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MRI machine: the magic of magnetism in the medical world

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MRI machine
With its amazing performance, the MRI machine changed the way people view their bodies; But how can this device image the internal organs of our body?

MRI machine: the magic of magnetism in the medical world

Maybe it has happened to you that for some reason you feel severe pain in your hand, for example, and after a few days of taking different painkillers, the pain has not subsided and you had to go to a specialist doctor for more basic treatment. In these cases, after the initial examination, the doctor usually suggests MRI imaging (Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI) for a more accurate diagnosis; An amazing device that is widely used today.

The MRI machine revolutionized the medical world and brought about many changes in diagnosis and treatment. Most people do not know how this device works and how it works has always been a strange mystery to them. To get to know the operation of the MRI machine, we must be familiar with the general principles of quantum physics, superconducting magnets, computer science, and related mathematics.

Years ago, methods such as X-rays and ultrasound (using high-frequency sound waves) were used to image the internal organs of the body. Although these two methods are still used for imaging in some cases, MRI provides detailed and three-dimensional images of the human body that cannot be compared with the images obtained from X-ray and ultrasound.

MRI has completely changed the way we view our bodies

Using MRI, we can detect benign or malignant tumors in the kidneys, brain, abdomen, and other parts of the body. In MRI imaging, doctors detect the blockage of the coronary arteries of the heart by injecting paramagnetic substances into the patient’s vein. This accurate diagnosis makes it possible to place a stent at the site of the blockage to open the blood vessels, improve blood flow and, as a result, save the patient’s life. MRI is a newer and more accurate method for diagnosing occluded heart vessels, which has many advantages such as non-invasiveness, greater accuracy, and higher safety than older methods.

What is the structure of the MRI machine?

As you can see in the image below, the MRI machine consists of different layers. Each of these layers represents different magnets that we use for imaging.

3D model of MRI machine3D model of MRI machine

If we look at the MRI machine from the front, the patient is placed horizontally inside it as shown in the picture.

The patient inside the MRI machineThe patient inside the MRI machine

The difference between the MRI machine and other imaging devices such as X-ray or ultrasound is that the signal used to create the image in the MRI comes from inside the patient’s body, so for accurate imaging, we need to know which part of the body the signal sent came from. To do this, we use the Cartesian coordinate axes or the x, y, and z axes and divide the image along three axes.

Coordinate device

The z component, which is placed along the patient’s body, and its direction is from head to foot, is used for axial imaging. In this type of imaging, a wide range of organs and body structures such as the brain, spine, abdomen, chest, and pelvis are examined. Also, the y component provides coronal images. These images examine the anatomy of the body from the front to back or back to front view. Finally, the x component is used to prepare sagittal images. This plane divides the body into left and right parts. It goes without saying that the z-axis is the longitudinal axis (longitudinal plane) and the xy plane, which is perpendicular to the z-axis, is called the transverse plane.

Body anatomy pages

In MRI imaging, a concept called “nuclear magnetic resonance” (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance or NMR) is used, and by applying a very large magnetic field, we induce resonance in certain atoms inside the patient’s body. If you are wondering what atom is used for this, the answer is hydrogen atom, because there are a lot of atoms in question in the human body and its spin is also opposite to zero.

As you know, about 75% of the human body is water and each water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms are connected to each other through polar covalent bonds and electron sharing, But this sharing is not done equally.

Due to its greater electronegativity, the oxygen atom is more attractive to electrons, and for this reason, it pulls the electron cloud towards itself. This asymmetry in the distribution of electrons causes polarity in the water molecule. Oxygen atoms, due to having a negative partial charge, and hydrogen atoms, due to having a positive partial charge, form the two poles of the water molecule.

In MRI imaging, we use positive hydrogen atoms inside the body

The signal captured for MRI imaging comes from the positive hydrogen nuclei in water and fat. The positive hydrogen nucleus, like other subatomic particles, has a spin that gives it a magnetic moment. In simpler terms, we can replace each hydrogen nucleus with a small magnetic magnet.

We can think of the patient as a box full of hydrogen atoms that exist completely randomly in the absence of a magnetic field, moving around in no particular direction. The speed of movement of hydrogen atoms depends on the temperature of a person’s body, that is, the higher the temperature of a person, the faster the speed of movement of atoms, and the lower the temperature of a person’s body, the speed of movement of atoms is lower. These atoms are affected by the external magnetic field due to having a magnetic moment. This state is similar to the position of the compass needle in the direction of the earth’s magnetic field; Therefore, by applying an external magnetic field, the hydrogen nuclei are placed in a certain direction.

A positive hydrogen nucleus that can be replaced by a magnet.A positive hydrogen nucleus that can be replaced by a magnet.
Photographer: YouTube

The MRI machine consists of a main magnet, gradient coils (these coils play an important role in creating the spatial magnetic field), radio signal (RF) coils, and a computer system. In general, we can think of MRI as a large magnet that creates a magnetic field called B0.

Typically, the B0 value in MRI machines is between 1.5 and 3 Tesla (about 300,000 times stronger than the Earth’s magnetic field and 30,000 times stronger than the magnetic field on a refrigerator magnet). Most of the hydrogen nuclei are placed in the direction of the magnetic field after being placed in it, but the direction of some nuclei is also opposite to the direction of the external magnetic field. From the point of view of quantum physics, hydrogen atoms exist in both states, but the important point in this section is that the number of hydrogen atoms that are in the direction of the B0 magnetic field is greater than the number that is in the opposite direction.

We subtract the field resulting from the nuclei placed in the direction of the magnetic field B0 from the total field of the nuclei placed against the direction of the B0 field and call it Bnet. If we consider the z-axis of the human body placed in the MRI machine, the Bnet will be aligned with the z-axis as shown in the image below. As you can see, the B0 and Bnet fields are parallel to each other and in the positive direction of the z-axis. Note that the magnet is in a low energy state when aligned with the magnetic field. To put it more simply, small magnets tend to align with the z-axis when placed in the magnetic field B0.

Magnetic field of MRI and magnetic field of protons

Positive hydrogens, in addition to being in the direction of the magnetic field of the MRI machine, rotate around their central axis like a spinning top. This movement is called nuclear spin and the speed or frequency of this rotational movement depends on the magnitude of the magnetic field B0. The bigger the B0 field is, the higher the frequency of the forward movement of the hydrogen atom will be. In MRI imaging, we should not look at hydrogen atoms individually, but we should pay attention to the total magnetization vector created by them and the change of this vector due to the change of magnetic fields in the MRI machine. Therefore, we replace the hydrogen atoms with the total magnetization vector (Bnet) along the z-axis.

The total magnetization vector is the quantity we want to measure in MRI imaging, but it is not possible to measure this vector along the z-axis and parallel to the B0 field, why? Because the B0 field is large enough to affect the measurement of its magnetization vector. How do we measure the total magnetization vector? To do this, we place this vector perpendicular to B0 and measure it. How do we place its magnetization vector perpendicular to the main magnetic field? We can do this with the help of the second magnetic field called radio frequency pulse (RF).

To measure the magnetization vector of hydrogen atoms, we must place them perpendicular to the main magnetic field.

Positive hydrogens located in the direction of the magnetic field can be affected by RF signal radiation. This signal is a smaller variable magnetic field perpendicular to the main magnetic field applied at a certain frequency.

An RF signal is not really a radio wave, but electromagnetic energy with a frequency in the radio wave spectrum. The RF pulse changes at a frequency equal to the frequency of the forward motion of the hydrogen atoms. When the frequency of the forward movement of hydrogen atoms and the frequency of the RF pulse become equal, two things happen. After entering this signal, the positive hydrogens are directed to another plane (the plane perpendicular to the B0 field) and rotate around their axis at the same time and in phase with each other. The rotation angle from the z-axis depends on the magnitude and duration of the RF signal radiation.

As the positive hydrogens or protons go to the plane perpendicular to B0, the longitudinal magnetization will change. In general, most protons are placed in the direction of the B0 field; But by giving them some energy, the protons can be aligned perpendicular to B0. This is not the whole story; By energizing the protons in the form of an RF pulse, they begin to move forward simultaneously with each other and in phase. As a result of this energy, the magnetic moment of protons (hydrogen atoms) is transferred to a plane perpendicular to the main magnetic field B0 or ​​xy plane.

Therefore, the RF pulse does two things:

  • transfers the total magnetic field to the xy plane;
  • Hydrogen nuclei move forward in phase with a specific frequency and rotate around it like a spinning wheel with a specific angle to the central axis. As a result, the total magnetic field moves in the xy plane and perpendicular to the z-axis.

So far we have understood that in the MRI machine, unlike other imaging machines, protons inside the patient’s body are used to take the image. These protons are hydrogen atoms with a partial positive charge, which after being placed in the direction of the main magnetic field B0, are placed in the same direction and parallel to it (in the direction of the z-axis). Next, by applying a smaller field called the RF pulse, the protons are aligned perpendicular to the z-axis and in the xy plane; Then we place a small coil in the MRI machine. According to Faraday’s principle of induction, changing the magnetic field induces an electric current.

According to the Faraday induction principle, whenever the magnetic flux passing through the coil changes at a certain rate, a voltage of a certain value is induced in the coil. The amount of induced voltage depends on the speed of change of magnetic flux, the number of turns of the coil, and the area of ​​each turn. If the coil is in a closed circuit, the induced voltage can induce a current in the coil, the amount of which depends on the resistance of the circuit and the amount of the induced voltage. In the MRI machine, the current induced in the coil is used to create the image.

As we said, the total magnetic field (total magnetization vector) moves in the xy plane and perpendicular to the z-axis. According to the movement of the magnetization vector in the XY plane, we can measure a signal. This vector moves in the xy plane due to the RF pulse. The important point is that the frequency of the RF pulse must be equal to the frequency of the forward movement of hydrogen atoms. As the frequencies become equal, magnetic resonance occurs.

To better understand the concept of resonance, let’s examine a simple example together. We have a game device called “trampoline” which is made of thick fabric and on which acrobatic movements can be performed. Let’s say you and your friend are jumping up and down on a trampoline. If you jump on a trampoline alone, you will go up to a certain height, h. Now, if your friend jumps at the same time as you, the height of your jump will be greater than h. In other words, synchronizing your jump with your friend will increase your jump height. Note that the height of the jump will increase if you jump at the same time as other people.

Jump on the trampoline

For hydrogen atoms, when the RF pulse is irradiated, a state similar to jumping on a trampoline occurs. Only when the frequency of the forward movement of hydrogen atoms and the frequency of the RF pulse are equal to each other, the hydrogen atoms move in phase and the angle of magnetization starts to change. As we mentioned, angle changes depend on RF pulse duration and amplitude. After transferring the total field or the total magnetization vector to the xy plane and creating the necessary signal, we cut off the RF pulse radiation. The received signal is created due to the progressive movement of the magnetization vector with a frequency equal to the frequency of the RF pulse. At first glance, the generated signal looks like the image below; But in practice, the generated signal is not like this, because the RF pulse radiation is not continuous and after a certain period of time, it is interrupted.

signal generated

What happens in practice is that the hydrogen atoms move in phase with the frequency of the RF pulse, and after it is interrupted, they move out of phase. In this case, the magnetization vector in the xy plane and as a result, the generated signal, become smaller and smaller. The orange graph plotted on the signal is called the free-induced attenuation curve or T2.

It is important to note that each tissue in the body has a unique *T2 diagram and is different from other tissues. The free-induced damping plot of water is very slow with respect to time, whereas the free-induced damping plot of bone or tissue is very fast with respect to time. You might ask yourself what it means if this chart is slow or fast compared to time; The graph of fast damping with respect to time means that the amplitude decreases rapidly with respect to time; But in the slow damping diagram, the amplitude decreases slowly and very slowly with respect to time. By using these differences, we can create the necessary contrast in the captured images.

Time T2

The above process occurs simultaneously with another independent process. At the same time as the magnetization decreases in the xy plane, the longitudinal magnetization increases along the z-axis. The decrease of magnetization in the xy or *T2 plane occurs much faster than the increase of magnetization along the z-axis. As you can see in the diagram below, over time the magnetization increases along the z axis. Finally, there comes a time when the hydrogen atoms are completely out of phase and the magnetization in the xy plane becomes zero. In this case, the magnetization vector has no component in the xy plane and has only one component along the z-axis. Note that the time that the magnetization is completely aligned with the z-axis (T1) is much larger than *T2.

Longitudinal magnetization

Note again that these two processes occur completely independently of each other; That is, by knowing the T2 for a specific tissue in the body, we cannot easily obtain the T1 of that tissue, because these two quantities are completely independent of each other. Don’t forget that we can only measure the signal perpendicular to the main magnetic field, B0; Therefore, to measure its magnetization, we must make it perpendicular to B0.

Now we have reached the stage where we can do MRI imaging. To do this we need two separate parameters that use the differences of T2 and T1; These two parameters are called “Time of Echo” (TE) and “Time of Repetition” (TR). Consider two separate tissues in the body, each of which has protons aligned along the z-axis. Now we irradiate the RF pulse to two tissues. Protons inside each of the tissues perform forward movement in the plane perpendicular to the main field B0. Further, with hydrogen atoms being out of phase, the magnetization in the xy plane decreases in the time *T2.

The time interval between the applied radio pulse to excite the hydrogen atoms and the measurement of the signal resulting from their spin is called the echo time. In other words, TE represents the time it takes for the MRI signal to be measured after the initial excitation. By giving more time, the phase inhomogeneity and the difference between the two tissues increases. At the same time, two textures acquire longitudinal magnetization or magnetization along the z axis with different tunes. Finally, the magnetization vector of two tissues is placed along the z-axis. By irradiating the second RF pulse, we can once again place the protons of the two tissues in the xy plane. The time between the first RF pulse and the second RF pulse is called the repetition time or TR.

By irradiating the RF pulse, interrupting it, and re-irradiating it, we can image different parts of the internal body.

TE is measured in milliseconds and plays an important role in adjusting MRI image contrast. We said earlier that the amount of *T2 in different tissues and as a result, the reception of the MRI signal is also different in them; Therefore, by adjusting TE, it is possible to influence the received signals from different tissues and increase the contrast between them.

Let’s clarify the role of TR and TE times in MRI imaging with a simple example. Suppose you are at a party and you want to meet and talk to different people. TE time is the same as how long you wait for each person to speak. If the TE is short, you will only hear the beginning of each person’s words, but if it is long and long, you will hear the person’s words more fully and in more detail. Now you stop talking to the person in question and talk to him again after a while, the time between the first and second conversations is the same as TR. Different body tissues are like different people at a party; Just as each person has a different tone of voice, each tissue produces a distinct signal that competes with the signals produced by other tissues.

By adjusting TE and TR, we can obtain different information from tissues. Suppose we want to image the brain, if the TE is short, we have a general image of the brain, but if the TE is long, the obtained image of the brain shows more details. Or suppose we want to take a picture of a tumor inside the patient’s body. A short TR tells us how active the tumor is, but a long TR gives us information about tumor growth and invasion of surrounding tissues.

MRI technology uncovers connections between brain activity and psychology

We said that the tissues give us different signals, the reason for this is due to the different accumulation of water and fat in different tissues. Atoms in fat have intrinsic properties and repulsive interactions compared to hydrogen atoms in water. This difference allows MRI technicians to create different contrasts between different body tissues. By adjusting the T1 and *T2, TE, and TR times, we can prepare different images of different parts of the body.

Read More: A century after the advent of flying cars; Why are we still on earth?

How is the main magnetic field created in MRI?

In the previous section, we said that we can consider the MRI machine as a big magnet; But the main question is how to create a magnetic field with a magnitude of 1.5 to 3 tesla in MRI. By increasing the B0 magnetic field, the received signals from different tissues are amplified, as a result, the obtained image will be of better quality. The MRI machine can create a magnetic field of up to 20 tesla. Do not forget that reaching this amount was not easily achieved.

Early MRIs used permanent magnets to create a magnetic field, but these magnets could only create a magnetic field up to 0.5 tesla; Therefore, the created images did not have an interesting quality. Next, researchers used electromagnets instead of permanent magnets to achieve a stronger magnetic field; But electromagnets cannot create a magnetic field as large as 1.5 Tesla; Because large magnetic fields require high currents that melt ordinary wires.

To solve this problem and have high currents, researchers used superconducting coils. Temperature affects conductive materials so that their resistance decreases as the temperature decreases. But superconductors have a unique feature; Their resistance becomes zero at a temperature close to -273 degrees Celsius or absolute zero. In this case, the electric current in a loop made of superconducting material can flow forever. In reality, the superconducting coil in the MRI machine does not directly require any external electrical power; Rather, the coils only need to be kept cool by spending some energy, in which case the MRI magnet will stay on permanently.

The energy required to operate the MRI machine for a year is about 130,000 to 140,000 kilowatt hours. Niobium-titanium is one of the most common superconducting materials in MRI, in such a way that 80% of niobium-titanium extracted from the earth is used to make MRI devices. As we said, superconductivity occurs at a very low temperature, so we need a very advanced cooling system to reach this temperature.

When engineers built early MRI machines, they kept superconducting wires inside a liquid helium bath at -269 degrees Celsius; But the problem with doing this was that helium evaporates quickly, so it was necessary to constantly refill the container containing liquid helium, which cost about $26,000 a year. To solve this problem, the researchers equipped the MRI machine with a vacuum chamber and placed liquid helium inside it.

MRI imaging, as a tool for accurate diagnosis of various diseases, opens a window to a bright future in the field of medicine. With the ever-increasing advances in this technology, we can hope that in the near future we will see new and non-invasive treatment methods that use MRI to treat diseases and save human lives accurately and purposefully

Technology

Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop review

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Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop
With the Zephyrus G14 2024, Asus has taken big steps in the right direction and turned its popular 14-inch laptop into a worthy opponent for the MacBook Pro 14.

Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop review

The Zephyrus G14 is a very important laptop; because it was the beginning of a new trend; Four years have passed since the introduction of the first generation G14, at that time there was no foreign 14-inch gaming laptop; But now, thanks to Asus, other companies such as Razer, MSI and HP have entered the field of 14-inch gaming laptops.

Table of Contents
  • Zephyrus G14 2024 video review
  • Compact, well-made, and premium design
  • Stunning OLED display and powerful speakers
  • Standard keyboard and a large trackpad that is not haptic!
  • Powerful hardware with optimal performance
  • The difference in laptop performance profiles
  • Laptop behavior in heavy and continuous processing
  • The difference in laptop performance when connected and disconnected from the power outlet
  • Laptop performance compared to competitors
  • Laptop performance in professional use
  • Laptop performance in Blender software
  • Laptop performance in the game
  • Optimal battery life in normal use
  • Zephyrus G14 2024 against the competition

Now we have the lovely G14 laptop model 2024; A device that, with its powerful hardware, stunning OLED display, minimal design, and high-quality metal body, competes with MacBooks and attracts attention.

To buy the 14-inch Zephyrus G14 laptop or other specific laptops, you can visit the Afrashop online store.

Compact, well-made, and premium design

The main and most impressive change in the 2024 model of the G14 laptop compared to previous generations is a 180-degree change in the strategy of Asus designers; I don’t recall Asus ever turning to machining to design and build its gaming laptops and carving the body out of a single block of aluminum; We have always seen Asus laptops at their best with a body made of aluminum sheets or magnesium alloy.

The lighting behind the Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

Thanks to the change in the manufacturing process of the laptop, has a noticeable effect on the attractiveness and premium feeling of the Zephyrus G14; Asus, in describing its gaming laptop, calls it “a perfect combination of performance and style” and this Taiwanese company is really right!

The body of Zephyrus G14 is much denser than the previous generation and gives a good sense of quality; We don’t hear a “creaking” sound from anywhere on the laptop, the screen frame doesn’t sway, and the surface of the device doesn’t sink when pressing the keys. Of course, with all these improvements, Zephyrus is still not at the level of premium products such as MacBook and Surface; Although it is very close to them.

The thickness of the Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

The dimensions of the G14 2024 body are noticeably more compact than the previous generation; Last year, the thickness of the laptop reached more than 2 cm; But now it does not exceed about 1.6 cm and of course, the weight of the device has become lighter by about 200 grams; More precisely, the dimensions of the body are 1.59-1.63 x 22.0 x 31.1 cm and its weight is about 1.5 kg.

In the slim body of Zephyrus G14, there are various ports; On the left side of the device, you can see Asus’ dedicated charging port, HDMI 2.1 port, a USB4 Type-C port with DisplayPort 2.0 support and 100W power delivery, a full-size USB 3.2 port, and a headphone combo jack; The right side of the laptop hosts a USB 3.2 Type-C port, another full-size USB 3.2 port, and a high-speed microSD port; eCash was a full-size SD memory card slot, so it was more useful for photographers and videographers.

Ports on the left side of the Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop
The ports on the right side of the Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

The 14-inch G14 2024 laptop uses MediaTek’s MT7922 network card, which supports Bluetooth 5.3 and Wi-Fi 6E connectivity and shows stable and satisfactory performance; But if you want, you can easily replace the network card.

In addition to the more compact body, G14 2024 has a much more minimal and simple design; Asus designers have said goodbye to the array of LED lights, or Animematrix, which occupied half of the back of the device in previous models, and instead, they have used a diagonal and narrow strip of LED lights that are placed on the diameter of the laptop, giving it a different and unique look. They gave a laptop. With the help of Asus Armory Crate software, you can customize the lighting effect of these lights or disable them completely.

Working with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

All in all, the G14’s appearance has now been changed in such a way that it can be taken to meetings as a work laptop, and still maintain a gaming spirit! The Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop can be purchased in white or gray. We have the gray color for review, which looks very attractive and stylish; But soon it gets fingerprints, grease, and stains; So if you are obsessive and sensitive, you should always have a microfiber cloth with you to clean the laptop.

Traces of grease and stains on Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

If you think that the G14’s charms are limited to its exterior, I must say that you would be very wrong; The main surprise happens when you open the laptop door and face its screen; Of course, I must say that the hinge of the laptop is very strong and gives the user a sense of confidence; While it opens with one hand.

Stunning OLED display and powerful speakers

The Zephyrus G14 screen can be described in one word as “stunning”; The 14-inch OLED panel of the laptop with a high aspect ratio of 16:10 and its narrow borders give the laptop a very modern look. On the other hand, like expensive and premium laptops, instead of plastic borders, the integrated glass cover covers the entire display surface; However, this glossy coating reduces the readability of the display in bright environments.

Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop display

Zephyrus G14’s OLED panel with a resolution of 1800 x 2880 pixels and a very good density of 243 pixels provides a clear and sharp image; So that at normal distances from the laptop, the pixels cannot be separated. Asus declares the response time of the panel to be an extremely fast number of 0.2 milliseconds, which is a dream for competitive gamers; But the most impressive feature of the display is its refresh rate.

Zephyrus G14 is the world’s first laptop with an OLED panel that supports variable refresh rate to prevent image tearing while playing games and is compatible with Nvidia’s G-SYNC technology; This feature is one of the most impressive achievements of Asus; I will explain further.

Watching movies with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

Unlike LCD panels, whose brightness is independent of the image refresh rate, the brightness of OLED panels is provided by the pixels themselves, and this brightness depends on both the intensity of the light produced by the pixels and the image refresh rate; For this reason, if the refresh rate of the image decreases, so-called, the rate of turning on and off pixels also decreases, and as a result, the brightness of the panel decreases.

In order to solve the limitations of the OLED panel, Asus has considered the on-and-off rate of the exposure layer of the pixels to be higher than the refresh rate of the image; This means that when the image is updated at a rate of 120 Hz, the exposure layer is turned on and off with a frequency of 4 times, that is, 480 Hz; So when you are immersed in the game and suddenly the frame rate drops from 100 to 80 fps, the brightness of the image does not drop.

Zephyrus G14 2024 screen performance against other laptops

Laptop/test

White image

Black image

contrast ratio

AdobeRGB

sRGB

DCI-P3

Maximum brightness

Minimum brightness

Average brightness

Native

cover

Average error

cover

Average error

cover

Average error

Zephyrus G14 2024

472 intentions

(730 nits HDR)

0 intentions

95 percent

148 percent

0.8

100 percent

1.4

Zephyrus G14 2023

335 intentions

17 intention

3.28 intentions

102

90 percent

125 percent

100 percent

3.3

MacBook Air 2024

443 intentions

0.00 nits

0.67 nits

661

87.9

100

2.4

98.4

1.9

Zenbook 14

512 intention

(788 nits HDR)

0.27 nits

0 intentions

89.6

2.6

100

0.6

99.7

1.3

Galaxy Book 3 Ultra

441 intentions

4 intentions

0 intentions

97.3

3.7

99.6

1.9

99.8

2.3

MacBook Pro M1 Max

455 intentions

(1497 nits HDR)

0 intentions

0 intentions

85

121.6

97.3

2.5

The OLED panel of the Zephyrus G14 produces eye-catching and very attractive colors, this panel can cover the very wide AdobeRGB color space by about 95%, the DCI P3 wide color space completely, and the conventional sRGB color space by about 148% with an extremely small error of 0.8 to give The precision and extraordinary coverage of the panel make the G14 laptop an excellent choice for graphic designers.

The G14 laptop achieves an excellent brightness of 730 nits while playing HDR videos and when a small part of the image is lit; Of course, be careful that to enjoy HDR content, you must connect the laptop to electricity. Asus says the laptop’s display supports HDR video with the Dolby Vision standard and has received VESA DisplayHDR and Pantone certifications for HDR support and accurate color reproduction, respectively.

Windows lock screen on Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

The Asus gaming laptop achieves a brightness of 472 nits during normal content display (SDR) in Zoomit reviews, which is reasonable brightness and provides a pleasant visual experience along with the ultra-high contrast and deep blacks of the OLED panel; However, the glossiness of the panel cover makes it a little difficult to work with the laptop in bright environments.

Asus has complemented the G14’s exceptional visual experience with a superb audio experience; The G14’s speakers are the closest to Apple’s MacBooks of all the Windows laptops I’ve reviewed so far; If you are familiar with the sound of MacBooks, you know know what a great advantage the G14 has over other Windows.

Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop speakers
Speaker vent under Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

Zefiros G14 uses 6 speakers including two dual woofers; The woofers are placed in pairs on the sides of the laptop in opposite directions (up and down) to prevent the laptop body from vibrating. Asus says the woofers have been enlarged by 125% to produce clearer sound and more punchy bass, while the output volume has also increased by 3.5 times; In reality, the audio experience of the laptop is very pleasing to the ears with little noise and poor sound resolution.

Standard keyboard and a large trackpad that is not haptic!

The 14-inch Asus laptop also has a very efficient keyboard, the depth of movement of the G14 island keys reaches a very good number of 1.7 mm, the size of the keys has increased by 12.24% compared to the previous generation, and their feedback is satisfactory. The keys have a standard arrangement and distance from each other; So that after a short time, you get used to typing with the device. Asus estimates the useful life of the keys up to 20 million times.

Typing with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

Perhaps one of my complaints about the design of the keyboard is its 6-sided power button, which does not have any visual harmony with the rest of the laptop. Don’t be fooled by the fact that the button is made of glass. Because there is no fingerprint sensor in G14; But fortunately, you can rely on facial recognition with Windows Hello for authentication.

Windows Hello with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

The webcam of the device also provides the possibility of video calling with 1080p resolution, which is not at the level of Microsoft Surfaces; Instead, thanks to the neural processing unit at the heart of the processor, Windows Effects Studio can be used for tasks such as subject tracking and automatic frame adjustment, maintaining eye contact and blurring the background in video calls.

Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop trackpad

The G14 trackpad is very wide and is located in the middle of the laptop so as not to trigger OCD users; ASUS designers have used a 3:2 aspect ratio for the trackpad to match the aspect ratio of the display. The clicks have very good feedback the finger slides easily on the glass surface of the trackpad and its movement is tracked with great accuracy; But I expect a 100 million Toman laptop to use a haptic trackpad instead of mechanical buttons for the click mechanism, just like MacBooks; I hope we will see such a change in the next generation.

Powerful hardware with optimal performance

What we have said about the body and accessories of the laptop is enough; Let’s talk about the most important aspect of gaming laptops; What power does Zephyrus G14 have and how does it appear in playing games?

This year, Asus keeps the powerful RTX 4080 and RTX 4090 graphics exclusive to the larger G16 laptop and offers the 14-inch G14 laptop with 4060 and 4070 graphics; Although it is apparently available in the Iranian market with 4050 graphics. By limiting the G14 to less powerful graphics and injecting 90 watts into the GPU, Asus engineers have managed to make the laptop slimmer. We have the 4070 model for review, which is currently sold in the market at the price of 115 to 120 million Tomans.

Running the game with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

All three configurations (config in market terms) of Zephyrus G14 are powered by AMD Ryzen 9 8945HS processor; The processor, which is one of AMD’s powerful laptop models from the Ryzen 8000 family with Zen 4 architecture, is produced with improved 5nm class lithography (4nm according to the manufacturer) and works with a TDP equivalent to 45W by default. This processor uses 8 cores with a base frequency of 4 and a turbo frequency of 5.2 GHz and has the ability to simultaneously process 16 instruction threads.

AMD calls its laptop processor an APU (accelerated processing unit); Because in its heart, in addition to the CPU, the Radeon 780M integrated graphics uses 12 graphics cores with RDNA3 architecture and a working frequency of 2.8 GHz, and offers performance at the level of Nvidia’s GTX 1650 Max-Q graphics. Next to the graphics, the name of the AMD neural processing unit is also visible, which can perform 16 trillion operations per second.

Zephyrus G14 2024 storage performance

Laptop/Performance

SSD volume

Sequential reading rate

Sequential write rate

Zephyrus G14 2024

One TB SSD

4997 megabytes

3431 MB

Zephyrus G14 2022

One TB SSD

3617 MB

2832 MB

HP Specter x360 16

One TB SSD

6389 megabytes

4908 MB

Zephyrus M16 2022

One TB SSD

6631 megabytes

5015 MB

The Ryzen 8945HS processor supports dual-channel RAM DDR5-5600 and LPDDR5x-7500 with a capacity of up to 256 GB, But the Taiwanese sell the G14 2024 laptop with 16 or 32 GB LPDDR5x-6400 RAM; A piece that pays the price of the laptop becoming thinner and unlike the previous generation, it is now onboard and cannot be upgraded.

Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop SSD performance

Asus uses a high-speed PCIe 4.0 1TB SSD in all versions of the Zephyrus G14, which achieved read and write speeds of around 5GB and 3.5GB/s in our tests. Zephyrus G14 SSD is not among the fastest, But it fully meets the user’s needs and most importantly, it can be upgraded.

The difference in laptop performance profiles

Before talking about the performance of the device, let’s clarify a little about Asus performance profiles; Because probably most of the users do not know about the existence of these profiles and their effect on the overall performance of the laptop.

For its gaming laptops, Asus has a software called Armory Crate, which can be used to control various parts of the device, from the color profiles of the display to the lighting, and of course the performance profile of the graphics and CPU. In this software, you can change the behavior of the graphics, and adjust the amount of power injected to the graphics and CPU and the speed of the fans.

Working with Armory Crate software on Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

As for the graphics behavior, we have four modes:

  • Optimized mode: Asus recommends it; With this mode, if the laptop is disconnected from the power supply, the Nvidia graphics will be disabled, and when connected to the power supply, the device will go to the Nvidia graphics only in heavy usage such as playing games.
  • Eco Mode: As the name suggests, it completely shuts down the Nvidia graphics under all conditions.
  • Standard mode: It is Microsoft’s protocol (MSHybrid) and Windows decides when to go for Nvidia graphics or integrated graphics. Although Asus recommends the Optimized mode, But the laptop defaults to Standard mode.
  • Ultimate Mode: The integrated graphics is completely removed from the circuit and the screen is connected directly to the Nvidia graphics. This mode has the highest battery consumption, But it may slightly improve the frame rate in some games.

The settings related to the performance profiles of the cooling fans and the power consumption of the processor and graphics of the laptop are as follows:

  • Manual profile: the user can change the parameters related to power consumption and fans at will.
  • Turbo profile: injects the maximum amount of power to the graphics and processor and is only available when connected to the power supply; In this profile, the laptop is literally noisy and the fans are running most of the time. In the following, you can see that there is not much improvement in the performance of the laptop.
  • Performance profile: This is the default profile of the laptop, the sound of the fans is not annoying and the performance of the device is almost equal to the Turbo profile.
  • Silent profile: limits the power consumption of the device to reduce the production heat and use less fans. In this CPU performance profile, at least in daily use, it does not suffer much; But the graphics performance experiences a 50-60% drop when connected to electricity.
  • Windows profile: the power consumption and heat management of the device is entrusted to Windows itself; Surprisingly, even when using other profiles, when unplugging the laptop, the Windows battery setting changes from Best Performance to Balanced, which negatively affects the performance of the device.

Practically, with Armory Crate software, you can set 20 different modes for laptop performance; But in general, it must be said that the existence of so many profiles and colorful performance modes has no result other than confusing the user; A user who is probably not aware of the existence of a software like Armory Crate and its purpose, and of course he should not be aware, he should not think about the performance profile and power consumption, he should always get the right combination of performance and good charging from the laptop with the least challenge. .

G14 2024 performance in different performance profiles

profile/parameter

CPU power consumption

CineBench 2024

GPU power consumption

3DMark TimeSpy

Turbo

75 watt turbo

60 watts stable

914 (multi-core)

70 to 80 watts

10172

Performance

65-watt turbo

45W stable

918 (multi-core)

60 watts

9572

Silent

65-watt turbo

35 watts stable

862 (multi-core)

57-watt turbo

33 watts stable

5582

In the table above, you can see the result of selecting a number of Asus performance profiles along with the scores obtained in the benchmarks with these profiles. Based on the obtained numbers, it is clear that the Turbo profile does not make a significant improvement in the performance of the device, despite the high noise, noticeable increase in power consumption, and the heat it produces.

Laptop behavior in heavy and continuous processing

Due to the inefficiency of the Turbo profile and the drastic drop in graphics performance in the Silent profile, we will put the Performance profile under the microscope. In the first step, it is better to check the behavior of the laptop when connected to the electrical outlet (Plugged) and separated from the electrical outlet (Unplugged).

When the Ryzen 9 8945HS processor in the Dell G14 2024 laptop is under pressure with the CineBench 2024 rendering benchmark, the device with the Performance profile, in both Plugged and Unplugged states, works more or less with the same strategy of the processor; But as you can see below, apparently this strategy is only limited to the CineBench benchmark; Because in other software, we see a noticeable drop in performance.

Power consumption of Ryzen 9 8945HS processor in Asus G14 2024 laptopCPU power consumption
 
Ryzen 9 8945HS processor clock in Asus G14 2024 laptop
CPU clock
Ryzen 9 8945HS processor temperature in Asus G14 2024 laptop
The temperature of the hottest processor core

The G14 2024 laptop injects about 65 watts of power into the processor in the initial moments, then it works with about 55 watts of power from the processor for a few minutes until it finally stabilizes at about 45 watts. The frequency reaches 4.7 GHz at best and finally stabilizes at 4.3-4.4 GHz; While the temperature first increases to 87-88 degrees Celsius, then it fluctuates in the range of 80 degrees Celsius.

Contrary to what we saw about the processor, there is a huge difference between the graphics performance in the Plugged and Unplugged state. When the G14 2024 laptop is subjected to a heavy processing load in the Performance profile for 20 minutes with the heavy graphics benchmark 3DMark TimeSpy, in the plugged state, the power consumption fluctuates in the range of 60 watts, and in the unplugged state, the power consumption remains in the range of 42-43 watts; Therefore, there is a 30% drop in power consumption.

Power consumption of RTX 4070 graphics in Asus G14 2024 laptopGraphics power consumption
RTX 4070 graphics clock in Asus G14 2024 laptop
Graphic clock
RTX 4070 graphics temperature in Asus G14 2024 laptop
The temperature of the hottest point of the graphic

In the performance stability test, the RTX 4070 graphics frequency works with a frequency of about 1600 MHz in Plugged mode and about 1400 MHz in Unplugged mode, and the temperature of its hottest point reaches 92-93 and 80 degrees Celsius in these two modes. As you can see, in graphics processing, the device gets hotter than CPU-based processing.

The difference in laptop performance when connected and disconnected from the power outlet

One of the main points about the laptop, which often remains hidden from the eyes of the buyer, is the difference in its performance when connected and disconnected from the power outlet (Plugged and Unplugged); Can a laptop provide the same performance in battery-powered mode as in plugged-in mode? The answer to this question for Windows laptops was a resounding “no” until the release of devices equipped with Snapdragon X processors and a handful of Intel and AMD processors. Can the G14 2024 surprise you?

G14 2024 operation in plugged and unplugged mode

profile/parameter

GeekBench 6.3

Speedometer 2.1

Python code

Premiere Pro

Photoshop

Forza Horizon 5 – QHD

Performance

Plugged

2568

12946

322

40.8 seconds

8253

7350

70 frames per second

Performance

Unplugged

2325

8787

201

45 seconds

6637

6199

30 frames per second

The G14 2024 laptop in the stress test and performance stability that we did with the CineBench 2024 benchmark, practically provided the same performance in the Plugged and Unplugged state; But as you can see in the table above, we did not get the same result for other software and benchmarks. Unfortunately, the G14 appears between 10 and 60% weaker in Unplugged mode and when browsing the web, running Python code, working with Photoshop and Premiere Pro, or even playing Forza Horizon 5.

Laptop performance compared to competitors

Now let us measure the performance of Zephyrus G14 2024 in comparison with its competitors and its previous generation. Please note that in the continuation of the review, we obtained the benchmarks in the condition that the laptop was connected to the power outlet and used the Performance profile.

Note that in order to get a correct idea of ​​G14 2024’s performance, some benchmarks have tried to reflect the results of MacBook Pro M3 Pro and Zephyrus G16 Core Ultra 9 185H from reliable foreign media; Because these two laptops with a price tag of 100 to 120 million tomans are the main competitors of G14 2024.

Zephyrus G14 2024 performance against competitors (plugged in)

Laptop/benchmark

Technical Specifications

Web browsing

Performance in graphics

CPU performance in rendering

CPU computing power

GPU computing power

3 Dark

CineBench R23

GeekBench 6

GeekBench 6

Speedometer 2.1

TimeSpy

Single

Multi

Single

Multi

OpenCL

Metal/Vulkan

DirectX 12

Zephyrus G14 2024

Ryzen 9 8945HS

RTX 4070

322

9572

1759

16088

2568

12946

112783

103313

Zephyrus G14 2022

Ryzen 9 6900HS

RX 6800S

235

9075

1536

14218

2021

9435

72595

80580

* MacBook Pro 14

M3 Pro

14 Core GPU

677

1889

13289

3125

13755

41736

68417

* Zephyrus G16 2024

Core Ultra 9 185H

RTX 4070

10989

1803

17452

2556

14460

114126

MacBook Air 2024

M3

8 Core GPU

680

1897

9872

3143

2008

25845

41671

Zenbook 14

Core Ultra 7 155H

Intel Arc GPU

396

3453

1637

13367

2290

12256

34889

38268

MacBook Pro 14 inch 2021

M1 Max

24Core GPU

300

1549

12508

2378

12239

65432

101045

Zephyrus G14 2024 experiences significant improvement in benchmarks compared to the 2022 model; But since Ryzen 9 7945HS and Ryzen 9 8945HS do not have any noticeable difference apart from the neural processing engine, you will probably not experience a significant improvement compared to the 2023 model.

We haven’t reviewed the MacBook Pro M3 Pro and the Zephyrus G16 2024, the G14’s main competitors on Zoomit; But to some extent, I must say that MacBook Pro outperforms G14 in single-core processing with a 20% difference and G16 in multi-core processing with a 10-15% difference. Another notable issue is the G14’s stark performance gap with the MacBook in web browsing.

If we use computing power as the benchmark to compare graphics performance, the RTX 4070 GPUs in the G14 and G16 laptops offer more or less the same performance; But the MacBook Pro loses to the G14 2024 by a huge margin of 60%.

Laptop performance in professional use

In order to measure the performance of the Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop in professional use as well, we went to Photoshop software, Premiere Pro, running code written in Python and Blender software.

Laptop performance in Photoshop

In the Photoshop software test, which includes tasks such as opening the RAW file, changing the size of photos, correcting the lens, and reducing noise, the G14 2024 laptop remains behind its competitors G16 2024 and MacBook Pro M3 Pro with a difference of 10 and 25%, respectively.

G14 2024 laptop performance in Photoshop

Note that the above result was obtained when the laptop is connected to the power outlet; If we disconnect the G14 from the power supply, we reach a score of 6199; While the MacBook Pro offers the same performance when unplugged; Therefore, unplugged mode, the performance gap between the two laptops increases from 25% to about 40%.

Laptop performance in Premier Pro

In the Premier Pro test, tasks such as outputting 8-bit and 50 Mbps 4K videos with HEVC and H.264 codecs, processing ProRes UHD videos with and without proxy, and implementing graphic effects are examined. In this test, the G14 laptop was able to beat the MacBook Pro M3 Pro by 35%; But it remained with a 10% difference from G16.

Performance of the G14 2024 laptop running Premier Pro

If we disconnect the G14 2024 from the power outlet, its score in the Premier Pro test drops by 20% to 6637, which is still higher than the MacBook Pro M3 Pro by about 10%.

Laptop performance in Python code execution

In the Mandelbrot series benchmark, which is written in Python to find the points of a fractal on a mixed screen, the G14 2024 performed brilliantly thanks to its powerful processor that when using Windows PowerShell, the calculation of fractal points was completed 10% faster than the MacBook Air M3 and 32% faster than the powerful and expensive GalaxyBook 3 Ultra laptop.

G14 2024 laptop performance in Python code execution

Windows provides the possibility of using the Linux terminal thanks to its Linux subsystem called WSL. If we use WSL to run the benchmark, the G14’s performance gap with the MacBook Air and GalaxyBook 3 Ultra increases to 36 and 65 percent, respectively.

Laptop performance in Blender software

Blender 3D modeling software can render with the help of CPU and GPU; To evaluate the performance of the G14 laptop, we ran the Blender software benchmark both on CPU and GPU.

Asus G14 2024 laptop performance in Blender software with processor

As you can see in the chart above, the Ryzen 9 8945HS processor in the Dell G14 laptop is slightly weaker than the 11-core M3 Pro processor in the 14-inch MacBook Pro laptop.

Asus G14 2024 laptop performance in Blender software with graphics

Nvidia’s powerful graphics show its extraordinary processing power well in the graphics rendering test in Blender software. In this test, the G14 2024 laptop outperforms the MacBook Pro M3 Pro by a margin of 175% and is ahead of the GalaxyBook 3 Ultra laptop by a margin of 60%.

Laptop performance in the game

The Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop runs most games easily and with a frame rate of more than 70 frames per second in 1080p resolution. The laptop provides good performance in optimal games such as Forza Horizon 5 even in QHD resolution; But to experience other heavy games in QHD resolution, you should use technologies such as DLSS and Frame Generation.

Zephyrus G14 2024 performance in games

Game/Performance

Clarity

Graphics settings

Average frame rate

Cyberpunk 2077

1440p

RT On – Ultra

DLSS On-Quality

Frame Generation On

43 frames per second

1440p

RT Off

DLSS Off

Texture Quality: High

38 frames per second

1080p

RT On – Ultra

DLSS On-Quality

Frame Generation On

75 frames per second

Forza Horizon 5

1440p

Extreme

70 frames per second

FarCry 6

1440p

Ultra quality

63 frames per second

Red Dead Redemption 2

1440p

Ultra quality

51 frames per second

1080p

Ultra quality

68 frames per second

Returnal

1080p

Epic

91 frames per second

Note that all the above results were obtained when the laptop was plugged in; If you want to play in unplugged mode, to have a satisfactory experience, you need to reduce the graphics settings to medium, otherwise, the frame rate will drop a lot; For example, in the case of Forza Horizon 5, the frame rate dropped from 70 to 30 fps.

Optimal battery life in normal use

The Zephyrus G14 laptop provides the energy it needs through a rather bulky 73-watt-hour battery; Along with the laptop, the Taiwanese provide the user with a 180-watt adapter that can charge 50% of the battery capacity within 30 minutes; Asus also provides a compact 100W USB-C charger with the device, which makes it easier to carry the laptop, while you can also use it to charge your smartphone.

Read more: Asus Zenbook 14 OLED laptop review

Zephyrus G14 2024 battery life compared to other laptops

Laptop/Test

Functional profile

hardware

Display

Battery capacity

Play offline video

Everyday use

Processor and graphics

Dimensions, resolution, and refresh rate

watt-hours

720p Video

PCMark 10

minute: hour

minute: hour

Zephyrus G14 2024

Performance

Ryzen 9 8945HS

RTX 4070

14 inches and 120 Hz

1800 x 2880 pixels

73

7:47

6:20

Zephyrus G14 2022

Performance

Ryzen 9 6900HS

RX 6800S

14 inches and 120 Hz

1600 x 2560 pixels

76

5:50

4:03

MacBook Air 2024

Apple M3

8 core GPU

13.6 inches and 60 Hz

1664 x 2560 pixels

52.6

14:13

Zenbook 14

Performance

Core Ultra 7-155H

Intel Arc

14 inches and 120 Hz

1800 x 2880 pixels

75

17:25

9:09

Galaxy Book 3 Ultra

Performance

Core i7-13700H

RTX 4050

16 inches and 120 Hz

1880 x 2880 pixels

76

11:00

6:21

MacBook Pro 14-inch 2021

M1 Max

24Core GPU

14.2 inches and 120 Hz

1964 x 3024 pixels

70

18:14

Zephyrus G14 2024 lasts about 2 hours longer than the 2022 model in daily use and movie playback; But compared to MacBook Pro and MacBook Air or laptops equipped with Core Ultra processors, there is not much to say; However, overall, it seems that you can count on the G14 2024 for a working day in normal and everyday use.

Zephyrus G14 2024 against the competition

Zephyrus G14 2024 is not the most powerful Windows laptop on the market; But the combination it offers in its price range, at least in the Iranian market, cannot be seen in any other Windows laptop; In the range of 100 to 120 million Tomans, Windows laptops are clumsy and worse devices with monstrous hardware or premium ultrabooks with weak hardware.

Forza game on Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

J14 is a powerful and compact laptop with extremely high build quality, a stunning display, and ear-splitting speakers, which can last a full working day in daily use, offers performance on par with or close to MacBook Pro M3 Pro, and at the same time, it can also meet your gaming needs. Currently, among Windows devices in the Iranian market, only Asus’ own G16 2024 laptop can offer a similar combination.

Video editing with Asus Zephyrus G14 2024 laptop

If you are looking to buy Zephyrus G14 2024, go for the model equipped with RTX 4060; Because this graphic is a more suitable choice for the 14-inch dimensions and thin thickness of the G14, it is not much different from the RTX 4070 model in professional applications such as video editing with Premier Pro, and it is also about 20 million Tomans cheaper.

What do you think about G14 2024? If you are a Windows laptop fan, which one would you choose between this laptop and the G16 2024?

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Getting to know the most advanced humanoid robots

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humanoid robots
If you think that the world of technology has amazed you enough so far, join us as we learn more about the most advanced humanoid robots.

Getting to know the most advanced humanoid robots

Today’s technology companies have a mission that they strive to achieve with all their might, and this mission is nothing but the realization of every creature, gadget, and robot that we have seen before in science fiction movies. So here we’ll get to know the most advanced humanoid robots.

Imagine a world where when you go shopping you hand your credit card to robots to count your purchase, or when you order pizza, a robot delivers it to you. Maybe a decade ago, the idea of ​​robots walking next to us on the street or taking the place of humans in various jobs was far from mind; But how would you feel if we told you that right now there is a robot in the world who is the CEO of a company?

Let me guess! You probably don’t like competing with robots because we know almost nothing about them and can’t even guess their next move; But whether we like it or not, they have gradually come out of water and mud and artificial intelligence is trying to show us its other side.

Now we are going to introduce you to eight of the most advanced humanoid robots according to Business Insider’s list; From a robot that simulates our dreams to a robot that can do yoga. Stay with us.

This is you and this two-legged robot from Apptronik: “Apollo”

Apollo robot delivering the box

Optronic’s bipedal robot arrived in August this year, and many consider it the “iPhone” of the world of robots. Jeff Cardenas, CEO of Optronic, says:

We want to produce human-sized robots, because only then can they go where we can go and do things similar to what we do. Apollo did not come to sideline humans, but to do things that humans don’t want to do.

Apollo weighs 73 kg, is 1.70 m tall, and requires battery replacement every four hours. Optronics began its work in 2016 at the University of Texas’ Human-Centered Robotics Laboratory, and in a short period of time it has reached such a high point that it has now signed a contract with NASA that will greatly help the development of its robots.

Optronik company tries to justify the existence of humanoid robots with the slogan “Robot for humans” and considers the reason for the production of Apollo to help humans in dangerous tasks.

NASA astronaut robot: “Valkyrie”

NASA's Valkyrie robot walking among employees

NASA’s Valkyrie robot was unveiled in 2013 with the aim of “doing dangerous work”. This robot, which NASA calls R5, is designed to be able to travel to the dangerous and uninhabitable regions of the Moon, Mars, and space.

The University of Edinburgh is now using Valkyrie in its research, calling it “one of the most advanced humanoids in the world”. Valkyrie or its more advanced descendants could greatly assist NASA in advancing its ground robotics goals and the Artemis mission.

Amca simulates our dreams

Amka humanoid robot laughing

Some time ago, in a video published on the Engineered Arts YouTube account, Ameca claimed that it can simulate the dreams of humans by drawing different scenarios and learning more about the world with them. The mentioned video caused a lot of controversy, so if we consider Amka as the Elon Musk of the world of robots, we are not unfair to him.

Amca is the Elon Musk of the world of robots

After backlash on social media, Will Jackson, co-founder of Engineered Arts, announced in an interview that Amka answers questions using the ChatGPT-3 artificial intelligence and can neither feel nor have long-term memory. He also said:

Remember that Amca works with code and is just a language model. It’s very tempting to apply human characteristics to robots, but don’t fool yourself; This is nothing but an illusion for now.

However, if you’ve seen Amka’s controversial video, you might agree with the critics. In this video, he is asked if he can dream. And in disbelief, he gives an answer that may make you doubt the health of your ears. “Yes, actually I had a dream last night about dinosaurs fighting aliens on Mars,” Amka confidently replies.

Then he continues, “Just kidding, I can’t dream like a human! “But I can create scenarios in my head, simulate dreams, and learn about the world.”

“The saddest day for me was the day I realized I would never experience true love,” Amka said in another video. Another interesting point is that Amka changes his facial expressions with the help of GPT-3 when saying these strange sentences, which can scare many people.

Digit can carry postal packages

Digit humanoid robot moving the box

Digit, unveiled in 2019, has legs, arms, and a torso full of sensors that help him navigate rough surfaces and obstacles.

The robot can carry packages, empty warehouses, and deliver people’s mail packages. Right now, Amazon’s research and development center is testing Digit to make it easier to move packages in its distribution centers.

Digit’s capabilities are currently not very extensive; But walking on narrow ledges, bending over, picking up objects, and other simple tasks can be very efficient in the future.

Mika, the robot, is the CEO of a beverage company

Mika's humanoid robot giving a speech

Dictator Company, the world’s famous beverage maker, last year chose a two-legged robot named Mika as its CEO. By identifying the tastes of the customers, Mika chooses different people to design the drink bottles.

Mika is the first robot in the world who has a valid university degree

If you think you have been surprised enough by now, I must say that the story does not end there; Because Mika even received an honorary degree from the University of Warsaw!

Some time ago, a journalist took to the streets in New York to ask people what they thought about the CEO’s humanoid robot and got some interesting results. At first, someone replied, “I don’t think robots deserve that kind of respect because they’re just machines.” Another participant believed that with the current trend, more jobs will be taken away from humans and will be given to robots.

Tesla’s Optimus robot can do yoga

Tesla's humanoid robot doing yoga

Optimus arrived in 2022 and at first he could hardly walk; But Elon Musk, with his famous ambition, said that in the next three to five years, Tesla will be able to start mass production of this robot and offer it to enthusiasts.

Optimus couldn’t even walk, but he could probably be dancing in a few years

In this short period of time, Optimus, which is also known as “Tesla Bot”, has made a lot of progress and can potentially play a role in the assembly and production lines of vehicles, batteries, and the production of Tesla’s solar panels. Optimus learns what humans do by watching.

The famous robot “Sophia” speaks at world conferences

Sophia the humanoid robot giving a speech in Indian dress

Sophia, the humanoid robot from Hanson Robotics, probably has the most realistic face compared to its competitors, equipped with artificial skin that can be adjusted in color.

Sophia has acquired the legal citizenship of Saudi Arabia

The interactive robot of Hanson Robotics has so far spoken at important conferences, which has brought him many successes; Because by using artificial intelligence, he can make effective speeches and change his face and hands according to human emotions.

One of Sofia’s other honors is receiving the citizenship of Saudi Arabia. Sophia is the only robot that has received the legal citizenship of a country.

Sophia's humanoid skin

This Hong Kong-based company plans to develop the ability to understand and feel real Sophia in the long term and turn it into an adult robot with human characteristics; Although the head of Facebook’s artificial intelligence department, the creator of Sophia considers it a “puppet walker” who tries to make it look intelligent.

Boston Dynamics’ “Atlas” robot can do parkour

Atlas humanoid robot jumping over obstacles

If you have seen the Black Mirror series, you are familiar with Boston Dynamics’ robot dogs. These robot dogs, known as Spots, are integrated with ChatGPT and can speak in complete sentences.

After the successful production of robot dogs, Boston Dynamics decided to create a humanoid bipedal robot, and the result was the Atlas robot; A robot that works both outdoors and indoors and can move quickly and jump over obstacles. Unlike the other robots we introduced, the Atlas robot does not have the ability to smile or turn its eyes, in fact, it does not have a face at all; But it does great things.

Atlas can be a skilled firefighter

Atlas hardware uses 3D printing to be lightweight and turns this robot into a compact humanoid device that has the ability to manipulate various objects and can maintain its balance against strong pushing and shaking even if it loses its balance. He can get up again.

Other features of Atlas include the ability to find leaking pipes, walk through rubble, climb ladders, operate fire hoses, and drive vehicles.

Conclusion: Is developing humanoid robots a bad idea?

There’s no doubt that humans don’t feel good about humanoid robots, and I think if bipeds had feelings, they’d probably resent us in return; But what is the root of this anger towards humanoid robots? That is, everything is under the head of the “Uncanny Valley” effect, which makes the perfect dissimilarity of the humanoid robot to the real person create an unpleasant feeling in us, or are there more complicated and serious factors at work?

Despite much research, there is still no exact answer to this question; But maybe the development of humanoid robots will make us feel less human. Perhaps the thought that we will one day not be the only intelligent beings on earth infuriates us.

However, robots have yet to do terrible things to us humans, and there are even reports that robots can teach autistic children social skills.

Incidentally, if we look at the story from another angle, we could probably have a peaceful coexistence with bipedal robots and do things like playing chess with them. Fortunately, when it comes to reasoning and creativity, the companies that make the robots have only given basic training and we still have a chance to win against them.

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Galaxy Ring was unveiled; Samsung’s very smart ring at an almost reasonable price

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Galaxy Ring
Samsung Galaxy Ring was introduced with various health features including continuous heart rate measurement, sleep monitoring, skin temperature sensor along with artificial intelligence features.

Galaxy Ring was unveiled; Samsung’s very smart ring at an almost reasonable price

Samsung at the Unpacked event alongside the Galaxy Z Fold 6 and Galaxy Z Flip 6 foldable phonesAt the Unpacked event, Samsung officially unveiled its smart ring called the Galaxy Ring, a foldable phone. Relying on the power of Galaxy AI, this product provides a smart health experience for everyone.

“The latest Galaxy wearables are a combination of Samsung’s most advanced technologies and innovations, enabling you to take control of your health and wellness with care and preventative solutions,” said TM Rowe, director of Samsung’s Mobile Experience (MX). “The intelligence, planning, and deep understanding and awareness that Galaxy Ring provides will help users turn data into meaningful goals and experience a new era of smart health.”

Galaxy Ring offers a simple approach to monitoring users’ health. This product uses Samsung’s precise sensor technology, which now provides information in its smallest form to the user so that he can easily monitor and control his health.

Galaxy Ring

The Samsung smart ring is designed to be used 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This product weighs only 2.3 to 3 grams, and as a result, it conveys a more comfortable feeling to the user during long-term use. The distinctive design known as Concave Design has made the Galaxy Ring, in addition to its fresh and attractive appearance, to have good durability and resistance. This product has an IP68 certificate; Therefore, it is resistant to water penetration, and due to the grade 5 titanium coating, you can safely use it anywhere without worrying about possible damage.

Galaxy Ring

Galaxy Ring lasts up to 7 days of continuous use with each full charge, and a special charging frame is designed for it, which shows the charging status with LED lighting. You can choose one of the three colors black, silver, and gold according to your style and taste. In addition, the special sizing kit helps the user to choose the most suitable size from among 9 options.

Samsung Galaxy Ring
Samsung Galaxy Ring

With Galaxy Ring, you can enjoy the capabilities and features of this product at any hour of the day and in any situation. These features are personalized according to the needs of each user and with the help of advanced artificial intelligence technology become more powerful over time with the help of Samsung’s

All the data and information that the Galaxy Ring collects about the user’s health status is stored in the Samsung Health platform so that you can seamlessly access it through your other devices.

Sleep plays a central role as one of the important foundations of daily health, and Galaxy Ring offers the best sleep analysis capabilities and helps you understand your sleep patterns and create better and healthier habits with a powerful artificial intelligence algorithm.

In addition to providing a sleep score (Sleep Score) and examining snoring and noises during sleep, these features check other criteria such as movement during sleep, sleep duration, heart rate, and breathing rate to provide a detailed and detailed analysis.

Galaxy Ring

Samsung

Galaxy Ring’s Cycle Tracking feature for women monitors their menstrual cycle by checking their skin temperature overnight. Overall, you can use Galaxy Ring data as motivation to start your day fresher and more energetic. It starts with Galaxy AI, which provides detailed and accurate health reports based on various metrics.

The new Energy Score function is one of the features of Galaxy AI that informs you of the solutions and methods that increase the level of health. This means that by knowing your physical condition and energy score, you can create a suitable plan to improve your health.

Galaxy ring in hand

Samsung

The Energy Score feature calculates your physical and mental health based on four metrics: sleep, activity level, heart rate during sleep, and heart rate variability during sleep. In addition, the Wellness Tips feature provides personalized tips and recommendations tailored to each user’s condition by analyzing data and health information.

Galaxy Ring with the Heart Rate Alert function, when the heart rate is abnormally low or high, it informs the user instantly through the Samsung Health application. The Live Heart Rate Check feature also provides the user with more details about heart rate, beats per minute, duration, and start time.

Galaxy Ring

According to Samsung’s claim, the Galaxy Ring will help you lead an active and energetic lifestyle and keep track of your workouts with more motivation. The automatic detection of exercise in this smart ring tracks the amount of walking and running you do and warns you if you are not physically active.

Other features of Galaxy Ring include support for motion gestures. For example, you can take a photo or turn off the phone’s alarm by swiping two fingers together twice. In addition, it is possible to track the location of the Galaxy Ring through Find My Ring on Samsung Find.

The price of the Galaxy Ring is $400 and will be available in selected markets from July 24 (August 3, 1403).

Samsung Galaxy Ring technical specifications
Introduction July 10, 2024
another name Samsung SM-Q500NZKAXAR Samsung SM-Q500NZKAXAR Samsung SM-Q500NZSAXAR Samsung SM-Q500NZSAXAR Samsung SM-Q500NZDAXAR Samsung SM-Q500NZDAXAR
Condition Release in the near future (July 24, 2024)
Dimensions It has 9 sizes from 5 to 13 7.0 x 2.6 mm (ring) 48.9 x 48.9 x 24.51 mm (charging compartment)
Weight 2.3 grams (ring size 5) 3.0 grams (ring size 13) 61.3 grams (charge compartment)
Other body specifications The body of the ring is made of grade 5 titanium The body of the charging compartment is made of stainless steel and plastic IP68 (resistant to dust and water up to a depth of 1 meter and up to 30 minutes) Resistant to water penetration up to a pressure of 10 atmospheres (100 meters deep)
internal memory 8 MB
battery Non-replaceable battery with a capacity of 18 mAh (ring size 5) Non-replaceable battery with a capacity of 23.5 mAh (ring size 13) Non-replaceable battery with a capacity of 361 mAh (charging compartment)
standby Up to 7 days
Sensors Optical heart rate sensor, accelerometer, body thermometer
Other specifications and features Support for various sports modes, heart rate monitoring, sleep monitoring, women’s health monitoring, pedometer, distance traveled calculation, calorie consumption calculation, Galaxy AI support
Technology does not have
Wireless Network does not have
Bluetooth Yes, version 5.4 LE
GPS does not have
NFC does not have
USB does not have
Colors Black, silver, gold
Price range About $400

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