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The planet Saturn; Features, number of moons, rings and wonders



Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system, which is called the Lord of the Rings because of its beautiful and unique rings.

The planet Saturn; Features, number of moons, rings, and wonders

Saturn is the sixth planet in terms of distance from the Sun and the second largest planet in the entire solar system. Saturn can be called the lord of the rings of the solar system due to its thousands of beautiful and unique rings. Like Jupiter, this planet is a gas giant with a radius 9 times that of Earth, while its density is one-eighth that of Earth.

Saturn’s internal structure is a mixture of iron, nickel, and rock (silicon and oxygen compounds). The core of the planet is surrounded by a layer of metallic hydrogen, the middle layer consists of liquid hydrogen and helium, and finally there is a gaseous outer layer. The reason for Saturn’s soft yellow color is the presence of ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. The electric current inside the metallic hydrogen layer has increased the magnetic field of this planet. The strength of Jupiter’s magnetic field is twenty-one times that of Saturn. The outer atmosphere of this planet is calm and without turbulence. The wind speed in some areas of Saturn reaches 1800 km/h, which is more than Jupiter.

From the collection of articles on the introduction of planets: The planet Mars; Everything you need to know

So far, at least 83 moons have been discovered in the orbit of Saturn, 53 of which have been officially named. The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is the second largest moon in the solar system and is even larger than the planet Mercury. Titan is the only moon in the entire solar system that has a significant atmosphere. The most striking feature of Saturn is its ring system, which is a combination of ice particles and small pieces of rock.

Table of Contents
  • What does the planet Saturn symbolize?
  • How was the planet Saturn formed?
  • Nucleus aggregation model
  • Disk instability model
  • Saturn is how many times the size of Earth?
  • Physical characteristics and internal composition of the planet Saturn
  • Saturn’s atmosphere and clouds
  • Saturn’s magnetic field
  • The orbit and rotation of Saturn
  • Rings of Saturn
  • How many moons does Saturn have?
  • Grouping of Saturn’s moons
  • Irregular moons
  • Alkeonides
  • Titan
  • The potential for life on Titan
  • Enceladus
  • Iaptus
  • Hyperion
  • Mimas
  • Pan and Atlas
  • Rhea
  • debt
  • Tethys
  • The wonders of the planet Saturn
  • Seeing Saturn from Earth
  • Discoveries of Saturn in the Space Age
  • Pioneer discoveries 11
  • Voyager 1 and 2 discoveries
  • Cassini Huygens: Exploring the Saturn System
  • Farewell to Cassini
  • Future missions to Saturn

What does the planet Saturn symbolize?

The observation of the planet Saturn has a prehistoric age and has been recorded in myths since the first observation. Babylonian astronomers systematically observed Saturn and recorded its movements. The planet Saturn is known as Phainon in ancient Greece and as Saturn in Roman mythology.

Saturn is the Roman god of agriculture and equivalent to the Greek god Kronos, one of the Titans and the father of Zeus. The symbol of the planet Saturn is the scythe. Because Saturn is the god of agriculture and also time, this symbol is represented by a shape similar to the Greek letter eta, with a cross-like shape added on top of it, meaning the scythe of the gods. The Romans named the seventh day of the week Saturday, which stands for Saturn’s Day, and this day is named after this planet.

The symbol of the planet Saturn

Like other planets in the solar system, Saturn was formed from a solar nebula approximately 6.4 billion years ago. This nebula was a large cloud of cold gas and dust, which was probably formed by the impact of a supernova cloud or wave.

In general, there are two theories about the formation of planets in the solar system. The first and most acceptable theory is the core accretion theory, which is very close to reality in the case of rocky planets but faces problems in the case of gas giants such as Saturn. The second theory, the disc instability theory, could be true for gas giants.

Nucleus aggregation model

Approximately 6.4 billion years ago, the solar system was a cloud of gas and dust called the solar nebula. Gravity caused matter to begin to rotate. At the center of this rotation, the sun was created. With the emergence of the sun, the remaining materials joined together. Smaller particles were transformed into larger particles by the force of gravity. The solar winds carried smaller elements such as hydrogen and helium away from the regions near the sun, and in this way, heavy and rocky materials near the sun led to the formation of rocky worlds.

But at a further distance, the solar winds had less effect on the lighter elements, and thus gas giants like Saturn were born. Meteorites, comets, planets, and moons were formed in this way. It can be said that the planet Saturn is almost completely composed of light hydrogen gas, and of course, a significant part of it is helium. A small trace of other elements can be seen in its atmosphere. Saturn must have a large core to absorb these gases in this model. Thus, the gravity of the heavy core has attracted the lighter elements before they are blown away by the solar wind.

The accumulation of the core of the planet Saturn

However the need for a short time for the formation of gas giants is one of the problems of the core accretion model. According to the models, this process takes millions of years in the nuclear accumulation model. At the same time, the core accretion model also faces the problem of planetary migration, because small planets were placed in orbit around the Sun in a short period of time.

According to a relatively new theory known as disk instability, masses of gas and dust have joined each other in the early life of the solar system, and over time these masses have been compressed and formed gas giants. These planets are formed faster than their counterparts in the core accretion model, and their formation time even reaches several thousand years.

Saturn is how many times the size of Earth?

Saturn has 760 times the volume of Earth, it is the second heaviest planet in the entire solar system and has 95 times the mass of Earth. Saturn has the lowest density among the planets of the solar system. The density of this planet is even lower than water so if we drop Saturn in a large enough ocean, it will float on its surface.

Saturn vs Earth
Saturn accommodates 760 Earths

Physical characteristics and internal composition of the planet Saturn

Hydrogen and helium are the dominant elements of Saturn, hence this planet is a gas giant. Like Jupiter, Saturn does not have a defined surface, although it may have a solid core. The rotation of the planet Saturn has made the shape of this planet widen at the poles and rise at the equator.

According to standard planetary models, the internal structure of Saturn is similar to the internal structure of Jupiter; It means a rocky core in the center surrounded by hydrogen and helium. The composition of Saturn’s core is similar to Earth’s, but it is more dense. In 2004, scientists estimated the mass of Saturn’s core to be 9 to 22 times that of Earth. Saturn’s core is surrounded by a thick layer of liquid metallic hydrogen, after this layer there is a liquid layer of molecular hydrogen, which gradually enters the gas phase with increasing altitude. The outermost layer is located at an altitude of 1000 km and consists of gas.

The composition and characteristics of the planet Saturn
Composition diagram of Saturn: A layer of liquid hydrogen surrounds the core of this planet

The interior of Saturn is very hot and the temperature of its core reaches 11,700 degrees Celsius. Saturn releases 2.5 times the energy received from the Sun into space. Jupiter’s thermal energy is based on Kelvin Holmholtz’s slow gravitational compression mechanism (this mechanism occurs when the surface of a star or planet cools. The cooling process reduces the pressure and the star or planet shrinks), but this process is not sufficient to describe the heating of Saturn. . Another mechanism of heat production is the precipitation of helium droplets in the depths of Saturn. As the droplets fall on the low-density hydrogen, heat is released.

Saturn’s atmosphere and clouds

Saturn’s outer atmosphere contains 3.96% of molecular hydrogen and 25.3% of helium. In general, 75% of Saturn is hydrogen and 25% is helium and traces of other substances such as methane and frozen water can be found in its atmosphere. Amounts of ammonia, acetylene, ethane, propane, phosphine, and methane have also been discovered in Saturn’s atmosphere. The upper clouds are composed of crystalline ammonia, while the lower clouds are composed of ammonium hydrosulfide or water.

Although Saturn’s atmosphere is very similar to Jupiter’s, it appears uniform from a distance. Saturn’s atmosphere has a banded pattern similar to Jupiter’s. These bands become wider near the equator. The composition of clouds in different areas changes according to height and pressure increase. Saturn is one of the windiest places in the entire solar system and the wind speed in its equatorial regions reaches 1800 km/h. The yellow and gold bands in Saturn’s atmosphere are the result of super-fast winds in the planet’s upper atmosphere. Ultraviolet rays lead to the process of photolysis or photolysis in the upper atmosphere of Saturn, which leads to a series of hydrocarbon reactions. Saturn’s photochemical cycle also changes based on its seasonal cycle.

Saturn ranks second in terms of wind speed in the solar system

Saturn ranks second in terms of wind speed in the solar system after Neptune. Sometimes intense white storms disrupt the cloud layers. One of these storms was observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1994. To understand the characteristics of Saturn’s atmosphere, it is better to compare it with Earth. The atmosphere of Earth and Saturn have a major difference in terms of atmospheric pressure.

The radius of the planet Saturn is approximately 9 times the radius of the Earth, and the pressure increases as it penetrates into the deeper layers of the atmosphere. NASA’s observations of this planet show that the pressure of Saturn near the core is 1000 times the pressure on Earth, and this pressure is enough to convert hydrogen into liquid and then solid metal in the planet’s core. Atmospheric pressure levels common on Earth can only be found in the upper regions of Saturn’s atmosphere, where the ammonia ice clouds are located. The temperature of Saturn’s atmosphere varies from minus 130 degrees to plus 80 degrees Celsius.

Saturn’s magnetic field

Saturn has an internal magnetic field with a symmetrical and simple shape. Saturn’s magnetosphere is much smaller than Jupiter’s magnetosphere. The rings and many of Saturn’s moons are also within this magnetosphere, in this region the behavior of charged particles is more influenced by Saturn’s magnetic field than the solar wind.

The aurora phenomenon occurs when charged particles spiral in the planet’s atmosphere along the lines of the magnetic field. On Earth, these charged particles originate from the solar wind. Cassini showed that at least some of Saturn’s auroras are similar to Jupiter’s auroras and are not affected by the solar wind.

Saturn's auroras
Saturn’s auroras are similar to Jupiter’s auroras

The orbit and rotation of Saturn

Compared to Earth, Saturn’s orbit around the Sun is slow, but its orbit around itself is faster. Saturn orbits the Sun at a speed of approximately 35,400 km/h. This speed is about one-third of the speed of the Earth’s movement around the sun. The length of Saturn’s year during a complete period of rotation around the Sun is equal to 29.5 years or 10,755 Earth days.

Although the movement of Saturn around the Sun is slow, its movement around its axis is much faster than that of the Earth, and it completes its rotation in less than half an Earth day. Because Saturn is about 10 times the diameter of Earth, any point on its equator moves 20 times faster than the corresponding point on Earth’s equator. This rapid rotation causes Saturn to form an oval shape so that it becomes flat at the poles and wide at the equator. Saturn’s day is equal to 10 hours and 38 minutes on Earth.

In 2007, it was found that the changes in radio emissions from Saturn do not correspond to its rotation speed. This variance may have occurred due to geyser activity on Saturn’s moon Enceladus. In this way, the water vapor released in the orbit of Saturn is charged and as a result, they cause stretching in the magnetic field of Saturn, and thus the rotation of the magnetic field becomes slower than the rotation of the planet itself.

orbit of saturn

Saturn’s prominent and bright rings make it a unique planet in the entire solar system. Saturn’s rings have fascinated astronomers for centuries. When Galileo first observed Saturn in 1610, he thought the rings were large moons on either side of the planet. During his seven years of observation and exploration, he recorded the rings changing shape and even disappearing (depending on the angle and declination with the Earth). ).

According to Galileo’s observations, Saturn’s equator has a 27-degree deviation from its orbit around the Sun (similar to the 23-degree deviation of the Earth). As Saturn revolves around the Sun, first one hemisphere and then the other hemisphere are facing the Sun. This deviation causes seasonal changes (similar to Earth) and when Saturn reaches the equinox, the equator and plane of the ring are aligned with the Sun. Sunlight hits the edges of the ring. The rings are generally 273,600 km wide, but only 10 meters thick.

Rings of Saturn

In 1655, another astronomer, Christian Huygens, proved solid ring objects, and in 1660, another astronomer suggested that the rings were composed of satellites or small moons (a view that remained unconfirmed for 200 years).

In the modern era, Pioneer 11 passed through Saturn’s ring in 1979. In the 1980s, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 investigated the planet’s ring system. In 2004, NASA’s Cassini Huygens mission became the first probe to enter Saturn’s orbit, recording detailed observations not only of the planet itself but of its ring system.

Saturn’s rings are made of billions of particles ranging from sand to large objects the size of mountains. Most of the particles are made of frozen water. When you look at Saturn with an amateur telescope, its ring appears to be one piece, but this ring is actually made up of several parts. The rings are named in order of discovery, so the main rings are named A, B, and C from farthest to closest. The width of the A gap is approximately 4700 km, which is also called the Cassini segment. This gap separates the A and B rings.

Other narrower rings were discovered as telescope technology improved. Voyager 1 discovered the innermost ring called D in 1980. The F ring is also placed outside the A ring. In contrast, the G and E rings are even further apart. The rings themselves are composed of a number of gaps and distinct structures. Some of them are very small moons of Saturn, while others confuse astronomers. Saturn is not the only planet in the solar system that has a ring system. Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune also have rings, but Saturn’s ring is the most prominent type of ring.

There are different hypotheses about the formation of Saturn’s rings. Some scientists think that comets or passing meteorites are trapped by Saturn’s gravity and disintegrated before reaching it. The reason for the high brightness of Saturn’s rings is that a large part of the rings are made up of particles and ice pieces. The size of these particles varies from small pieces to large icebergs. These ice particles in Saturn’s rings form ice clusters and reflect a lot of light.

Another possibility suggests that the rings were once large moons orbiting the planet. Saturn has at least 83 moons. Only one of its moons, Titan, is a large moon. The rest of the moons are small objects and only 13 of them are more than 50 km. The gravity of these moons affects the structure of Saturn’s rings while providing clues about how the rings formed.

Types of rings of Saturn

The planet Saturn has a large number of diverse moons, ranging from satellites with a diameter of tens of meters to large moons like Titan with dimensions larger than the planet Mercury. Saturn has 83 confirmed moons, only 13 of which have diameters greater than 50 km. Titan is the most prominent moon of Saturn and the second largest moon in the Solar System after Ganymede (Jupiter’s moon). The moon’s atmosphere, like Earth’s, is full of nitrogen and offers views of river networks and hydrocarbon lakes.

Twenty-four moons of Saturn are regular satellites and their progressive orbits are not inclined to Saturn’s equatorial plane. These twenty-four moons include seven main satellites, four small moons, two small co-orbiting moons, and two other moons that act as shepherds of Saturn’s F ring. The remaining 58 moons, which have a diameter varying from 4 to 213 km, are among the irregular moons whose orbits are at a greater distance from Saturn. These moons are probably trapped planets or parts of collapsed bodies after being trapped. Irregular moons are divided into Inuit, Norse, and Gaelic groups based on orbital characteristics. The names of these groups are taken from Greek mythology. The largest irregular moon Phoebe is the ninth moon of Saturn, which was discovered at the end of the 19th century. Saturn’s rings are a combination of microscopic variable bodies to satellites several hundreds of meters in diameter, each orbiting Saturn in its own orbit.

It is believed that the moon system of the planet Saturn was formed similar to the moons of the planet Jupiter, but in general, the details of the formation of the moons of Saturn are unclear. On June 23, 2014, NASA reported strong evidence that the nitrogen in Titan’s atmosphere came from material in the Oort Cloud, not from Saturn.


Comparison of Saturn’s moons in terms of size

Grouping of Saturn’s moons

Although the demarcation of Saturn’s moons is somewhat vague, they can be divided into ten groups based on their orbital characteristics. Many of these moons, including Penn and Daphnis, are in Saturn’s ring system, and their orbital period is slightly longer than that of Saturn. Inner moons and regular moons have an average orbital inclination ranging from 1° to 1.5°. On the other hand, the irregular moons in the outermost part of Saturn’s moon system, especially in the Norse group, have orbital radians of millions of kilometers and orbital periods of several years. The Norse moons also orbit Saturn in the opposite direction.

  • Large inner moons: Saturn’s innermost large moons are located in Saturn’s thin E ring. These moons are Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, and Dione.
  • Large outer moons: These moons are located on the other side of the E ring, they are: Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus

Irregular moons

Irregular moons are small satellites with high radians and inclinations and are thought to have been caught in Saturn’s gravitational trap in the past. The exact size of these moons is still unknown because their dimensions are so small that they are difficult to observe with a telescope.


The three small moons between the moons of Mimas and Enceladus are called Alkeonids, which derives its name from Greek mythology. These three months are Matun, Ant, and Plan. Ant and Meton have a very thin circular arc in their orbit, while Plan has a completely thin ring. Among these moons, only Matun was photographed from a relatively close distance. This egg-shaped moon has a small number of impact craters.


Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and the second largest moon in the solar system (after Jupiter’s moon Ganymede). Titan is the only moon in the solar system with a dense and cloudy planet-like atmosphere. Scientists believe that the conditions on Titan are similar to the initial conditions on Earth, but the only difference is that the Earth is closer to the Sun and it is hotter. In many ways, Titan is the most similar to Earth.

Titan’s diameter reaches 2,575 km, which is almost 50% wider than the Earth’s moon. The distance between Titan and Saturn is about 1.2 million kilometers and 1.4 billion kilometers or 9.5 AU from the Sun. An astronomical unit is the distance from the Earth to the sun. It takes about 80 minutes for sunlight to reach Titan because of this distance, sunlight is about 100 times dimmer than sunlight on Earth.

It takes approximately 15 days and 22 hours for Titan to complete one orbit of Saturn. Titan is tidally locked to Saturn, which means that, like Earth’s moon, one side of it is always seen from Saturn. It takes approximately 29 Earth years for Saturn to complete an orbit around the Sun (Saturnian year) and Saturn’s axis of rotation, like Earth’s, has a deviation that creates seasons on this planet; But Saturn’s seasons are longer, typically lasting nearly seven Earth years each. Since Titan’s orbit is in line with Saturn’s equatorial plane and Titan’s deviation from the Sun is almost the same as Saturn’s, the seasons of this moon are the same as Saturn’s, that is, almost every season of Titan is seven Earth years and one year is equal to 29 Earth years.

Lakes of Titan
Cassini image of Titan’s north polar hydrocarbon lake

Scientists are not sure about the exact formation and origin of Titan. However, the atmosphere of this moon has clues. A number of Cassini Huygens probe instruments measured nitrogen-14 and nitrogen-15 isotopes in Titan’s atmosphere. According to the findings, the nitrogen isotope ratio found in Titan is very similar to the isotope of comets in the Everett cloud. The globular Oort cloud consists of hundreds of billions of icy bodies located between 5,000 and 100,000 AU from the Sun (each AU equals 150 million km). The nitrogen ratio of Titan’s atmosphere shows that the building blocks of this moon were formed in the same gas and dust cloud as the Sun in the early history of the solar system, and the origin of these blocks is not the hot disk of Saturn’s material.

Surface: Titan’s surface is one of the most similar to Earth in the entire solar system. Of course, its temperatures are lower and it has different chemical characteristics. The surface temperature of Titan reaches minus 179 degrees Celsius. Titan may also have volcanic activity. The surface of this moon is full of methane and ethane streams that form large river and lake channels. No other world in the entire solar system (except Earth) has surface liquid.

Titan’s rains are made of methane and form the moon’s seas and lakes

Atmosphere: Nearly 95% of Titan’s atmosphere is nitrogen and 5% is methane. Traces of carbon compounds can also be found in the atmosphere of this planet. At the heights of this moon, methane and nitrogen molecules are decomposed due to the impact of the ultraviolet light of the sun and energetic particles. Parts of this molecule are recombined and produce various biological chemicals such as materials containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and other essential elements for life.

Some of the compounds are formed by decomposition and cycle of methane and nitrogen. Methane and nitrogen create a thick, orange cloud that covers the surface of this moon, which is why it is difficult to examine Titan’s surface from space. The origin of all the methane in the atmosphere still remains a mystery.

The presence of methane and nitrogen in Titan’s atmosphere causes orange clouds

The potential for life on Titan

Cassini’s numerous gravity measurements of Titan suggest that the moon has a subsurface ocean of liquid water, possibly mixed with salt and ammonia. The European Space Agency’s Huygens probe also measured radio signals from the moon’s surface in 2005, indicating oceans 55 to 80 kilometers below Titan’s icy surface. The discovery of a global ocean of liquid water also places Titan in the group of moons of the solar system that have the potential for life. In addition to these rivers, lakes, and seas of methane and liquid ethane on the surface of Titan, they could act as a habitable environment on the surface of this moon, although any possible life on this moon would be different from terrestrial life; Therefore, Titan can host habitats and suitable conditions for life, including life that we know (in the subsurface ocean) and life that we do not know (in surface hydrocarbon liquids). Although evidence of life on Titan’s surface has yet to be discovered, the moon’s complex and unique chemical nature are definitive findings that make it an ideal destination for exploration.


Few moons in the solar system are as fascinating as Enceladus. Some of these moons are thought to have oceans of liquid water beneath their frozen crusts, but one of the unique features of Enceladus is its glaciers. Based on samples obtained from space probes, Enceladus has the most chemical elements necessary for life and probably has hydrothermal or hydrothermal vents that transport hot mineral water from subsurface oceans.

About the size of Arizona, Enceladus has the whitest and most reflective surface in the Solar System. This moon has a ring system and releases ice fragments into its orbit in space. These fragments form Saturn’s E ring. The name Enceladus comes from Greek mythology. The images of the Voyager spacecraft in the 1980s show that this moon, despite its small size (approximately 500 km in diameter), has a relatively smooth ice surface in some places and has a high brightness. In fact, Enceladus is one of the most reflective bodies in the solar system, the reason for which scientists did not know for years.

Since Enceladus reflects a large part of the sunlight, its surface temperature is extremely low and reaches minus 201 degrees Celsius. Enceladus is located at a distance of 238 thousand kilometers from Saturn between the orbits of two other moons, Mimas and Tethys. The moon is tidally locked to Saturn, taking approximately 32.9 hours to complete one orbit in the densest part of Saturn’s E ring.

In 2005, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft revealed water ice, and gas particles ejected from the surface of Enceladus at speeds of approximately 400 meters per second. These eruptions appear to be continuous, creating a huge halo of icy dust around Enceladus that forms the material of Saturn’s E ring. Only a small fraction of this material enters the ring, and most of it falls on the surface of Enceladus as snow. For this reason, this moon has a white and bright surface.

Enceladus’ glaciers originate from relatively warm cracks in its crust, which scientists call tiger stripes. Several gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and maybe a little ammonia, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen along with salt and silica make up the gas cover of Enceladus’ glacial channels. The density of biological material in glaciers is twenty times higher than expected by scientists.

Based on measurements of the Doppler effect and the very small amplitude of Enceladus’ wobble as it spins around, scientists have discovered a global ocean beneath the moon’s surface. They believe that the thickness of the ice shell of Enceladus in its south pole is close to 1 to 5 km. The average thickness of the entire crust is between 20 and 25 km.

Since the ocean of Enceladus has ice, and the glaciers form Saturn’s E ring, examining the E ring could mean examining the ocean of Enceladus. A large part of the E ring is made up of ice particles, but among them you can also find very small particles of silica. These particles are formed when liquid water and rock react with each other at temperatures above 90 degrees Celsius. This is another indication of the existence of warm blue channels under the icy crust of Enceladus, which are not dissimilar to the warm blue channels of the Earth’s oceans. Enceladus is one of the prime candidates for life in the solar system with features such as a global ocean, unique chemistry and internal heat.


Iapetus is the third largest moon of Saturn and the eleventh largest moon in the entire solar system. The young Cassini discovered this moon on October 25, 1671. However, Iapetus was seen by astronomers as a point whose brightness changed during Saturn’s orbital period. Voyager 1 and 2 probes visited the Saturn system and this moon in the 1980s and revealed its strange features. The diameter of the Iapetus reaches 736 km. Like Rhea, three-fourths of Iapetus, the other moon of Saturn, is made of ice, and one-fourth of it is made of rock.

According to the two claims of Iapetus, Saturn’s moon is included in the list of strange moons of the solar system. This moon was discovered in 1671 and one side is dimmer than the other side. The part of the hemisphere facing Saturn’s orbit is dark brown in color; while the other hemisphere is light gray. According to a theory explaining the color difference of this moon, the side facing Saturn is covered with dust that was spread by small meteorite impacts on other small outer moons of Saturn.

Meanwhile, the Cassini images tell a more complicated story. Most of the dark material on the surface of Iapetus originates from inside this moon and leaves behind dark streaks by the sublimation of dusty ice from the moon’s surface (solid to vapor). This process probably begins with the accretion of dust from exoplanets.

Also, Iapetus has a mountain range 13 km high and 20 km wide at the equator, which gives it a distinctive walnut-like appearance. The origin of this mountain range is unknown. According to some theories, this mountain is a fossil from the time of the faster rotation of Iaptus, which arose in the equatorial part; While others believe that this mountain is the result of pebbles from the ancient ring system around this moon that collapsed and landed on the surface.

Moon Iapetus

Hyperion is the largest non-spherical irregular moon of Saturn. Its average radius is 135 km, but since this moon is potato-shaped, its shape can be described based on its diameter along three axes. Hyperion has a strange appearance: its surface is like a sponge or coral with dark pits and sharp grooves formed by ice and lighter rocks. However, this is not the only strange feature of Hyperion: Hyperion was the first discovered non-spherical moon and has an eccentric orbit.

Hyperion’s rotation does not coincide with its orbital period and orbits Saturn in an irregular pattern; so that its rotation axis fluctuates unpredictably. Like other moons of the solar system, Hyperion is made of water ice; But its surface is strangely dark. According to Cassini spacecraft estimates, the density of Hyperion is 55% of that of water; As a result, a large part of its interior is empty.

According to a popular theory, one of the reasons for Hyperion’s strange properties is that it was a remnant of a larger moon that was probably located between Titan and Iapetus and was destroyed by a collision with a large comet. The remaining material condensed again and formed Hyperion.


The Voyager probes shocked scientists by capturing detailed images of Saturn’s moon Mimas in the 1980s. This moon is very similar to the Death Star in the sci-fi movie Star Wars. A large impact crater covers one of the hemispheres of this moon and is exactly the same size and similar to the destructive laser plate that George Lucas mentioned; But Mimas is more than just an element of popular culture.

Mimas is Saturn’s innermost moon, orbiting closer to Saturn than Enceladus and farther than Pan and Atlas. The diameter of this moon reaches 396 km; For this reason, the smallest object in the solar system is spherical in shape.

Saturn's moon Mimas
Herschel impact crater on the surface of Mimas. The name of this impact crater is derived from the name of William Herschel, who discovered this moon in 1789.

Pan and Atlas

Pan and Atlas are both Saturn’s innermost moons. Atlas orbits Saturn at the outer edge of the A ring. It takes approximately 14.4 hours for Atlas to complete one orbit of Saturn, and 8.13 hours for Pan. Saturn’s moons Pan and Atlas are the smallest moons in the solar system. Despite their small size, these moons can influence Saturn’s ring system. These small worlds are perhaps the best-known examples of shepherd moons. Shepherd moons are small moons that are located in the ring systems of giant planets. As their name suggests, these moons help particles in the Saturn system stick together, while also cleaning up other particles.

Pan causes Encke Gap; A prominent resolution is seen in the bright ring A; While Atlas is located outside the ring A. The most important feature of both moons is their smooth surface, which looks like a flying saucer or a walnut. Bonnie Borrati of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Experiment believes these moons are covered in tiny particles that clear the space between the rings.

Pan and Atlas
Pan and Atlas in the shape of a flying saucer


Rhea is the second largest moon of Saturn, but its average radius is one-third that of Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. Rhea is a small, cold and airless world that is very similar to its moons, Dione and Tethys. Like the other two moons, Rhea has a tidal lock to Saturn, which means that one side of it is always seen from Saturn. It takes 4.5 Earth days for Rhea to complete one orbit of Saturn. The surface temperature of Rhea is similar to that of Dion and Tethys, which reaches minus 174 degrees Celsius in sunny areas and minus 220 degrees Celsius in shadow areas. Rhea, like Dion and Tethys, has a high reflectivity and shows that its surface is mainly composed of water ice.

Rhea is located at a distance of 527,000 km from Saturn and is a bit further from Dione and Tethys. In 2010, the Cassini spacecraft discovered a very thin atmosphere called the exosphere around Rhea, which is a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Cassini also detected signs of material in Rhea’s orbit in 2008. This was the first discovery of a ring around a moon.

Rhea Qamar Zahul

Dione is a small moon with an average radius of 562 km that completes the orbit of Saturn once every 2.7 days. This moon is located at a distance of 377 thousand kilometers from Saturn, which is exactly equal to the distance between the moon and the Earth. The density of dione is 1.48 times that of liquid water, as a result, one-third of dione is made up of a dense core (probably of silicate rock), and the rest is made of ice.

Very fine icy powders (similar to smoke) from Saturn’s E ring bombard the surface of Dione. The E ring dust is formed from the icy moon Enceladus. The surface of Dion is full of impact craters so that the diameter of the craters reaches 100 km.


Tethys is the fifth largest moon of Saturn. Its average radius reaches 633 km. This cold and airless moon is very similar to its sister moons, Dione and Rhea. Of course, with the exception that Tethys does not have many impact craters like the other two moons. A large part of Tethys is made up of water ice and a small part of it is made up of rock.

Tethys has a high reflectivity and this feature is another indication of its ice composition. The average temperature of Tethys reaches minus 187 degrees Celsius. Tethys appears as a small dot in the night sky, and its true nature was revealed after a visit by the Voyager probes. It takes 3.45 hours for Tethys to complete the orbit of Saturn.

Tethys, the moon of Saturn

Hexagonal Storm: Saturn’s north pole has a fascinating feature called a hexagonal wind flow. This hexagonal pattern was first observed from images sent by the Voyager spacecraft and then observed from a closer distance by Cassini. This hexagon, whose diameter reaches 30,000 km, is a wavy current, whose wind speed reaches 322 km/h, and a storm is placed in its center. This storm is unique in the entire solar system. At the south pole of Saturn, there is also evidence of storm currents, but no hexagonal waves are seen. According to NASA reports from Cassini in November 2006, a tornado-like storm was observed at Saturn’s south pole.

Saturn's North Pole Hexagon

Reduction of rings: According to NASA research, Saturn’s rings have been decreasing at a maximum speed since Voyager probes visited this planet. These rings were attracted towards this planet due to gravity and under the influence of Saturn’s magnetic field. According to scientists, Saturn’s rings will be completely destroyed in three hundred million years, on the other hand, according to Cassini’s findings, Saturn’s rings are relatively young and their life is less than one hundred million years. As a result, the rings of Saturn are much younger compared to the life of this planet (4 billion years).

Long seasons: Saturn has seasonal changes like Earth, but Saturn’s seasons have a major difference from Earth’s seasons. It takes one year for the Earth to complete the orbit of the sun, during this time the Earth experiences cold and hot seasons. But since Saturn is far from the Sun, it takes 29 Earth years to complete the orbit of the Sun. As a result, one Saturn year is equal to 29 Earth years. Therefore, the seasons also get longer and the duration of each Saturnian season is approximately seven years.

Diamond rain: Since the internal structure of Saturn is completely different from the structure of Earth, its rains are not made of water but of diamonds. According to scientists, ten million tons of diamonds are produced in Saturn’s atmosphere every year. This phenomenon occurs thanks to the combination of methane gas (CH4) with the wind activities of this planet. Saturn’s rays have a high temperature and are 10,000 times stronger than Earth’s rays, and when they are emitted, they break molecular bonds and separate hydrogen and carbon.

Ten million tons of diamond rain falls on Saturn every year

The carbon atoms join together to form larger molecules that result in a soot-like compound. This black cloud is far from a diamond, but the story does not end there. The new molecule is relatively heavy and will fall down when caught in the planet’s gravity trap. By falling to greater depths, the temperature and pressure on the molecules also increase. These conditions lead to carbon transformation. At first, carbon is converted to graphite. The same stuff that’s inside your pencils and then turns into one-centimeter-diameter diamonds and they keep falling.

Seeing Saturn from Earth

The observation and exploration of Saturn can be divided into three phases. The first period of ancient observations (including observations with the naked eye) is before the invention of the telescope. Advanced ground-based telescopic observations began in the 17th century. According to written history, the planet Saturn has been one of the main elements of many myths. Babylonian astronomers systematically observed and recorded the movements of Saturn.

The third phase was the visit of space probes, simultaneously with this period of ground-based observations (including the Hubble Space Telescope) continued. To see Saturn’s rings, you need a telescope with a diameter of at least 15 mm. Christian Huygens was able to achieve this success in 1659. Before that, Galileo had observed Saturn with his early telescope and thought that Saturn was not completely spherical. Until Huygens was able to observe Saturn’s rings for the first time with a more advanced telescope. Huygens also discovered Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. Later, the young Domenico Cassini discovered four more moons of Saturn: Iapetus, Rhea, Tethys, and Dione.

William Herschel discovered two other moons, Mimas and Enceladus, in 1789. A British team also discovered Hyperion in 1848. William Henry Pickering discovered Phoebe in 1899, which is an irregular moon that does not rotate perfectly in sync with Saturn and its other moons. In the 20th century, studies of Titan proved the existence of a thick atmosphere on this moon.

Discoveries of Saturn in the Space Age

In the modern era, Hubble Space Telescope observations continued. Pioneer 11 was the first spacecraft to observe Saturn from a close distance, later Voyager 1 and 2 provided more detailed observations. But Cassini was the only orbiter that provided more detailed and comprehensive information about Saturn, and the Huygens probe of this spacecraft landed on the surface of Titan for the first time in 2005.

Pioneer discoveries 11

Pioneer 11 passed through the upper clouds of Saturn for the first time in September 1979. Pioneer 11 photographed Saturn and several of its moons, although the quality of the images is low and does not show much detail. The spacecraft also examined Saturn’s rings and revealed the thin F ring.

Pioneer 11 also showed that dark gaps in Saturn’s rings appear bright and contain light-scattering material when viewed from a high phase angle (towards the Sun). Another achievement of Pioneer in the exploration of Saturn was to measure the temperature of Titan.

Pioneer image of Saturn
Pioneer 11 low quality image of Saturn

Voyager 1 and 2 discoveries

Voyager 1 visited the Saturn system in November 1980. The probe released the first high-quality images of the planet, its rings, and its moons. The surface features of Saturn’s moons were first revealed by Voyager. Voyager 1 approached the moon Titan and sent back a lot of information about the moon’s atmosphere. According to the data of this probe, Titan’s atmosphere is impenetrable in visible wavelengths, as a result, none of its surface details were seen.

Almost a year later, in August 1981, Voyager 2 continued its survey of the Saturn system. More detailed images of Saturn’s moons were sent, as well as evidence of atmospheric changes and its rings. Unfortunately, the probe’s rotatable camera malfunctioned for several days during the Saturn survey, and many views were not recorded. Operators used Saturn’s gravity to redirect the spacecraft toward Uranus. The two Voyager probes discovered a number of moons near and inside Saturn’s rings, as well as the small Maxwell fissure (a gap in the C ring) and the Keeler fissure (a wide, 42 km gap in the A ring).

Image of Saturn's rings from the Voyager probe
Image captured by Voyager 2

Cassini Huygens: Exploring the Saturn System

The Cassini spacecraft began orbiting Saturn on June 30, 2004 and continued its mission until September 15, 2017, when the probe ended its life by hitting the planet’s atmosphere. The destruction of Cassini was intentional and to ensure that the moons Enceladus and Titan were not contaminated. Cassini’s achievements include the discovery of the glaciers of Enceladus and the discovery of new moons for Saturn. Cassini was a joint project of multiple space agencies and was pitted against NASA’s older and larger probes, including Pioneer and Voyager. Cassini’s partners were NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency.

Cassini was the first spacecraft dedicated entirely to studying Saturn and its ring system. The orbiter was named after Giovanni Cassini, an astronomer of the 17th century. Cassini was not launched directly at Saturn. Rather, its mission was a little more complicated. Before reaching Saturn, he checked the planets Venus (twice), Earth, and Jupiter and thus used the gravity of each planet to increase his speed. This 5700 kg spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997. It reached Venus in April 1998, Earth in August 1999, and Jupiter in December 2000.

Cassini finally entered Saturn’s orbit on July 1, 2004. One of the main goals of this mission was to discover more moons for Saturn and to discover the structure and color of the rings, as well as to get more information about the moons of this planet. Cassini carried a passenger called the Huygens probe. Huygens landed on the surface of Titan on January 14, 2005, and transmitted data to Earth for 2.5 hours.

In this short period of time, the researchers obtained images of the surface as well as information about the gases and winds in the atmosphere and on the surface of Titan. Cassini discovered two new moons for Saturn and discovered the presence of liquid water on the surface of Enceladus and its glaciers. It also published more details about Titan’s methane lake. Other Cassini discoveries include the following:

  • Debris 80 km from the surface of Iapetus
  • A close-up view of the Rhea moon and its impact craters.
  • The discovery of a large ring approximately 12 million kilometers from Saturn, which is probably composed of particles from the moon Phoebe.
Cassini captured this image just two days before leaving Saturn
An image of a storm cloud captured by Cassini from Saturn's north pole.
Spring at Saturn's North Pole: A View of the Hexagonal Storm
A view of Titan and Devon in front of Saturn
Three views of Titan from the Cassini probe
Cassini captured this amazing image in 2013: Saturn, its rings, and Earth (the white dot) in one frame.
Tethys from the Cassini probe
Saturn's rings as seen by Cassini
A selection of images captured by the Cassini Huygens spacecraft

Farewell to Cassini

Cassini’s last data was transmitted to Earth on September 15, 2017; Then this probe was destroyed by collision with Saturn’s atmosphere. This was Cassini’s last orbit around Saturn after 13 years of exploration and investigation. According to NASA experts, Cassini disintegrated 45 seconds after its last transmission due to the heat and friction of the fall.

Shortly after Cassini broke up, its mission planner Eric Sturm outlined his plan to report on his and his team’s experiences on the mission. The mission is over, but its scientific results will be published for decades to come because the entire data has not yet been analyzed.

Future missions to Saturn

Among the proposed plans for explorations on the planet Saturn, the robotic probe Dragonfly has reached the approval stage of NASA. The probe is in the form of a drone and will investigate hundreds of locations on Titan, Saturn’s moon. It will also sample and measure the composition of biological materials on the surface of Titan and search for life on this moon. Dragonfly will launch in 2026 and reach Saturn in 2034.


Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop review




Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop
With the Zephyrus G14 2024, Asus has taken big steps in the right direction and turned its popular 14-inch laptop into a worthy opponent for the MacBook Pro 14.

Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop review

The Zephyrus G14 is a very important laptop; because it was the beginning of a new trend; Four years have passed since the introduction of the first generation G14, at that time there was no foreign 14-inch gaming laptop; But now, thanks to Asus, other companies such as Razer, MSI and HP have entered the field of 14-inch gaming laptops.

Table of Contents
  • Zephyrus G14 2024 video review
  • Compact, well-made, and premium design
  • Stunning OLED display and powerful speakers
  • Standard keyboard and a large trackpad that is not haptic!
  • Powerful hardware with optimal performance
  • The difference in laptop performance profiles
  • Laptop behavior in heavy and continuous processing
  • The difference in laptop performance when connected and disconnected from the power outlet
  • Laptop performance compared to competitors
  • Laptop performance in professional use
  • Laptop performance in Blender software
  • Laptop performance in the game
  • Optimal battery life in normal use
  • Zephyrus G14 2024 against the competition

Now we have the lovely G14 laptop model 2024; A device that, with its powerful hardware, stunning OLED display, minimal design, and high-quality metal body, competes with MacBooks and attracts attention.

To buy the 14-inch Zephyrus G14 laptop or other specific laptops, you can visit the Afrashop online store.

Compact, well-made, and premium design

The main and most impressive change in the 2024 model of the G14 laptop compared to previous generations is a 180-degree change in the strategy of Asus designers; I don’t recall Asus ever turning to machining to design and build its gaming laptops and carving the body out of a single block of aluminum; We have always seen Asus laptops at their best with a body made of aluminum sheets or magnesium alloy.

The lighting behind the Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

Thanks to the change in the manufacturing process of the laptop, has a noticeable effect on the attractiveness and premium feeling of the Zephyrus G14; Asus, in describing its gaming laptop, calls it “a perfect combination of performance and style” and this Taiwanese company is really right!

The body of Zephyrus G14 is much denser than the previous generation and gives a good sense of quality; We don’t hear a “creaking” sound from anywhere on the laptop, the screen frame doesn’t sway, and the surface of the device doesn’t sink when pressing the keys. Of course, with all these improvements, Zephyrus is still not at the level of premium products such as MacBook and Surface; Although it is very close to them.

The thickness of the Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

The dimensions of the G14 2024 body are noticeably more compact than the previous generation; Last year, the thickness of the laptop reached more than 2 cm; But now it does not exceed about 1.6 cm and of course, the weight of the device has become lighter by about 200 grams; More precisely, the dimensions of the body are 1.59-1.63 x 22.0 x 31.1 cm and its weight is about 1.5 kg.

In the slim body of Zephyrus G14, there are various ports; On the left side of the device, you can see Asus’ dedicated charging port, HDMI 2.1 port, a USB4 Type-C port with DisplayPort 2.0 support and 100W power delivery, a full-size USB 3.2 port, and a headphone combo jack; The right side of the laptop hosts a USB 3.2 Type-C port, another full-size USB 3.2 port, and a high-speed microSD port; eCash was a full-size SD memory card slot, so it was more useful for photographers and videographers.

Ports on the left side of the Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop
The ports on the right side of the Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

The 14-inch G14 2024 laptop uses MediaTek’s MT7922 network card, which supports Bluetooth 5.3 and Wi-Fi 6E connectivity and shows stable and satisfactory performance; But if you want, you can easily replace the network card.

In addition to the more compact body, G14 2024 has a much more minimal and simple design; Asus designers have said goodbye to the array of LED lights, or Animematrix, which occupied half of the back of the device in previous models, and instead, they have used a diagonal and narrow strip of LED lights that are placed on the diameter of the laptop, giving it a different and unique look. They gave a laptop. With the help of Asus Armory Crate software, you can customize the lighting effect of these lights or disable them completely.

Working with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

All in all, the G14’s appearance has now been changed in such a way that it can be taken to meetings as a work laptop, and still maintain a gaming spirit! The Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop can be purchased in white or gray. We have the gray color for review, which looks very attractive and stylish; But soon it gets fingerprints, grease, and stains; So if you are obsessive and sensitive, you should always have a microfiber cloth with you to clean the laptop.

Traces of grease and stains on Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

If you think that the G14’s charms are limited to its exterior, I must say that you would be very wrong; The main surprise happens when you open the laptop door and face its screen; Of course, I must say that the hinge of the laptop is very strong and gives the user a sense of confidence; While it opens with one hand.

Stunning OLED display and powerful speakers

The Zephyrus G14 screen can be described in one word as “stunning”; The 14-inch OLED panel of the laptop with a high aspect ratio of 16:10 and its narrow borders give the laptop a very modern look. On the other hand, like expensive and premium laptops, instead of plastic borders, the integrated glass cover covers the entire display surface; However, this glossy coating reduces the readability of the display in bright environments.

Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop display

Zephyrus G14’s OLED panel with a resolution of 1800 x 2880 pixels and a very good density of 243 pixels provides a clear and sharp image; So that at normal distances from the laptop, the pixels cannot be separated. Asus declares the response time of the panel to be an extremely fast number of 0.2 milliseconds, which is a dream for competitive gamers; But the most impressive feature of the display is its refresh rate.

Zephyrus G14 is the world’s first laptop with an OLED panel that supports variable refresh rate to prevent image tearing while playing games and is compatible with Nvidia’s G-SYNC technology; This feature is one of the most impressive achievements of Asus; I will explain further.

Watching movies with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

Unlike LCD panels, whose brightness is independent of the image refresh rate, the brightness of OLED panels is provided by the pixels themselves, and this brightness depends on both the intensity of the light produced by the pixels and the image refresh rate; For this reason, if the refresh rate of the image decreases, so-called, the rate of turning on and off pixels also decreases, and as a result, the brightness of the panel decreases.

In order to solve the limitations of the OLED panel, Asus has considered the on-and-off rate of the exposure layer of the pixels to be higher than the refresh rate of the image; This means that when the image is updated at a rate of 120 Hz, the exposure layer is turned on and off with a frequency of 4 times, that is, 480 Hz; So when you are immersed in the game and suddenly the frame rate drops from 100 to 80 fps, the brightness of the image does not drop.

Zephyrus G14 2024 screen performance against other laptops


White image

Black image

contrast ratio




Maximum brightness

Minimum brightness

Average brightness



Average error


Average error


Average error

Zephyrus G14 2024

472 intentions

(730 nits HDR)

0 intentions

95 percent

148 percent


100 percent


Zephyrus G14 2023

335 intentions

17 intention

3.28 intentions


90 percent

125 percent

100 percent


MacBook Air 2024

443 intentions

0.00 nits

0.67 nits







Zenbook 14

512 intention

(788 nits HDR)

0.27 nits

0 intentions







Galaxy Book 3 Ultra

441 intentions

4 intentions

0 intentions







MacBook Pro M1 Max

455 intentions

(1497 nits HDR)

0 intentions

0 intentions





The OLED panel of the Zephyrus G14 produces eye-catching and very attractive colors, this panel can cover the very wide AdobeRGB color space by about 95%, the DCI P3 wide color space completely, and the conventional sRGB color space by about 148% with an extremely small error of 0.8 to give The precision and extraordinary coverage of the panel make the G14 laptop an excellent choice for graphic designers.

The G14 laptop achieves an excellent brightness of 730 nits while playing HDR videos and when a small part of the image is lit; Of course, be careful that to enjoy HDR content, you must connect the laptop to electricity. Asus says the laptop’s display supports HDR video with the Dolby Vision standard and has received VESA DisplayHDR and Pantone certifications for HDR support and accurate color reproduction, respectively.

Windows lock screen on Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

The Asus gaming laptop achieves a brightness of 472 nits during normal content display (SDR) in Zoomit reviews, which is reasonable brightness and provides a pleasant visual experience along with the ultra-high contrast and deep blacks of the OLED panel; However, the glossiness of the panel cover makes it a little difficult to work with the laptop in bright environments.

Asus has complemented the G14’s exceptional visual experience with a superb audio experience; The G14’s speakers are the closest to Apple’s MacBooks of all the Windows laptops I’ve reviewed so far; If you are familiar with the sound of MacBooks, you know know what a great advantage the G14 has over other Windows.

Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop speakers
Speaker vent under Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

Zefiros G14 uses 6 speakers including two dual woofers; The woofers are placed in pairs on the sides of the laptop in opposite directions (up and down) to prevent the laptop body from vibrating. Asus says the woofers have been enlarged by 125% to produce clearer sound and more punchy bass, while the output volume has also increased by 3.5 times; In reality, the audio experience of the laptop is very pleasing to the ears with little noise and poor sound resolution.

Standard keyboard and a large trackpad that is not haptic!

The 14-inch Asus laptop also has a very efficient keyboard, the depth of movement of the G14 island keys reaches a very good number of 1.7 mm, the size of the keys has increased by 12.24% compared to the previous generation, and their feedback is satisfactory. The keys have a standard arrangement and distance from each other; So that after a short time, you get used to typing with the device. Asus estimates the useful life of the keys up to 20 million times.

Typing with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

Perhaps one of my complaints about the design of the keyboard is its 6-sided power button, which does not have any visual harmony with the rest of the laptop. Don’t be fooled by the fact that the button is made of glass. Because there is no fingerprint sensor in G14; But fortunately, you can rely on facial recognition with Windows Hello for authentication.

Windows Hello with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

The webcam of the device also provides the possibility of video calling with 1080p resolution, which is not at the level of Microsoft Surfaces; Instead, thanks to the neural processing unit at the heart of the processor, Windows Effects Studio can be used for tasks such as subject tracking and automatic frame adjustment, maintaining eye contact and blurring the background in video calls.

Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop trackpad

The G14 trackpad is very wide and is located in the middle of the laptop so as not to trigger OCD users; ASUS designers have used a 3:2 aspect ratio for the trackpad to match the aspect ratio of the display. The clicks have very good feedback the finger slides easily on the glass surface of the trackpad and its movement is tracked with great accuracy; But I expect a 100 million Toman laptop to use a haptic trackpad instead of mechanical buttons for the click mechanism, just like MacBooks; I hope we will see such a change in the next generation.

Powerful hardware with optimal performance

What we have said about the body and accessories of the laptop is enough; Let’s talk about the most important aspect of gaming laptops; What power does Zephyrus G14 have and how does it appear in playing games?

This year, Asus keeps the powerful RTX 4080 and RTX 4090 graphics exclusive to the larger G16 laptop and offers the 14-inch G14 laptop with 4060 and 4070 graphics; Although it is apparently available in the Iranian market with 4050 graphics. By limiting the G14 to less powerful graphics and injecting 90 watts into the GPU, Asus engineers have managed to make the laptop slimmer. We have the 4070 model for review, which is currently sold in the market at the price of 115 to 120 million Tomans.

Running the game with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

All three configurations (config in market terms) of Zephyrus G14 are powered by AMD Ryzen 9 8945HS processor; The processor, which is one of AMD’s powerful laptop models from the Ryzen 8000 family with Zen 4 architecture, is produced with improved 5nm class lithography (4nm according to the manufacturer) and works with a TDP equivalent to 45W by default. This processor uses 8 cores with a base frequency of 4 and a turbo frequency of 5.2 GHz and has the ability to simultaneously process 16 instruction threads.

AMD calls its laptop processor an APU (accelerated processing unit); Because in its heart, in addition to the CPU, the Radeon 780M integrated graphics uses 12 graphics cores with RDNA3 architecture and a working frequency of 2.8 GHz, and offers performance at the level of Nvidia’s GTX 1650 Max-Q graphics. Next to the graphics, the name of the AMD neural processing unit is also visible, which can perform 16 trillion operations per second.

Zephyrus G14 2024 storage performance


SSD volume

Sequential reading rate

Sequential write rate

Zephyrus G14 2024


4997 megabytes

3431 MB

Zephyrus G14 2022


3617 MB

2832 MB

HP Specter x360 16


6389 megabytes

4908 MB

Zephyrus M16 2022


6631 megabytes

5015 MB

The Ryzen 8945HS processor supports dual-channel RAM DDR5-5600 and LPDDR5x-7500 with a capacity of up to 256 GB, But the Taiwanese sell the G14 2024 laptop with 16 or 32 GB LPDDR5x-6400 RAM; A piece that pays the price of the laptop becoming thinner and unlike the previous generation, it is now onboard and cannot be upgraded.

Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop SSD performance

Asus uses a high-speed PCIe 4.0 1TB SSD in all versions of the Zephyrus G14, which achieved read and write speeds of around 5GB and 3.5GB/s in our tests. Zephyrus G14 SSD is not among the fastest, But it fully meets the user’s needs and most importantly, it can be upgraded.

The difference in laptop performance profiles

Before talking about the performance of the device, let’s clarify a little about Asus performance profiles; Because probably most of the users do not know about the existence of these profiles and their effect on the overall performance of the laptop.

For its gaming laptops, Asus has a software called Armory Crate, which can be used to control various parts of the device, from the color profiles of the display to the lighting, and of course the performance profile of the graphics and CPU. In this software, you can change the behavior of the graphics, and adjust the amount of power injected to the graphics and CPU and the speed of the fans.

Working with Armory Crate software on Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

As for the graphics behavior, we have four modes:

  • Optimized mode: Asus recommends it; With this mode, if the laptop is disconnected from the power supply, the Nvidia graphics will be disabled, and when connected to the power supply, the device will go to the Nvidia graphics only in heavy usage such as playing games.
  • Eco Mode: As the name suggests, it completely shuts down the Nvidia graphics under all conditions.
  • Standard mode: It is Microsoft’s protocol (MSHybrid) and Windows decides when to go for Nvidia graphics or integrated graphics. Although Asus recommends the Optimized mode, But the laptop defaults to Standard mode.
  • Ultimate Mode: The integrated graphics is completely removed from the circuit and the screen is connected directly to the Nvidia graphics. This mode has the highest battery consumption, But it may slightly improve the frame rate in some games.

The settings related to the performance profiles of the cooling fans and the power consumption of the processor and graphics of the laptop are as follows:

  • Manual profile: the user can change the parameters related to power consumption and fans at will.
  • Turbo profile: injects the maximum amount of power to the graphics and processor and is only available when connected to the power supply; In this profile, the laptop is literally noisy and the fans are running most of the time. In the following, you can see that there is not much improvement in the performance of the laptop.
  • Performance profile: This is the default profile of the laptop, the sound of the fans is not annoying and the performance of the device is almost equal to the Turbo profile.
  • Silent profile: limits the power consumption of the device to reduce the production heat and use less fans. In this CPU performance profile, at least in daily use, it does not suffer much; But the graphics performance experiences a 50-60% drop when connected to electricity.
  • Windows profile: the power consumption and heat management of the device is entrusted to Windows itself; Surprisingly, even when using other profiles, when unplugging the laptop, the Windows battery setting changes from Best Performance to Balanced, which negatively affects the performance of the device.

Practically, with Armory Crate software, you can set 20 different modes for laptop performance; But in general, it must be said that the existence of so many profiles and colorful performance modes has no result other than confusing the user; A user who is probably not aware of the existence of a software like Armory Crate and its purpose, and of course he should not be aware, he should not think about the performance profile and power consumption, he should always get the right combination of performance and good charging from the laptop with the least challenge. .

G14 2024 performance in different performance profiles


CPU power consumption

CineBench 2024

GPU power consumption

3DMark TimeSpy


75 watt turbo

60 watts stable

914 (multi-core)

70 to 80 watts



65-watt turbo

45W stable

918 (multi-core)

60 watts



65-watt turbo

35 watts stable

862 (multi-core)

57-watt turbo

33 watts stable


In the table above, you can see the result of selecting a number of Asus performance profiles along with the scores obtained in the benchmarks with these profiles. Based on the obtained numbers, it is clear that the Turbo profile does not make a significant improvement in the performance of the device, despite the high noise, noticeable increase in power consumption, and the heat it produces.

Laptop behavior in heavy and continuous processing

Due to the inefficiency of the Turbo profile and the drastic drop in graphics performance in the Silent profile, we will put the Performance profile under the microscope. In the first step, it is better to check the behavior of the laptop when connected to the electrical outlet (Plugged) and separated from the electrical outlet (Unplugged).

When the Ryzen 9 8945HS processor in the Dell G14 2024 laptop is under pressure with the CineBench 2024 rendering benchmark, the device with the Performance profile, in both Plugged and Unplugged states, works more or less with the same strategy of the processor; But as you can see below, apparently this strategy is only limited to the CineBench benchmark; Because in other software, we see a noticeable drop in performance.

Power consumption of Ryzen 9 8945HS processor in Asus G14 2024 laptopCPU power consumption
Ryzen 9 8945HS processor clock in Asus G14 2024 laptop
CPU clock
Ryzen 9 8945HS processor temperature in Asus G14 2024 laptop
The temperature of the hottest processor core

The G14 2024 laptop injects about 65 watts of power into the processor in the initial moments, then it works with about 55 watts of power from the processor for a few minutes until it finally stabilizes at about 45 watts. The frequency reaches 4.7 GHz at best and finally stabilizes at 4.3-4.4 GHz; While the temperature first increases to 87-88 degrees Celsius, then it fluctuates in the range of 80 degrees Celsius.

Contrary to what we saw about the processor, there is a huge difference between the graphics performance in the Plugged and Unplugged state. When the G14 2024 laptop is subjected to a heavy processing load in the Performance profile for 20 minutes with the heavy graphics benchmark 3DMark TimeSpy, in the plugged state, the power consumption fluctuates in the range of 60 watts, and in the unplugged state, the power consumption remains in the range of 42-43 watts; Therefore, there is a 30% drop in power consumption.

Power consumption of RTX 4070 graphics in Asus G14 2024 laptopGraphics power consumption
RTX 4070 graphics clock in Asus G14 2024 laptop
Graphic clock
RTX 4070 graphics temperature in Asus G14 2024 laptop
The temperature of the hottest point of the graphic

In the performance stability test, the RTX 4070 graphics frequency works with a frequency of about 1600 MHz in Plugged mode and about 1400 MHz in Unplugged mode, and the temperature of its hottest point reaches 92-93 and 80 degrees Celsius in these two modes. As you can see, in graphics processing, the device gets hotter than CPU-based processing.

The difference in laptop performance when connected and disconnected from the power outlet

One of the main points about the laptop, which often remains hidden from the eyes of the buyer, is the difference in its performance when connected and disconnected from the power outlet (Plugged and Unplugged); Can a laptop provide the same performance in battery-powered mode as in plugged-in mode? The answer to this question for Windows laptops was a resounding “no” until the release of devices equipped with Snapdragon X processors and a handful of Intel and AMD processors. Can the G14 2024 surprise you?

G14 2024 operation in plugged and unplugged mode


GeekBench 6.3

Speedometer 2.1

Python code

Premiere Pro


Forza Horizon 5 – QHD






40.8 seconds



70 frames per second






45 seconds



30 frames per second

The G14 2024 laptop in the stress test and performance stability that we did with the CineBench 2024 benchmark, practically provided the same performance in the Plugged and Unplugged state; But as you can see in the table above, we did not get the same result for other software and benchmarks. Unfortunately, the G14 appears between 10 and 60% weaker in Unplugged mode and when browsing the web, running Python code, working with Photoshop and Premiere Pro, or even playing Forza Horizon 5.

Laptop performance compared to competitors

Now let us measure the performance of Zephyrus G14 2024 in comparison with its competitors and its previous generation. Please note that in the continuation of the review, we obtained the benchmarks in the condition that the laptop was connected to the power outlet and used the Performance profile.

Note that in order to get a correct idea of ​​G14 2024’s performance, some benchmarks have tried to reflect the results of MacBook Pro M3 Pro and Zephyrus G16 Core Ultra 9 185H from reliable foreign media; Because these two laptops with a price tag of 100 to 120 million tomans are the main competitors of G14 2024.

Zephyrus G14 2024 performance against competitors (plugged in)


Technical Specifications

Web browsing

Performance in graphics

CPU performance in rendering

CPU computing power

GPU computing power

3 Dark

CineBench R23

GeekBench 6

GeekBench 6

Speedometer 2.1








DirectX 12

Zephyrus G14 2024

Ryzen 9 8945HS

RTX 4070









Zephyrus G14 2022

Ryzen 9 6900HS

RX 6800S









* MacBook Pro 14

M3 Pro

14 Core GPU








* Zephyrus G16 2024

Core Ultra 9 185H

RTX 4070







MacBook Air 2024


8 Core GPU








Zenbook 14

Core Ultra 7 155H

Intel Arc GPU









MacBook Pro 14 inch 2021

M1 Max

24Core GPU








Zephyrus G14 2024 experiences significant improvement in benchmarks compared to the 2022 model; But since Ryzen 9 7945HS and Ryzen 9 8945HS do not have any noticeable difference apart from the neural processing engine, you will probably not experience a significant improvement compared to the 2023 model.

We haven’t reviewed the MacBook Pro M3 Pro and the Zephyrus G16 2024, the G14’s main competitors on Zoomit; But to some extent, I must say that MacBook Pro outperforms G14 in single-core processing with a 20% difference and G16 in multi-core processing with a 10-15% difference. Another notable issue is the G14’s stark performance gap with the MacBook in web browsing.

If we use computing power as the benchmark to compare graphics performance, the RTX 4070 GPUs in the G14 and G16 laptops offer more or less the same performance; But the MacBook Pro loses to the G14 2024 by a huge margin of 60%.

Laptop performance in professional use

In order to measure the performance of the Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop in professional use as well, we went to Photoshop software, Premiere Pro, running code written in Python and Blender software.

Laptop performance in Photoshop

In the Photoshop software test, which includes tasks such as opening the RAW file, changing the size of photos, correcting the lens, and reducing noise, the G14 2024 laptop remains behind its competitors G16 2024 and MacBook Pro M3 Pro with a difference of 10 and 25%, respectively.

G14 2024 laptop performance in Photoshop

Note that the above result was obtained when the laptop is connected to the power outlet; If we disconnect the G14 from the power supply, we reach a score of 6199; While the MacBook Pro offers the same performance when unplugged; Therefore, unplugged mode, the performance gap between the two laptops increases from 25% to about 40%.

Laptop performance in Premier Pro

In the Premier Pro test, tasks such as outputting 8-bit and 50 Mbps 4K videos with HEVC and H.264 codecs, processing ProRes UHD videos with and without proxy, and implementing graphic effects are examined. In this test, the G14 laptop was able to beat the MacBook Pro M3 Pro by 35%; But it remained with a 10% difference from G16.

Performance of the G14 2024 laptop running Premier Pro

If we disconnect the G14 2024 from the power outlet, its score in the Premier Pro test drops by 20% to 6637, which is still higher than the MacBook Pro M3 Pro by about 10%.

Laptop performance in Python code execution

In the Mandelbrot series benchmark, which is written in Python to find the points of a fractal on a mixed screen, the G14 2024 performed brilliantly thanks to its powerful processor that when using Windows PowerShell, the calculation of fractal points was completed 10% faster than the MacBook Air M3 and 32% faster than the powerful and expensive GalaxyBook 3 Ultra laptop.

G14 2024 laptop performance in Python code execution

Windows provides the possibility of using the Linux terminal thanks to its Linux subsystem called WSL. If we use WSL to run the benchmark, the G14’s performance gap with the MacBook Air and GalaxyBook 3 Ultra increases to 36 and 65 percent, respectively.

Laptop performance in Blender software

Blender 3D modeling software can render with the help of CPU and GPU; To evaluate the performance of the G14 laptop, we ran the Blender software benchmark both on CPU and GPU.

Asus G14 2024 laptop performance in Blender software with processor

As you can see in the chart above, the Ryzen 9 8945HS processor in the Dell G14 laptop is slightly weaker than the 11-core M3 Pro processor in the 14-inch MacBook Pro laptop.

Asus G14 2024 laptop performance in Blender software with graphics

Nvidia’s powerful graphics show its extraordinary processing power well in the graphics rendering test in Blender software. In this test, the G14 2024 laptop outperforms the MacBook Pro M3 Pro by a margin of 175% and is ahead of the GalaxyBook 3 Ultra laptop by a margin of 60%.

Laptop performance in the game

The Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop runs most games easily and with a frame rate of more than 70 frames per second in 1080p resolution. The laptop provides good performance in optimal games such as Forza Horizon 5 even in QHD resolution; But to experience other heavy games in QHD resolution, you should use technologies such as DLSS and Frame Generation.

Zephyrus G14 2024 performance in games



Graphics settings

Average frame rate

Cyberpunk 2077


RT On – Ultra

DLSS On-Quality

Frame Generation On

43 frames per second


RT Off


Texture Quality: High

38 frames per second


RT On – Ultra

DLSS On-Quality

Frame Generation On

75 frames per second

Forza Horizon 5



70 frames per second

FarCry 6


Ultra quality

63 frames per second

Red Dead Redemption 2


Ultra quality

51 frames per second


Ultra quality

68 frames per second




91 frames per second

Note that all the above results were obtained when the laptop was plugged in; If you want to play in unplugged mode, to have a satisfactory experience, you need to reduce the graphics settings to medium, otherwise, the frame rate will drop a lot; For example, in the case of Forza Horizon 5, the frame rate dropped from 70 to 30 fps.

Optimal battery life in normal use

The Zephyrus G14 laptop provides the energy it needs through a rather bulky 73-watt-hour battery; Along with the laptop, the Taiwanese provide the user with a 180-watt adapter that can charge 50% of the battery capacity within 30 minutes; Asus also provides a compact 100W USB-C charger with the device, which makes it easier to carry the laptop, while you can also use it to charge your smartphone.

Read more: Asus Zenbook 14 OLED laptop review

Zephyrus G14 2024 battery life compared to other laptops


Functional profile



Battery capacity

Play offline video

Everyday use

Processor and graphics

Dimensions, resolution, and refresh rate


720p Video

PCMark 10

minute: hour

minute: hour

Zephyrus G14 2024


Ryzen 9 8945HS

RTX 4070

14 inches and 120 Hz

1800 x 2880 pixels




Zephyrus G14 2022


Ryzen 9 6900HS

RX 6800S

14 inches and 120 Hz

1600 x 2560 pixels




MacBook Air 2024

Apple M3

8 core GPU

13.6 inches and 60 Hz

1664 x 2560 pixels



Zenbook 14


Core Ultra 7-155H

Intel Arc

14 inches and 120 Hz

1800 x 2880 pixels




Galaxy Book 3 Ultra


Core i7-13700H

RTX 4050

16 inches and 120 Hz

1880 x 2880 pixels




MacBook Pro 14-inch 2021

M1 Max

24Core GPU

14.2 inches and 120 Hz

1964 x 3024 pixels



Zephyrus G14 2024 lasts about 2 hours longer than the 2022 model in daily use and movie playback; But compared to MacBook Pro and MacBook Air or laptops equipped with Core Ultra processors, there is not much to say; However, overall, it seems that you can count on the G14 2024 for a working day in normal and everyday use.

Zephyrus G14 2024 against the competition

Zephyrus G14 2024 is not the most powerful Windows laptop on the market; But the combination it offers in its price range, at least in the Iranian market, cannot be seen in any other Windows laptop; In the range of 100 to 120 million Tomans, Windows laptops are clumsy and worse devices with monstrous hardware or premium ultrabooks with weak hardware.

Forza game on Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

J14 is a powerful and compact laptop with extremely high build quality, a stunning display, and ear-splitting speakers, which can last a full working day in daily use, offers performance on par with or close to MacBook Pro M3 Pro, and at the same time, it can also meet your gaming needs. Currently, among Windows devices in the Iranian market, only Asus’ own G16 2024 laptop can offer a similar combination.

Video editing with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

If you are looking to buy Zephyrus G14 2024, go for the model equipped with RTX 4060; Because this graphic is a more suitable choice for the 14-inch dimensions and thin thickness of the G14, it is not much different from the RTX 4070 model in professional applications such as video editing with Premier Pro, and it is also about 20 million Tomans cheaper.

What do you think about G14 2024? If you are a Windows laptop fan, which one would you choose between this laptop and the G16 2024?

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Getting to know the most advanced humanoid robots




humanoid robots
If you think that the world of technology has amazed you enough so far, join us as we learn more about the most advanced humanoid robots.

Getting to know the most advanced humanoid robots

Today’s technology companies have a mission that they strive to achieve with all their might, and this mission is nothing but the realization of every creature, gadget, and robot that we have seen before in science fiction movies. So here we’ll get to know the most advanced humanoid robots.

Imagine a world where when you go shopping you hand your credit card to robots to count your purchase, or when you order pizza, a robot delivers it to you. Maybe a decade ago, the idea of ​​robots walking next to us on the street or taking the place of humans in various jobs was far from mind; But how would you feel if we told you that right now there is a robot in the world who is the CEO of a company?

Let me guess! You probably don’t like competing with robots because we know almost nothing about them and can’t even guess their next move; But whether we like it or not, they have gradually come out of water and mud and artificial intelligence is trying to show us its other side.

Now we are going to introduce you to eight of the most advanced humanoid robots according to Business Insider’s list; From a robot that simulates our dreams to a robot that can do yoga. Stay with us.

This is you and this two-legged robot from Apptronik: “Apollo”

Apollo robot delivering the box

Optronic’s bipedal robot arrived in August this year, and many consider it the “iPhone” of the world of robots. Jeff Cardenas, CEO of Optronic, says:

We want to produce human-sized robots, because only then can they go where we can go and do things similar to what we do. Apollo did not come to sideline humans, but to do things that humans don’t want to do.

Apollo weighs 73 kg, is 1.70 m tall, and requires battery replacement every four hours. Optronics began its work in 2016 at the University of Texas’ Human-Centered Robotics Laboratory, and in a short period of time it has reached such a high point that it has now signed a contract with NASA that will greatly help the development of its robots.

Optronik company tries to justify the existence of humanoid robots with the slogan “Robot for humans” and considers the reason for the production of Apollo to help humans in dangerous tasks.

NASA astronaut robot: “Valkyrie”

NASA's Valkyrie robot walking among employees

NASA’s Valkyrie robot was unveiled in 2013 with the aim of “doing dangerous work”. This robot, which NASA calls R5, is designed to be able to travel to the dangerous and uninhabitable regions of the Moon, Mars, and space.

The University of Edinburgh is now using Valkyrie in its research, calling it “one of the most advanced humanoids in the world”. Valkyrie or its more advanced descendants could greatly assist NASA in advancing its ground robotics goals and the Artemis mission.

Amca simulates our dreams

Amka humanoid robot laughing

Some time ago, in a video published on the Engineered Arts YouTube account, Ameca claimed that it can simulate the dreams of humans by drawing different scenarios and learning more about the world with them. The mentioned video caused a lot of controversy, so if we consider Amka as the Elon Musk of the world of robots, we are not unfair to him.

Amca is the Elon Musk of the world of robots

After backlash on social media, Will Jackson, co-founder of Engineered Arts, announced in an interview that Amka answers questions using the ChatGPT-3 artificial intelligence and can neither feel nor have long-term memory. He also said:

Remember that Amca works with code and is just a language model. It’s very tempting to apply human characteristics to robots, but don’t fool yourself; This is nothing but an illusion for now.

However, if you’ve seen Amka’s controversial video, you might agree with the critics. In this video, he is asked if he can dream. And in disbelief, he gives an answer that may make you doubt the health of your ears. “Yes, actually I had a dream last night about dinosaurs fighting aliens on Mars,” Amka confidently replies.

Then he continues, “Just kidding, I can’t dream like a human! “But I can create scenarios in my head, simulate dreams, and learn about the world.”

“The saddest day for me was the day I realized I would never experience true love,” Amka said in another video. Another interesting point is that Amka changes his facial expressions with the help of GPT-3 when saying these strange sentences, which can scare many people.

Digit can carry postal packages

Digit humanoid robot moving the box

Digit, unveiled in 2019, has legs, arms, and a torso full of sensors that help him navigate rough surfaces and obstacles.

The robot can carry packages, empty warehouses, and deliver people’s mail packages. Right now, Amazon’s research and development center is testing Digit to make it easier to move packages in its distribution centers.

Digit’s capabilities are currently not very extensive; But walking on narrow ledges, bending over, picking up objects, and other simple tasks can be very efficient in the future.

Mika, the robot, is the CEO of a beverage company

Mika's humanoid robot giving a speech

Dictator Company, the world’s famous beverage maker, last year chose a two-legged robot named Mika as its CEO. By identifying the tastes of the customers, Mika chooses different people to design the drink bottles.

Mika is the first robot in the world who has a valid university degree

If you think you have been surprised enough by now, I must say that the story does not end there; Because Mika even received an honorary degree from the University of Warsaw!

Some time ago, a journalist took to the streets in New York to ask people what they thought about the CEO’s humanoid robot and got some interesting results. At first, someone replied, “I don’t think robots deserve that kind of respect because they’re just machines.” Another participant believed that with the current trend, more jobs will be taken away from humans and will be given to robots.

Tesla’s Optimus robot can do yoga

Tesla's humanoid robot doing yoga

Optimus arrived in 2022 and at first he could hardly walk; But Elon Musk, with his famous ambition, said that in the next three to five years, Tesla will be able to start mass production of this robot and offer it to enthusiasts.

Optimus couldn’t even walk, but he could probably be dancing in a few years

In this short period of time, Optimus, which is also known as “Tesla Bot”, has made a lot of progress and can potentially play a role in the assembly and production lines of vehicles, batteries, and the production of Tesla’s solar panels. Optimus learns what humans do by watching.

The famous robot “Sophia” speaks at world conferences

Sophia the humanoid robot giving a speech in Indian dress

Sophia, the humanoid robot from Hanson Robotics, probably has the most realistic face compared to its competitors, equipped with artificial skin that can be adjusted in color.

Sophia has acquired the legal citizenship of Saudi Arabia

The interactive robot of Hanson Robotics has so far spoken at important conferences, which has brought him many successes; Because by using artificial intelligence, he can make effective speeches and change his face and hands according to human emotions.

One of Sofia’s other honors is receiving the citizenship of Saudi Arabia. Sophia is the only robot that has received the legal citizenship of a country.

Sophia's humanoid skin

This Hong Kong-based company plans to develop the ability to understand and feel real Sophia in the long term and turn it into an adult robot with human characteristics; Although the head of Facebook’s artificial intelligence department, the creator of Sophia considers it a “puppet walker” who tries to make it look intelligent.

Boston Dynamics’ “Atlas” robot can do parkour

Atlas humanoid robot jumping over obstacles

If you have seen the Black Mirror series, you are familiar with Boston Dynamics’ robot dogs. These robot dogs, known as Spots, are integrated with ChatGPT and can speak in complete sentences.

After the successful production of robot dogs, Boston Dynamics decided to create a humanoid bipedal robot, and the result was the Atlas robot; A robot that works both outdoors and indoors and can move quickly and jump over obstacles. Unlike the other robots we introduced, the Atlas robot does not have the ability to smile or turn its eyes, in fact, it does not have a face at all; But it does great things.

Atlas can be a skilled firefighter

Atlas hardware uses 3D printing to be lightweight and turns this robot into a compact humanoid device that has the ability to manipulate various objects and can maintain its balance against strong pushing and shaking even if it loses its balance. He can get up again.

Other features of Atlas include the ability to find leaking pipes, walk through rubble, climb ladders, operate fire hoses, and drive vehicles.

Conclusion: Is developing humanoid robots a bad idea?

There’s no doubt that humans don’t feel good about humanoid robots, and I think if bipeds had feelings, they’d probably resent us in return; But what is the root of this anger towards humanoid robots? That is, everything is under the head of the “Uncanny Valley” effect, which makes the perfect dissimilarity of the humanoid robot to the real person create an unpleasant feeling in us, or are there more complicated and serious factors at work?

Despite much research, there is still no exact answer to this question; But maybe the development of humanoid robots will make us feel less human. Perhaps the thought that we will one day not be the only intelligent beings on earth infuriates us.

However, robots have yet to do terrible things to us humans, and there are even reports that robots can teach autistic children social skills.

Incidentally, if we look at the story from another angle, we could probably have a peaceful coexistence with bipedal robots and do things like playing chess with them. Fortunately, when it comes to reasoning and creativity, the companies that make the robots have only given basic training and we still have a chance to win against them.

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Galaxy Ring was unveiled; Samsung’s very smart ring at an almost reasonable price




Galaxy Ring
Samsung Galaxy Ring was introduced with various health features including continuous heart rate measurement, sleep monitoring, skin temperature sensor along with artificial intelligence features.

Galaxy Ring was unveiled; Samsung’s very smart ring at an almost reasonable price

Samsung at the Unpacked event alongside the Galaxy Z Fold 6 and Galaxy Z Flip 6 foldable phonesAt the Unpacked event, Samsung officially unveiled its smart ring called the Galaxy Ring, a foldable phone. Relying on the power of Galaxy AI, this product provides a smart health experience for everyone.

“The latest Galaxy wearables are a combination of Samsung’s most advanced technologies and innovations, enabling you to take control of your health and wellness with care and preventative solutions,” said TM Rowe, director of Samsung’s Mobile Experience (MX). “The intelligence, planning, and deep understanding and awareness that Galaxy Ring provides will help users turn data into meaningful goals and experience a new era of smart health.”

Galaxy Ring offers a simple approach to monitoring users’ health. This product uses Samsung’s precise sensor technology, which now provides information in its smallest form to the user so that he can easily monitor and control his health.

Galaxy Ring

The Samsung smart ring is designed to be used 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This product weighs only 2.3 to 3 grams, and as a result, it conveys a more comfortable feeling to the user during long-term use. The distinctive design known as Concave Design has made the Galaxy Ring, in addition to its fresh and attractive appearance, to have good durability and resistance. This product has an IP68 certificate; Therefore, it is resistant to water penetration, and due to the grade 5 titanium coating, you can safely use it anywhere without worrying about possible damage.

Galaxy Ring

Galaxy Ring lasts up to 7 days of continuous use with each full charge, and a special charging frame is designed for it, which shows the charging status with LED lighting. You can choose one of the three colors black, silver, and gold according to your style and taste. In addition, the special sizing kit helps the user to choose the most suitable size from among 9 options.

Samsung Galaxy Ring
Samsung Galaxy Ring

With Galaxy Ring, you can enjoy the capabilities and features of this product at any hour of the day and in any situation. These features are personalized according to the needs of each user and with the help of advanced artificial intelligence technology become more powerful over time with the help of Samsung’s

All the data and information that the Galaxy Ring collects about the user’s health status is stored in the Samsung Health platform so that you can seamlessly access it through your other devices.

Sleep plays a central role as one of the important foundations of daily health, and Galaxy Ring offers the best sleep analysis capabilities and helps you understand your sleep patterns and create better and healthier habits with a powerful artificial intelligence algorithm.

In addition to providing a sleep score (Sleep Score) and examining snoring and noises during sleep, these features check other criteria such as movement during sleep, sleep duration, heart rate, and breathing rate to provide a detailed and detailed analysis.

Galaxy Ring


Galaxy Ring’s Cycle Tracking feature for women monitors their menstrual cycle by checking their skin temperature overnight. Overall, you can use Galaxy Ring data as motivation to start your day fresher and more energetic. It starts with Galaxy AI, which provides detailed and accurate health reports based on various metrics.

The new Energy Score function is one of the features of Galaxy AI that informs you of the solutions and methods that increase the level of health. This means that by knowing your physical condition and energy score, you can create a suitable plan to improve your health.

Galaxy ring in hand


The Energy Score feature calculates your physical and mental health based on four metrics: sleep, activity level, heart rate during sleep, and heart rate variability during sleep. In addition, the Wellness Tips feature provides personalized tips and recommendations tailored to each user’s condition by analyzing data and health information.

Galaxy Ring with the Heart Rate Alert function, when the heart rate is abnormally low or high, it informs the user instantly through the Samsung Health application. The Live Heart Rate Check feature also provides the user with more details about heart rate, beats per minute, duration, and start time.

Galaxy Ring

According to Samsung’s claim, the Galaxy Ring will help you lead an active and energetic lifestyle and keep track of your workouts with more motivation. The automatic detection of exercise in this smart ring tracks the amount of walking and running you do and warns you if you are not physically active.

Other features of Galaxy Ring include support for motion gestures. For example, you can take a photo or turn off the phone’s alarm by swiping two fingers together twice. In addition, it is possible to track the location of the Galaxy Ring through Find My Ring on Samsung Find.

The price of the Galaxy Ring is $400 and will be available in selected markets from July 24 (August 3, 1403).

Samsung Galaxy Ring technical specifications
Introduction July 10, 2024
another name Samsung SM-Q500NZKAXAR Samsung SM-Q500NZKAXAR Samsung SM-Q500NZSAXAR Samsung SM-Q500NZSAXAR Samsung SM-Q500NZDAXAR Samsung SM-Q500NZDAXAR
Condition Release in the near future (July 24, 2024)
Dimensions It has 9 sizes from 5 to 13 7.0 x 2.6 mm (ring) 48.9 x 48.9 x 24.51 mm (charging compartment)
Weight 2.3 grams (ring size 5) 3.0 grams (ring size 13) 61.3 grams (charge compartment)
Other body specifications The body of the ring is made of grade 5 titanium The body of the charging compartment is made of stainless steel and plastic IP68 (resistant to dust and water up to a depth of 1 meter and up to 30 minutes) Resistant to water penetration up to a pressure of 10 atmospheres (100 meters deep)
internal memory 8 MB
battery Non-replaceable battery with a capacity of 18 mAh (ring size 5) Non-replaceable battery with a capacity of 23.5 mAh (ring size 13) Non-replaceable battery with a capacity of 361 mAh (charging compartment)
standby Up to 7 days
Sensors Optical heart rate sensor, accelerometer, body thermometer
Other specifications and features Support for various sports modes, heart rate monitoring, sleep monitoring, women’s health monitoring, pedometer, distance traveled calculation, calorie consumption calculation, Galaxy AI support
Technology does not have
Wireless Network does not have
Bluetooth Yes, version 5.4 LE
GPS does not have
NFC does not have
USB does not have
Colors Black, silver, gold
Price range About $400

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