula and finally led to its collapse. The supernova likely drove material into the nebula.

Solar system

The stages of the formation of the solar system

Size and distance in the solar system

The solar system is so big that it is almost impossible to imagine its size using units like kilometers. The distance from the Earth to the Sun is approximately 150 million kilometers, but the distance from the Sun to the farthest planet in the solar system, Neptune, is 4.5 billion kilometers. Now compare this distance with the average distance that a healthy person can walk non-stop in one day (32 km) or the distance to the International Space Station (400 km).

The best way to estimate the size of the solar system is to create a scale model that shows the distance of the planets from the sun. Astronomers use the distance between the Earth and the Sun (150 million kilometers) as a unit of measurement known as the astronomical unit. Therefore, 150 million kilometers is equal to one astronomical unit, or AU for short.

Thus, the distance between Mercury and the Sun (0.43 AU), Venus is 0.7 AU, Earth is 1 AU and Mars is 1.5 AU. Then we reach the asteroid belt, which is 2.8 AU away from the Sun. The gas giants Jupiter and Saturn are 5.2 and 9.5 AU from the Sun, respectively, and the ice giants Uranus and Neptune are 19.8 and 30 AU, respectively.

The Kuiper Belt is 50 AU away from the Sun and finally, the border of the Solar System or Heliopass is 123 AU away from the Sun.

Read More: The International Space Station


Solar system

An artist’s rendering of the Parker probe exploring the Sun

The sun is at the center of the solar system and constitutes approximately 99.8% of the mass of its system. The sun provides the necessary energy for life on Earth. This composite yellow dwarf star consists of 91% hydrogen and 8.9% helium. The Sun is relatively small compared to other stars and is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy.

The planets of the solar system

The four inner planets of the solar system, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are classified as terrestrial planets or rocky worlds due to their rocky surface.

The four outer worlds of the solar system, namely Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, are called Jupiter-like planets due to their larger size than the rocky planets. Most of these planets are made up of gases such as hydrogen and helium, although some planetologists believe that some of these planets have solid cores.

The planets Jupiter and Saturn are called gas giants, while Uranus and Neptune, the two outermost worlds of the solar system, are classified as ice giants because they are composed of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, and have a thick mantle. They have methane, ammonia, and frozen water.

What is a planet?But before introducing the planets of the solar system, it is necessary to get acquainted with the definition of a planet. According to the standard definition, a planet is a mass of sufficient size that revolves around the Sun and itself. But it is not big enough to undergo nuclear fusion like a star. It has also cleared its vicinity of a large number of other objects.

The exact definition mentioned above shows what should be included in the category of planets and what should not be included in this group. However, the problem arose when astronomers discovered a large number of planet-like bodies in the solar system. For example, Pluto was one of the objects that could not meet all the above conditions and was classified as a dwarf planet.

Solar system

Most of the gaseous planets are composed of hydrogen and helium and probably have a solid core; While the core of rocky planets is often molten.

Pluto’s problem is its small size and strange orbit that cannot clear nearby objects. It also has a lot in common with the Kuiper belt. According to the IAU definition, this planet and other small globular worlds including Eris, Haumea and Makimaki, other Kuiper belt objects are classified as dwarf planets.

Ceres is another globular body in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, which belongs to the group of dwarf planets. Ceres was classified as a planet when it was first discovered in 1801 but was later recognized as an asteroid. However, this definition was not enough because it was much larger and more spherical than asteroids. Therefore, astronomers classified this object as a dwarf planet in 2006.


Solar system

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun from the perspective of NASA’s Messenger probe.
  • Discovery: It was known to the ancient Greeks and can be seen in the sky with the naked eye.
  • Naming: Mercury, derived from the name of the messenger god in Roman mythology
  • Diameter: 4878 km
  • Year: 88 Earth days
  • Day: 58.6 Earth days
  • Number of moons: zero

Mercury is the closest world to the sun and the smallest planet in the solar system. This planet is only slightly larger than the Earth’s moon and completes its orbit around the sun in 88 days.

The temperature difference between the day and night of Mercury is significant. The temperature of Mercury during the day reaches 450 degrees Celsius, which is enough to melt lead. During the night, the temperature drops to minus 180 degrees Celsius. Mercury’s atmosphere is very thin and contains elements such as oxygen, sodium, hydrogen, helium, and potassium. Since this weak atmosphere cannot prevent meteorite collisions, Mercury’s surface is full of impact craters, just like Earth’s moon.

During its five-year mission, NASA’s MESSENGER probe made interesting findings about Mercury that defied astronomers’ expectations. One of these findings was the discovery of water ice and frozen biological compounds in the north pole of Mercury, as well as the significant role of volcanic activity in the formation of the planet’s surface.


Solar system


This image of Venus was captured in 2020 by NASA’s Mariner 10 probe.
  • Discovery: It was known to the ancient Greeks and can be seen with the naked eye.
  • Naming: Venus, derived from the name of the goddess of love and beauty in Roman mythology
  • Diameter: 12,104 km
  • Year: 225 Earth days
  • Day: 241 Earth days
  • Number of moons: zero

Venus is the second planet from the sun and the hottest planet in the solar system. The thick atmosphere of Venus is composed of compounds such as sulfuric acid clouds. Venus can be considered as one of the clear examples of the greenhouse effect.

The average surface temperature of Venus reaches 465 degrees Celsius and its surface pressure is 92 bar (9200 kilopascals), which can disintegrate a human being. Strangest of all, Venus rotates slowly and rotates against the direction of other planets, i.e. from east to west.

Venus is sometimes called Earth’s twin because the planet is close in size to Earth and, based on radar images, has numerous mountains and volcanoes. But in reality, Earth and Venus have many differences from each other.

Since Venus is the brightest object in the night sky after the moon, the Greeks thought that they were two different objects; Hesperus as a night star and Eospherus as a morning star. This very brightness is why Venus is sometimes mistaken for a UFO.

planet Earth

Solar system

One of the most accurate pictures of the Earth. This composite image is the result of images recorded by the Processing Infrared/Visible Image Radiometer (VIIRS) of the Suomi NPP satellite.
  • Name: Earth is derived from the German word “Die Erde” which means earth.
  • Diameter: 12,760 km
  • Year: 365.24 days
  • Day: 23 hours and 56 minutes
  • Number of moons: 1

Earth, our home, is the third planet from the Sun. Earth is a blue world with two-thirds of it covered by water. Earth’s atmosphere is rich in nitrogen and oxygen, making it the only life-friendly world we know.

The earth rotates at a speed of 467 meters per second. But this speed is slightly higher in the equator. The speed of the earth’s rotation around the sun reaches 29 km/s. Earth is also the largest rocky planet in the solar system and has one moon. According to scientists, an object hit the earth early in its formation and a piece of it was thrown into the sky and thus the moon was formed.

planet Mars

Solar system

A mosaic image of the Vals Marineris hemisphere of Mars. This image is the result of combining 102 Viking orbiter images.
  • Discovery: It was known to the ancient Greeks and can be seen with the naked eye.
  • Name: Mars, derived from the name of the god of war in Roman mythology
  • Diameter: 6787 km
  • Year: 687 Earth days
  • Day: 24 hours and 37 minutes
  • Number of moons: 2

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. This desert-like and cold planet is covered with iron oxide dust and therefore appears red. Mars has similarities with Earth. It is primarily rocky like Earth, has mountains and valleys, and has a storm system like Earth’s, ranging from small tornado-like ovens to dust storms that cover the entire planet.

Scientific evidence shows that Mars was a warmer and wetter world billions of years ago, and probably had rivers and maybe oceans flowing in it. Although the Martian atmosphere is too thin for surface liquid water to flow, wetter Martian remnants exist today. Martian ice sheets the size of the state of California are located under the surface of Mars, and on the other hand, both poles of Mars have water ice covers.

According to scientists, ancient Mars had the necessary conditions to support life such as bacteria and other microbes. They hope to find signs of this past life and possibly present life forms. This hypothesis became the basis for launching several missions to Mars; So that today the red planet is one of the most familiar and most explored objects in the solar system.


Solar system

An extraordinary image of Jupiter captured by the Hubble Space Telescope on August 25, 2020.
  • Discovery: It was known to the ancient Greeks and can be seen with the naked eye.
  • Naming: Jupiter, derived from the name of the god of gods in Roman mythology
  • Diameter: 139,822 km
  • Year: 11.9 Earth years
  • Day: 9.8 Earth hours
  • Number of moons: 95

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun and the largest planet in the solar system. This gas giant has twice the mass of all other planets in the solar system.

Jupiter’s swirling clouds are colorful due to the combination of a variety of materials such as ammonia ice, ammonium hydrosulfide crystals, and water ice and vapor. One of Jupiter’s most famous features in its swirling clouds is the Great Red Spot, which is more than 16,000 kilometers in diameter and is so large that it can swallow almost three Earths.

Jupiter also has the strongest magnetic field and 95 moons, the most famous of which are Ganymede, Io, Callisto, and Europa, also known as the Galilean moons.


Solar system

The Hubble Space Telescope captured this image of Saturn during the Northern Hemisphere summer on July 4, 2020.

  • Discovery: It was known to the ancient Greeks and can be seen in the night sky with the naked eye.
  • Naming: Saturn, derived from the name of the god of agriculture in Roman mythology
  • Diameter: 120,500 km
  • Year: 29.5 Earth years
  • Day: approximately 10.5 hours by land
  • Number of moons: 145 moons

Saturn, the sixth planet from the Sun, is famous for its huge and bright ring system. Although Saturn is not the only ringed planet in the solar system. When Galileo first studied Saturn in the early 1600s, he thought it was a three-part mass: a planet and two large moons on either side. He didn’t know he was seeing a ringed planet. More than 40 years later, Christian Huygens proved the existence of Saturn’s rings.

Like Jupiter, Saturn is a gas giant and the least dense planet in the solar system. This planet also has a large number of moons, according to the latest statistics, their number reaches 145. With this number of moons, Saturn is considered the king of the solar system’s moons. Enceladus is one of Saturn’s moons covered with an icy ocean, which astronomers say could be a promising target for extraterrestrial life.

Saturn’s rings are composed mostly of ice and rock, and scientists are still unsure how they formed.


Solar system

Image of Uranus captured by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory.
  • Discovery: 1781 by William Herschel (before this date people thought Uranus was a star).
  • Naming: the embodiment of heaven and the name of one of the gods in Greek mythology
  • Diameter: 51,120 km
  • Year: 84 Earth years
  • Day: 18 hours on land
  • Number of moons: 27

The planet Uranus, the seventh planet from the sun, has strange and unique features. The clouds of Uranus are composed of hydrogen sulfide, which is the same chemical that causes eggs to rot and smell bad. In the second degree, like Venus, Uranus rotates from east to west, but unlike Venus or any other planet, its equator is perpendicular to its orbit and it can be said to rotate sideways.

According to astronomers, a mass twice the size of Earth collided with Uranus about 4 billion years ago and caused Uranus’ extreme axial deviation. This deviation leads to marginal seasons with a duration of at least 20 years, so that sunlight shines on one pole of Uranus for 84 years.

It seems that the said collision transferred some of the rock and ice of Uranus into its orbit and these rocks and ice later formed the moons of Uranus. Methane in the atmosphere of Uranus is the main reason for its blue-green color. Uranus has 13 sets of rings.

The planet Uranus also holds the record for the coldest temperature recorded in the solar system, minus 224.2 degrees Celsius. The average temperature of Uranus reaches minus 195 degrees Celsius.

The planet Neptune

Solar system

Neptune is the planet with the fastest winds in the solar system.

  • Discovery: 1846
  • Naming: Neptune, derived from the name of the god of water and sea in Roman mythology
  • Diameter: 49,530 km
  • Year: 165 Earth years
  • Day: 19 hours on land
  • Number of moons: 14

Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun. The average temperature of Neptune in the upper part of the clouds reaches minus 210 degrees Celsius. This planet is about the same size as Uranus and is known for its strong supersonic winds.

Neptune was the first planet to be discovered using mathematics. German astronomer Johann Galle used mathematical calculations to find Neptune with a telescope.

Neptune is about 17 times heavier than Earth and has a rocky core. The main composition of Neptune is water, methane, and ammonia, which surround this rocky core. The speed of Neptune’s winds reaches 2000 km/h. This planet also has 14 moons.

asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is located between Mars and Jupiter. According to NASA estimates, there are between 1.1 and 1.9 million asteroids in the main asteroid belt that are larger than one kilometer in diameter. The dwarf planet Ceres with a diameter of approximately 950 km is located in this part of the solar system. Several asteroids have orbits that occasionally collide with Earth and other inner planets.

Kuiper belt

Astronomers have long suspected the existence of a band of icy material known as the Kuiper Belt, which lies beyond the orbit of Neptune at a distance of 30 to 55 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun. Since the 20th century, more than a thousand crimes have been discovered in this belt. According to scientists’ estimates, the Kuiper Belt probably hosts hundreds of thousands of icy bodies larger than 100 km, as well as almost a trillion comets.

Pluto, which today belongs to the group of dwarf planets, is located in the Kuiper belt. Of course, Pluto is not the only one, and Makimaki, Haumea, Eris, and Quavar are among the other known non-Neptunian objects from the group of dwarf planets. Aracut (Altima Tully) is also a binary asteroid located in the Kuiper Belt that was visited by the New Horizons probe in 2019.


Solar system

A panoramic view of the dwarf planet Pluto
  • Discovered: 1930 by Clyde Tamba
  • Naming: Pluto or Pluton derived from the name of the god of the underworld in Roman mythology
  • Diameter: 2301 km
  • Year: 248 Earth years
  • Day: 6.4 Earth days
  • Number of moons: 5

The dwarf planet Pluto was once considered the ninth planet, but since 2006 it has been classified as a dwarf planet. The reason for this problem was the non-compliance with the existing criteria in the definition of the planet. According to the definition of the International Astronomical Union, a planet is a celestial body that firstly orbits the Sun, secondly has enough gravity to become a spherical or almost spherical body, and thirdly clears the vicinity of its orbit. be Pluto did not fit the third criterion of logic and therefore was removed from the group of planets.

Pluto has a highly elliptical orbit so it sometimes even interferes with Neptune’s orbit. On the other hand, Pluto’s orbit is not in the same plane as other planets, but it revolves around the Sun at an angle of 17.1 degrees above or below them.

Because of this strange orbit, Pluto was considered the eighth planet from the Sun from 1979 to early 1999, but on February 11, 1999, when it crossed the path of Neptune, it again became the most distant planet in the Solar System, until it was officially removed from the Sun in 2006. The group of planets is out.

Smaller than Earth’s moon, Pluto is a cold, rocky world with a thin atmosphere. On July 14, 2015, the New Horizons probe performed several low-altitude flybys around Pluto, presenting a new view of the dwarf planet to the scientific world that defied many expectations.

Pluto is actually a very active ice world, covered in glaciers, ice mountains, icebergs, and possibly even glaciers that spew ice made of water, methane, or ammonia.

The ninth planet

Solar system

According to estimates, the hypothetical ninth planet has approximately 10 times the mass of Earth.

In 2016, researchers raised the possibility of the ninth planet . This object, also known as Planet X, is estimated to have 10 times the mass of Earth and orbits the star of our system at a distance between 300 and 1,000 times the distance between Earth and the Sun. In fact, this planet’s year may last between 10,000 and 20,000 Earth years. Scientists have not been able to observe the ninth planet so far and have guessed its existence based on its gravitational effects on other objects in the Kuiper belt.

According to some hypotheses, the hypothetical ninth planet could be a primordial black hole that formed shortly after the Big Bang and was trapped by the solar system. Unlike black holes that result from the collapse of massive stars, primordial black holes were formed by gravitational perturbations less than a second after the Big Bang and may be very small (as little as five centimeters in diameter), making them difficult to detect.

Astronomers have not yet reached a clear conclusion regarding the ninth planet. Based on a 2022 survey by the ACT telescope in Chile, there are thousands of candidate sources for the planet, but none have yet been confirmed.

Edge of the solar system

The heliosphere surrounds the solar system like a bubble and its boundary is called the heliopass.

By passing through the Kuiper belt, we reach the edge of the solar system or the Heliopass. The heliosphere is a vast, tear-shaped region of space with a large amount of charged particles received from the sun. According to many astronomers, the boundary of the heliosphere, which is called the heliopass, is approximately 15 billion kilometers from the sun.

The Oort cloud is located after the Kuiper belt at a distance of 2,000 to 2,500 AU from the Sun, and the distance of its outer edge from the Sun is estimated to be between 10,000 and 100,000 AU. As mentioned in the previous sections, one astronomical unit is approximately equal to 150 million kilometers. The Everett Cloud is home to billions or perhaps trillions of particles.

The largest planets in the solar system

Solar system

Jupiter compared to other planets

Jupiter is by far the largest planet in the solar system, so if you add the mass of all the planets in the solar system together, Jupiter will still be two and a half times more. Compared to Earth, Jupiter is 318 times the size of Earth. The radius of this planet reaches 69,911 km or one-tenth of the sun. Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system. Saturn has 95 times the mass of Earth; however, it is the least dense planet in the solar system, so that it can float on water.

Discoveries and travels of the solar system

According to NASA, more than 254 probes have left Earth’s orbit so far. A large part of these spacecrafts and probes were dedicated to the exploration of the solar system.

Parker probe is the only spacecraft that managed to reach the closest distance to the Sun and will break this record in the coming years. The probe will release information about the solar radiation, surface, corona, and solar wind.

Famous probes such as NASA’s MESSENGER, Mariner 10, and Beppy Columbo have visited Mercury and revealed valuable information such as the discovery of water ice and the thin atmosphere of Mercury.

In general, 46 probes have visited Venus so far, the most successful of which are the Venus Express, Mariner 10, and Magellan missions. These probes released information about the atmosphere of Venus and its possible volcanic activity.

There are many satellites in the earth’s orbit whose task is to check weather and atmospheric conditions. Also, the International Space Station is the largest man-made structure in space, and astronauts are engaged in research work there.

In the last 60 years, six lunar landers have landed on the surface of the moon, the first of which was the Apollo 11 mission. Also, in recent years, orbiters were placed in the orbit of the moon, whose most important achievement was finding water ice around the poles of the moon. Space agencies aim to land on the surface of the Moon again in the coming years and use the Earth’s moon as a research base.

Solar system

Apollo 11, the first human landing on another world.

Mars is the most explored planet in the solar system, which has been assigned more than 50 exploration missions. The most famous Mars missions include the Curiosity rover, Perseverance, and the MRO orbiter. Each of the Mars rovers and probes is investigating a certain area and so far they have published important and valuable data such as the discovery of water ice, polar ice cover, and methane on Mars. In the not-too-distant future, human explorations will be added to this collection.

Among the outer planets of the solar system, Jupiter and Saturn are two of the most explored examples. So far, eight spacecraft have been sent specifically to visit Jupiter, and two other probes have performed low-altitude flybys of the planet. The Juno probe is still in Jupiter’s orbit and has provided valuable information about Jupiter’s atmosphere and its important moons.

Solar system

Voyager 2, is the first and so far the only probe to visit the planets Uranus and Neptune.

Cassini is the most famous probe that visited Saturn, and in addition to recording beautiful images of Saturn and sending information about its atmospheric conditions and rings, it investigated two important moons of Saturn, Titan and Enceladus. Two of Cassini’s most important discoveries in visiting these moons were the discovery of methane lakes on Titan and glaciers and ice oceans on Enceladus.

The two famous probes Voyager 1 and 2 successfully visited the outer planets of the outer solar system, including Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Voyager 2 is the only probe that visited Uranus and Neptune up close.

New Horizons is the only probe to visit the dwarf planet Pluto, sending back important information about surface conditions, moons, and other Kuiper Belt objects.

In addition to the probes that visited the planets of the solar system, a series of missions were dedicated to the study of objects in the asteroid belt. Also, the Hubble and James Webb telescopes have sent important images and data from the solar system.


The solar system is a collection of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets around the sun. The planets of the solar system are divided into two groups: rocky and gaseous planets. Earth is a rocky planet and the only planet known to host life in the entire universe. So far, many probes have been sent to different planets of the solar system. Meanwhile, Mars is considered the most explored and familiar planet of the solar system, which mankind has made the most efforts to investigate. Today, humans are carrying out missions and building new probes to investigate the potential of life on the planets and moons of the solar system, and in this way, they will get help from ground and space telescopes.

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