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How did Intel lose its top position in the chip industry?



Intel was once the undisputed king of the US chip industry, but due to a few big mistakes, it feels the heavy shadow of powerful competitors over its empire.

wasted opportunities; How did Intel lose its top position in the chip industry?

With the release of Intel’s financial report in the first quarter of the year, the company’s stock value reached its lowest level in 2024, making the expected transformation of the blue team seem more unlikely than ever. Although Intel’s revenue decline has stopped and the company remains the largest manufacturer of processors for PCs and laptops, its overall sales figures for the first quarter were lower than expected. Intel has provided a cautious forecast for the second quarter, indicating weak demand for its products.

This situation has created a difficult situation for Pat Gelsinger, the CEO of Intel. He took the helm of the big American chipmaker three years ago, but Intel’s problems date back decades.

Intel, whose name was once synonymous with “Silicon Valley”, had gradually lost its lead in the production of semiconductor products to foreign rivals such as Taiwan’s TSMC before Gelsinger returned to the company in 2021. The blue team is now spending billions of dollars every quarter to reclaim the playing field in a risky effort.

Intel was the most valuable chip maker in America for years, but now its market value is 16th that of Nvidia

“Our most important task is to try to close the technology gap created by more than a decade of investment indolence,” Gelsinger told the company’s investors recently. Gelsinger emphasized that Intel is still on track to achieve its 2026 vision, but investors are not optimistic about the company’s situation.

According to CNBC, Intel shares have been the worst performer among tech companies on the S&P 500 list, with a 37% price drop in 2024. On the other side of the field is Nvidia, the American chipmaker and super microcomputer, which is experiencing astonishing growth as demand for artificial intelligence servers increases.

Intel CEO Pat GelsingerIntel CEO Pat Gelsinger

Intel, long the most valuable U.S. chipmaker, is now not only one-sixteenth of Nvidia by market capitalization, but dwarfs all other competitors—Texas Instruments, Qualcomm, Broadcom, and AMD. Let’s not forget that the company was the world’s largest semiconductor company by sales for decades, but has now posted seven consecutive quarters of declining revenue. The biggest chipmaker of the late 20th century fell behind Nvidia last year and is now lost in the dust of the green team.

Gelsinger has gone for a risky business model. He is leading Intel to make chips for other companies such as Nvidia, Apple, and Qualcomm, in addition to producing processors for itself. In this direction, Intel faces strong competitors such as TSMC and Samsung, and its success in attracting customers depends on its ability to regain the leadership of manufacturers.

Semiconductor companies want an alternative to TSMC so they don’t have to rely on just one supplier as the shadow of war hangs over Taiwan. US political leaders call Intel the American chip champion and say the company is an important part of the US processor supply chain.

Semiconductor companies want an alternative to TSMC so they don’t have to rely on just one supplier

Nicholas Brathwaite, one of the managers of Celesta Capital, an institution that invests in companies related to semiconductors, says: “Intel is a large and iconic company in the semiconductor industry and has been a leader in this field for years. I think such a company is worth trying to save and should return to competition.” However, Intel’s efforts do not seem to have been very successful. Counterpoint analyst Akshara Bassi says: “I think we’ve been hearing from Intel for two or three years that things will get better next quarter, but there’s no news.”

The blue team has lost the rhyme for years. In fact, after the release of the iPhone in 2007, Intel lost the mobile chip market, and even now, although it has a great desire to enter the field of artificial intelligence, it has not yet been able to convince companies such as Meta, Microsoft, and Google to use its products instead of Nvidia chips. to order How did the world’s largest chip maker come to this day?

A missed opportunity called the iPhone

The iPhone could have an Intel chip in its heart. In his 2011 biography of Steve Jobs, Walter Isaacson revealed that when Apple was developing the first iPhone, Steve Jobs met with former Intel CEO Paul Otellini to discuss using Intel chips in the (yet-unreleased) iPhone. The first generation of iPhone was released with MacOS operating system and it was logical that Apple wanted to use Intel chips in it, because the best computers of the time used these chips.

But Jobs abandoned the Intel chips for two reasons: first, Intel was very slow in supplying them, and second, Apple did not want those chips to be sold to its competitors. According to Isaacson, the two tech giants could not agree on the price and intellectual property of the chips. Thus, the deal was stopped and Apple asked Samsung for help.

A view of the introduction of the iPhone 3GS by Steve JobsSteve Jobs, the founder and former CEO of Apple introduced the iPhone 3GS

The first iPhone with a Samsung chip was released. Apple bought PA Semi in 2008 and unveiled its first chip in 2010. In just 5 years, the annual sales of the iPhone exceeded 100 million units. In 2010, the sales of smartphones, both Android and iPhone, surpassed the sales of personal computers. The era of mobile monotony had begun.

Apple planned to release the first iPhone with an Intel chip

All of today’s smartphones use chips based on ARM architecture instead of Intel’s x86 technology. The x86 architecture was designed for personal computers in 1981 and is still widely used today. Chips made by Apple and Qualcomm using the ARM architecture consume much less power than Intel processors, making them a much better choice for small, battery-reliant devices like smartphones.

Chips based on the ARM architecture have improved rapidly due to the huge production volume and the mobile industry’s need for faster performance and new features every year. Apple placed huge orders with TSMC, the first of which was the order to make the beating heart of the iPhone 6, the A8 chip, in 2014. Cupertino’s orders have flooded TSMC with cash. The Taiwanese company used this liquidity in the best possible way to upgrade its equipment annually and gradually overtook Intel.

By the end of the 2010s, flagship phone processors were challenging Intel’s desktop and laptop chips in some benchmarks, while consuming much lower power. In 2017, Apple and Qualcomm began adding neural processing units (NPUs) for artificial intelligence capabilities to their chips to gain another advantage over Intel processors. The blue team joined this arena late and released its first processor equipped with NPU late last year, thus gradually ceding a large part of its share in the PC chip market to ARM’s revolutionary chips 7 years ago.

In 2020, Apple removed Intel processors from its desktop and laptop computers. Since then, Macs have only come with chips based on the ARM architecture. This year, some flagship Windows laptops, including Microsoft Surfaces, are going to be released with ARM chips. Low-cost laptops equipped with Google’s Chrome OS are also increasingly turning to these chips. Gartner analyst Mikako Kitagawa says: “A large part of Intel’s market share decline is due to Apple saying goodbye to its processors. Cupertino alone owns about 10% of the world’s personal computer market.

Apple has removed Intel processors from its desktop and laptop computers since 2020

The blue team has also made efforts to enter the smartphone market. In 2012, Intel released its x86-based mobile chip called Atom, which was used in the Asus Zenfone; But it was never well received and the production line of this chip was discontinued three years later. Intel’s neglect of the smartphone revolution set the stage for a decade behind the competition.

It all comes down to transistors

Chips get faster as their number of transistors increases. More transistors allow the processor to perform more calculations. The first Intel microprocessor, named Intel 4004 and presented in 1971, had about two thousand transistors. Some of today’s chips have tens of billions of transistors.

As semiconductor companies shrink chips, they put more transistors on them. The size of the transistor indicates the level of chip lithography technology. In this way, the smaller it is, the more powerful and less power-consuming the chip will be. Intel’s 4004 chip used a 10 micrometer (10,000 nm) manufacturing process, while today’s latest TSMC chips use highly advanced 3 nm lithography. The latest Intel products have 7nm lithography.

Engineers at semiconductor companies prided themselves on designing smaller processors every year. One of the managers who worked at Intel in the 1980s said that lithography engineers are the crown jewels of this company. The prediction of Gordon Moore, one of the founders of Intel in the 1960s, which later became known as Moore’s Law, has been a cornerstone of the technology world for decades. This law says that the density of transistors on chips, and thus their computing power, doubles roughly every two years, and their prices become cheaper.

Gordon Moore; Founder of Intel, creator of Moore’s Law and the modern world

Gordon Moore’s inventions helped to establish the modern world; It is not without reason that he is known as one of the most popular and influential figures in Silicon Valley and the chip world.

Gordon Moore; Founder of Intel, creator of Moore's Law and the modern world

Moore’s Law means that Intel’s software partners such as Microsoft can count on the next generation of PCs or servers being more powerful than the current generation. This rule worked for Intel for almost 50 years. The expectations for continued development in the blue team were so high that they even gave it a nickname and called it Tic Tactic Development. Every two years, Intel released a new chip with a new lithography (tick) and improved its technology and design a little the following year (tick).

In 2015, Intel had to stay on one lithograph for more than 2 years for the first time

In 2015, under CEO Brian Krzanich, the commercialization of Intel’s new 10nm process was delayed, forcing the company to continue lithography beyond its usual 2-year habit. The American giant had to release its PC and server processors with the 14nm process that year. With the reintroduction of 14nm lithography chips in 2017, Intel’s tick-tock process became tick-tock for the first time in decades. Intel officials say the problem was caused by insufficient investment, particularly in ASML’s EUV lithography machines, which TSMC eagerly embraced and pushed forward.

ASML is the only company in the world that can build very complex devices to produce the most advanced chips; How has this Dutch company depended on the survival of the chip industry?

ASML; The small Dutch company that became the biggest monopoly in the chip world [with video]

The way was opened for further delays at Intel. This company missed its deadline for the next process, i.e. 7nm lithography, and ate it after the publication of the 2020 financial reports. Intel’s stock plummeted as the year’s earnings slump became apparent, paving the way for the former CEO to be ousted and replaced by Gelsinger, who had previously been an engineer at the company.

As Intel struggled to maintain its legendary pace of growth, one of its historical rivals in the PC and server chip market, AMD, made the most of the opportunity. AMD is more of a chip designer than a chip maker. The company designs its chips in California, and then manufacturers such as TSMC or GlobalFoundries produce them for it. Because TSMC, unlike Intel, did not face any particular problem when transitioning to 10 and 7 nm processes, AMD chips reached the level of Intel’s products in the second half of the 2010s and even surpassed the rival team’s products in some specific applications.

Pat Gelsinger and Lisa Sue next to each otherPat Gelsinger with AMD CEO Lisa Sue

AMD, which had a small share of the server processor market a decade ago, has now begun to take over Intel’s share in the industry. The red team will make up more than 20% of all server processors sold in 2022, and according to last year’s estimate by Counterpoint, sales will grow by a whopping 62% that year. Finally, at the end of that year, AMD’s market share was higher than Intel’s.

Stay off the AI ​​train

Graphical processing units, or GPUs, were originally designed to run heavy computer games, but computer scientists realized that these products were also ideal for running parallel computations of artificial intelligence algorithms.

After launching the controversial chatbot ChatGPT in 2022, Nvidia managed to triple its sales in just one year. Expensive server chips have once again caught the attention of companies, and tech giants have started developing expensive servers again. Today’s AI GPU-based servers sometimes pair up to eight Nvidia GPUs with just one Intel processor. So while in old servers, the Intel processor was almost always the most expensive and most important part of the system, now Nvidia chips are the most expensive equipment in GPU-based servers.

Nvidia chips are now the most expensive hardware in GPU-based servers, rather than Intel

By introducing a version of its latest GPU called Blackwell, Nvidia plans to completely cut off Intel’s hand from the artificial intelligence server market. In these graphics, two Nvidia B100 GPUs are paired with a CPU based on ARM architecture. Almost all of Nvidia’s GPUs used for artificial intelligence are manufactured by TSMC and are manufactured using advanced techniques and the latest lithography.

Nvidia CEO Jensen Huang talking GPU in handJensen Huang, the CEO of Nvidia introduced the company’s graphics processors

Apart from an AI chip called Gaudi 3, Intel doesn’t have a product in the pipeline to compete with Nvidia’s AI accelerators. In 2018, Blue Team acquired Habana Labs to make its technology the basis for Gaudi chips, thus beginning a serious focus on AI for servers. Gaudi 3 is produced with 5nm lithography, which Intel has not yet reached, and relies on a foreign manufacturer for its production.

Intel expects to pocket $500 million from sales of its Gaudi 3 chips this year, mostly in the second half. By comparison, AMD expects to make $3.5 billion a year from its AI chip. Analysts polled by FactSet expect Nvidia’s AI GPU business to generate $57 billion in revenue for the green team in the second half of this year.

However, Intel has not stopped trying and has recently started looking for a new story in the world of artificial intelligence. If Intel succeeds, it could replace TSMC for other companies and become the US maker of smart chips even for Nvidia. The US government is subsidizing Intel’s giant factory in Columbus, Ohio, as part of an $8.5 billion package of loans and grants to make chips on American soil. In a conversation with reporters a month ago, Gelsinger announced that the Ohio factory will offer leading products to the market in 2028 and will even produce artificial intelligence chips from other companies.

A path as difficult as the death march

Since 2021, when Gelsinger took the helm, Intel has been grappling with the fallout from past failures and has been working hard to catch up to TSMC through a roadmap it calls “four ninety lithographies in five years.” . Achieving such a goal is not easy. Gelsinger considers the responsibility of leading Intel to regain market leadership so heavy that he once referred to 2022 as a “death march.”

Gelsinger says the final destination is still two years away, but it seems the death march has begun and Intel has reached its first stop. Until then, TSMC will also release its 2nm chips. Intel has announced that by 2025, it will launch its chips based on 18 Angstrom technology, which is equivalent to 1.8 nm.

Pat Gelsinger next to a chip wafer at the Intel Innovation 2023 eventPat Gelsinger introducing the company’s new lithography

Traveling this way has not been cheap for the American giant. Blue Team’s sales reached $4.4 billion, mainly in the US market, but it had an operating loss of $2.5 billion. This number reflects Intel’s huge investment in advanced chip manufacturing facilities and infrastructure.

Intel has recently invested heavily in advanced chip manufacturing facilities and infrastructure.

One of Counterpoint’s analysts says: “The cost of setting up such facilities is very high, and that’s why Intel has invested heavily in this direction. Setting up a foundry requires the most advanced technology in the world and is a very expensive operation. That’s why many big tech giants prefer to outsource their manufacturing to TSMC instead of making their own chips.” Intel is the only company to take this costly path recently, recording an operating loss of about $7 billion at its chip factory in 2023, according to its financial reports last month.

“We have a lot of these investments in the pipeline and we want to get them through the temporary loss write-down,” Gelsinger told CNBC. This year’s operating loss is the lowest we consider.” Although many companies have not yet officially applied for Intel products, the blue team has so far signed contracts worth $15 billion with foreign companies to produce chips. One of these companies is Microsoft, which has announced that it will use Intel’s future technology to produce its server chips.

If Intel takes the lead again in making the world’s smallest transistors, what Gelsinger dreams of will happen and the blue giant will reawaken. He recently announced that demand for server chips based on Intel’s 3nm technology has picked up this year, and customers who were attracted by competing companies are gradually returning to Intel’s side.

“We’re regaining the trust of our customers,” says Gelsinger. They’re looking at us now and they’re saying, ‘Look, Intel is back!’


The planet Saturn; Features, number of moons, rings and wonders




Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system, which is called the Lord of the Rings because of its beautiful and unique rings.

The planet Saturn; Features, number of moons, rings, and wonders

Saturn is the sixth planet in terms of distance from the Sun and the second largest planet in the entire solar system. Saturn can be called the lord of the rings of the solar system due to its thousands of beautiful and unique rings. Like Jupiter, this planet is a gas giant with a radius 9 times that of Earth, while its density is one-eighth that of Earth.

Saturn’s internal structure is a mixture of iron, nickel, and rock (silicon and oxygen compounds). The core of the planet is surrounded by a layer of metallic hydrogen, the middle layer consists of liquid hydrogen and helium, and finally there is a gaseous outer layer. The reason for Saturn’s soft yellow color is the presence of ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. The electric current inside the metallic hydrogen layer has increased the magnetic field of this planet. The strength of Jupiter’s magnetic field is twenty-one times that of Saturn. The outer atmosphere of this planet is calm and without turbulence. The wind speed in some areas of Saturn reaches 1800 km/h, which is more than Jupiter.

From the collection of articles on the introduction of planets: The planet Mars; Everything you need to know

So far, at least 83 moons have been discovered in the orbit of Saturn, 53 of which have been officially named. The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is the second largest moon in the solar system and is even larger than the planet Mercury. Titan is the only moon in the entire solar system that has a significant atmosphere. The most striking feature of Saturn is its ring system, which is a combination of ice particles and small pieces of rock.

Table of Contents
  • What does the planet Saturn symbolize?
  • How was the planet Saturn formed?
  • Nucleus aggregation model
  • Disk instability model
  • Saturn is how many times the size of Earth?
  • Physical characteristics and internal composition of the planet Saturn
  • Saturn’s atmosphere and clouds
  • Saturn’s magnetic field
  • The orbit and rotation of Saturn
  • Rings of Saturn
  • How many moons does Saturn have?
  • Grouping of Saturn’s moons
  • Irregular moons
  • Alkeonides
  • Titan
  • The potential for life on Titan
  • Enceladus
  • Iaptus
  • Hyperion
  • Mimas
  • Pan and Atlas
  • Rhea
  • debt
  • Tethys
  • The wonders of the planet Saturn
  • Seeing Saturn from Earth
  • Discoveries of Saturn in the Space Age
  • Pioneer discoveries 11
  • Voyager 1 and 2 discoveries
  • Cassini Huygens: Exploring the Saturn System
  • Farewell to Cassini
  • Future missions to Saturn

What does the planet Saturn symbolize?

The observation of the planet Saturn has a prehistoric age and has been recorded in myths since the first observation. Babylonian astronomers systematically observed Saturn and recorded its movements. The planet Saturn is known as Phainon in ancient Greece and as Saturn in Roman mythology.

Saturn is the Roman god of agriculture and equivalent to the Greek god Kronos, one of the Titans and the father of Zeus. The symbol of the planet Saturn is the scythe. Because Saturn is the god of agriculture and also time, this symbol is represented by a shape similar to the Greek letter eta, with a cross-like shape added on top of it, meaning the scythe of the gods. The Romans named the seventh day of the week Saturday, which stands for Saturn’s Day, and this day is named after this planet.

The symbol of the planet Saturn

Like other planets in the solar system, Saturn was formed from a solar nebula approximately 6.4 billion years ago. This nebula was a large cloud of cold gas and dust, which was probably formed by the impact of a supernova cloud or wave.

In general, there are two theories about the formation of planets in the solar system. The first and most acceptable theory is the core accretion theory, which is very close to reality in the case of rocky planets but faces problems in the case of gas giants such as Saturn. The second theory, the disc instability theory, could be true for gas giants.

Nucleus aggregation model

Approximately 6.4 billion years ago, the solar system was a cloud of gas and dust called the solar nebula. Gravity caused matter to begin to rotate. At the center of this rotation, the sun was created. With the emergence of the sun, the remaining materials joined together. Smaller particles were transformed into larger particles by the force of gravity. The solar winds carried smaller elements such as hydrogen and helium away from the regions near the sun, and in this way, heavy and rocky materials near the sun led to the formation of rocky worlds.

But at a further distance, the solar winds had less effect on the lighter elements, and thus gas giants like Saturn were born. Meteorites, comets, planets, and moons were formed in this way. It can be said that the planet Saturn is almost completely composed of light hydrogen gas, and of course, a significant part of it is helium. A small trace of other elements can be seen in its atmosphere. Saturn must have a large core to absorb these gases in this model. Thus, the gravity of the heavy core has attracted the lighter elements before they are blown away by the solar wind.

The accumulation of the core of the planet Saturn

However the need for a short time for the formation of gas giants is one of the problems of the core accretion model. According to the models, this process takes millions of years in the nuclear accumulation model. At the same time, the core accretion model also faces the problem of planetary migration, because small planets were placed in orbit around the Sun in a short period of time.

According to a relatively new theory known as disk instability, masses of gas and dust have joined each other in the early life of the solar system, and over time these masses have been compressed and formed gas giants. These planets are formed faster than their counterparts in the core accretion model, and their formation time even reaches several thousand years.

Saturn is how many times the size of Earth?

Saturn has 760 times the volume of Earth, it is the second heaviest planet in the entire solar system and has 95 times the mass of Earth. Saturn has the lowest density among the planets of the solar system. The density of this planet is even lower than water so if we drop Saturn in a large enough ocean, it will float on its surface.

Saturn vs Earth
Saturn accommodates 760 Earths

Physical characteristics and internal composition of the planet Saturn

Hydrogen and helium are the dominant elements of Saturn, hence this planet is a gas giant. Like Jupiter, Saturn does not have a defined surface, although it may have a solid core. The rotation of the planet Saturn has made the shape of this planet widen at the poles and rise at the equator.

According to standard planetary models, the internal structure of Saturn is similar to the internal structure of Jupiter; It means a rocky core in the center surrounded by hydrogen and helium. The composition of Saturn’s core is similar to Earth’s, but it is more dense. In 2004, scientists estimated the mass of Saturn’s core to be 9 to 22 times that of Earth. Saturn’s core is surrounded by a thick layer of liquid metallic hydrogen, after this layer there is a liquid layer of molecular hydrogen, which gradually enters the gas phase with increasing altitude. The outermost layer is located at an altitude of 1000 km and consists of gas.

The composition and characteristics of the planet Saturn
Composition diagram of Saturn: A layer of liquid hydrogen surrounds the core of this planet

The interior of Saturn is very hot and the temperature of its core reaches 11,700 degrees Celsius. Saturn releases 2.5 times the energy received from the Sun into space. Jupiter’s thermal energy is based on Kelvin Holmholtz’s slow gravitational compression mechanism (this mechanism occurs when the surface of a star or planet cools. The cooling process reduces the pressure and the star or planet shrinks), but this process is not sufficient to describe the heating of Saturn. . Another mechanism of heat production is the precipitation of helium droplets in the depths of Saturn. As the droplets fall on the low-density hydrogen, heat is released.

Saturn’s atmosphere and clouds

Saturn’s outer atmosphere contains 3.96% of molecular hydrogen and 25.3% of helium. In general, 75% of Saturn is hydrogen and 25% is helium and traces of other substances such as methane and frozen water can be found in its atmosphere. Amounts of ammonia, acetylene, ethane, propane, phosphine, and methane have also been discovered in Saturn’s atmosphere. The upper clouds are composed of crystalline ammonia, while the lower clouds are composed of ammonium hydrosulfide or water.

Although Saturn’s atmosphere is very similar to Jupiter’s, it appears uniform from a distance. Saturn’s atmosphere has a banded pattern similar to Jupiter’s. These bands become wider near the equator. The composition of clouds in different areas changes according to height and pressure increase. Saturn is one of the windiest places in the entire solar system and the wind speed in its equatorial regions reaches 1800 km/h. The yellow and gold bands in Saturn’s atmosphere are the result of super-fast winds in the planet’s upper atmosphere. Ultraviolet rays lead to the process of photolysis or photolysis in the upper atmosphere of Saturn, which leads to a series of hydrocarbon reactions. Saturn’s photochemical cycle also changes based on its seasonal cycle.

Saturn ranks second in terms of wind speed in the solar system

Saturn ranks second in terms of wind speed in the solar system after Neptune. Sometimes intense white storms disrupt the cloud layers. One of these storms was observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1994. To understand the characteristics of Saturn’s atmosphere, it is better to compare it with Earth. The atmosphere of Earth and Saturn have a major difference in terms of atmospheric pressure.

The radius of the planet Saturn is approximately 9 times the radius of the Earth, and the pressure increases as it penetrates into the deeper layers of the atmosphere. NASA’s observations of this planet show that the pressure of Saturn near the core is 1000 times the pressure on Earth, and this pressure is enough to convert hydrogen into liquid and then solid metal in the planet’s core. Atmospheric pressure levels common on Earth can only be found in the upper regions of Saturn’s atmosphere, where the ammonia ice clouds are located. The temperature of Saturn’s atmosphere varies from minus 130 degrees to plus 80 degrees Celsius.

Saturn’s magnetic field

Saturn has an internal magnetic field with a symmetrical and simple shape. Saturn’s magnetosphere is much smaller than Jupiter’s magnetosphere. The rings and many of Saturn’s moons are also within this magnetosphere, in this region the behavior of charged particles is more influenced by Saturn’s magnetic field than the solar wind.

The aurora phenomenon occurs when charged particles spiral in the planet’s atmosphere along the lines of the magnetic field. On Earth, these charged particles originate from the solar wind. Cassini showed that at least some of Saturn’s auroras are similar to Jupiter’s auroras and are not affected by the solar wind.

Saturn's auroras
Saturn’s auroras are similar to Jupiter’s auroras

The orbit and rotation of Saturn

Compared to Earth, Saturn’s orbit around the Sun is slow, but its orbit around itself is faster. Saturn orbits the Sun at a speed of approximately 35,400 km/h. This speed is about one-third of the speed of the Earth’s movement around the sun. The length of Saturn’s year during a complete period of rotation around the Sun is equal to 29.5 years or 10,755 Earth days.

Although the movement of Saturn around the Sun is slow, its movement around its axis is much faster than that of the Earth, and it completes its rotation in less than half an Earth day. Because Saturn is about 10 times the diameter of Earth, any point on its equator moves 20 times faster than the corresponding point on Earth’s equator. This rapid rotation causes Saturn to form an oval shape so that it becomes flat at the poles and wide at the equator. Saturn’s day is equal to 10 hours and 38 minutes on Earth.

In 2007, it was found that the changes in radio emissions from Saturn do not correspond to its rotation speed. This variance may have occurred due to geyser activity on Saturn’s moon Enceladus. In this way, the water vapor released in the orbit of Saturn is charged and as a result, they cause stretching in the magnetic field of Saturn, and thus the rotation of the magnetic field becomes slower than the rotation of the planet itself.

orbit of saturn

Saturn’s prominent and bright rings make it a unique planet in the entire solar system. Saturn’s rings have fascinated astronomers for centuries. When Galileo first observed Saturn in 1610, he thought the rings were large moons on either side of the planet. During his seven years of observation and exploration, he recorded the rings changing shape and even disappearing (depending on the angle and declination with the Earth). ).

According to Galileo’s observations, Saturn’s equator has a 27-degree deviation from its orbit around the Sun (similar to the 23-degree deviation of the Earth). As Saturn revolves around the Sun, first one hemisphere and then the other hemisphere are facing the Sun. This deviation causes seasonal changes (similar to Earth) and when Saturn reaches the equinox, the equator and plane of the ring are aligned with the Sun. Sunlight hits the edges of the ring. The rings are generally 273,600 km wide, but only 10 meters thick.

Rings of Saturn

In 1655, another astronomer, Christian Huygens, proved solid ring objects, and in 1660, another astronomer suggested that the rings were composed of satellites or small moons (a view that remained unconfirmed for 200 years).

In the modern era, Pioneer 11 passed through Saturn’s ring in 1979. In the 1980s, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 investigated the planet’s ring system. In 2004, NASA’s Cassini Huygens mission became the first probe to enter Saturn’s orbit, recording detailed observations not only of the planet itself but of its ring system.

Saturn’s rings are made of billions of particles ranging from sand to large objects the size of mountains. Most of the particles are made of frozen water. When you look at Saturn with an amateur telescope, its ring appears to be one piece, but this ring is actually made up of several parts. The rings are named in order of discovery, so the main rings are named A, B, and C from farthest to closest. The width of the A gap is approximately 4700 km, which is also called the Cassini segment. This gap separates the A and B rings.

Other narrower rings were discovered as telescope technology improved. Voyager 1 discovered the innermost ring called D in 1980. The F ring is also placed outside the A ring. In contrast, the G and E rings are even further apart. The rings themselves are composed of a number of gaps and distinct structures. Some of them are very small moons of Saturn, while others confuse astronomers. Saturn is not the only planet in the solar system that has a ring system. Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune also have rings, but Saturn’s ring is the most prominent type of ring.

There are different hypotheses about the formation of Saturn’s rings. Some scientists think that comets or passing meteorites are trapped by Saturn’s gravity and disintegrated before reaching it. The reason for the high brightness of Saturn’s rings is that a large part of the rings are made up of particles and ice pieces. The size of these particles varies from small pieces to large icebergs. These ice particles in Saturn’s rings form ice clusters and reflect a lot of light.

Another possibility suggests that the rings were once large moons orbiting the planet. Saturn has at least 83 moons. Only one of its moons, Titan, is a large moon. The rest of the moons are small objects and only 13 of them are more than 50 km. The gravity of these moons affects the structure of Saturn’s rings while providing clues about how the rings formed.

Types of rings of Saturn

The planet Saturn has a large number of diverse moons, ranging from satellites with a diameter of tens of meters to large moons like Titan with dimensions larger than the planet Mercury. Saturn has 83 confirmed moons, only 13 of which have diameters greater than 50 km. Titan is the most prominent moon of Saturn and the second largest moon in the Solar System after Ganymede (Jupiter’s moon). The moon’s atmosphere, like Earth’s, is full of nitrogen and offers views of river networks and hydrocarbon lakes.

Twenty-four moons of Saturn are regular satellites and their progressive orbits are not inclined to Saturn’s equatorial plane. These twenty-four moons include seven main satellites, four small moons, two small co-orbiting moons, and two other moons that act as shepherds of Saturn’s F ring. The remaining 58 moons, which have a diameter varying from 4 to 213 km, are among the irregular moons whose orbits are at a greater distance from Saturn. These moons are probably trapped planets or parts of collapsed bodies after being trapped. Irregular moons are divided into Inuit, Norse, and Gaelic groups based on orbital characteristics. The names of these groups are taken from Greek mythology. The largest irregular moon Phoebe is the ninth moon of Saturn, which was discovered at the end of the 19th century. Saturn’s rings are a combination of microscopic variable bodies to satellites several hundreds of meters in diameter, each orbiting Saturn in its own orbit.

It is believed that the moon system of the planet Saturn was formed similar to the moons of the planet Jupiter, but in general, the details of the formation of the moons of Saturn are unclear. On June 23, 2014, NASA reported strong evidence that the nitrogen in Titan’s atmosphere came from material in the Oort Cloud, not from Saturn.


Comparison of Saturn’s moons in terms of size

Grouping of Saturn’s moons

Although the demarcation of Saturn’s moons is somewhat vague, they can be divided into ten groups based on their orbital characteristics. Many of these moons, including Penn and Daphnis, are in Saturn’s ring system, and their orbital period is slightly longer than that of Saturn. Inner moons and regular moons have an average orbital inclination ranging from 1° to 1.5°. On the other hand, the irregular moons in the outermost part of Saturn’s moon system, especially in the Norse group, have orbital radians of millions of kilometers and orbital periods of several years. The Norse moons also orbit Saturn in the opposite direction.

  • Large inner moons: Saturn’s innermost large moons are located in Saturn’s thin E ring. These moons are Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, and Dione.
  • Large outer moons: These moons are located on the other side of the E ring, they are: Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus

Irregular moons

Irregular moons are small satellites with high radians and inclinations and are thought to have been caught in Saturn’s gravitational trap in the past. The exact size of these moons is still unknown because their dimensions are so small that they are difficult to observe with a telescope.


The three small moons between the moons of Mimas and Enceladus are called Alkeonids, which derives its name from Greek mythology. These three months are Matun, Ant, and Plan. Ant and Meton have a very thin circular arc in their orbit, while Plan has a completely thin ring. Among these moons, only Matun was photographed from a relatively close distance. This egg-shaped moon has a small number of impact craters.


Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and the second largest moon in the solar system (after Jupiter’s moon Ganymede). Titan is the only moon in the solar system with a dense and cloudy planet-like atmosphere. Scientists believe that the conditions on Titan are similar to the initial conditions on Earth, but the only difference is that the Earth is closer to the Sun and it is hotter. In many ways, Titan is the most similar to Earth.

Titan’s diameter reaches 2,575 km, which is almost 50% wider than the Earth’s moon. The distance between Titan and Saturn is about 1.2 million kilometers and 1.4 billion kilometers or 9.5 AU from the Sun. An astronomical unit is the distance from the Earth to the sun. It takes about 80 minutes for sunlight to reach Titan because of this distance, sunlight is about 100 times dimmer than sunlight on Earth.

It takes approximately 15 days and 22 hours for Titan to complete one orbit of Saturn. Titan is tidally locked to Saturn, which means that, like Earth’s moon, one side of it is always seen from Saturn. It takes approximately 29 Earth years for Saturn to complete an orbit around the Sun (Saturnian year) and Saturn’s axis of rotation, like Earth’s, has a deviation that creates seasons on this planet; But Saturn’s seasons are longer, typically lasting nearly seven Earth years each. Since Titan’s orbit is in line with Saturn’s equatorial plane and Titan’s deviation from the Sun is almost the same as Saturn’s, the seasons of this moon are the same as Saturn’s, that is, almost every season of Titan is seven Earth years and one year is equal to 29 Earth years.

Lakes of Titan
Cassini image of Titan’s north polar hydrocarbon lake

Scientists are not sure about the exact formation and origin of Titan. However, the atmosphere of this moon has clues. A number of Cassini Huygens probe instruments measured nitrogen-14 and nitrogen-15 isotopes in Titan’s atmosphere. According to the findings, the nitrogen isotope ratio found in Titan is very similar to the isotope of comets in the Everett cloud. The globular Oort cloud consists of hundreds of billions of icy bodies located between 5,000 and 100,000 AU from the Sun (each AU equals 150 million km). The nitrogen ratio of Titan’s atmosphere shows that the building blocks of this moon were formed in the same gas and dust cloud as the Sun in the early history of the solar system, and the origin of these blocks is not the hot disk of Saturn’s material.

Surface: Titan’s surface is one of the most similar to Earth in the entire solar system. Of course, its temperatures are lower and it has different chemical characteristics. The surface temperature of Titan reaches minus 179 degrees Celsius. Titan may also have volcanic activity. The surface of this moon is full of methane and ethane streams that form large river and lake channels. No other world in the entire solar system (except Earth) has surface liquid.

Titan’s rains are made of methane and form the moon’s seas and lakes

Atmosphere: Nearly 95% of Titan’s atmosphere is nitrogen and 5% is methane. Traces of carbon compounds can also be found in the atmosphere of this planet. At the heights of this moon, methane and nitrogen molecules are decomposed due to the impact of the ultraviolet light of the sun and energetic particles. Parts of this molecule are recombined and produce various biological chemicals such as materials containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and other essential elements for life.

Some of the compounds are formed by decomposition and cycle of methane and nitrogen. Methane and nitrogen create a thick, orange cloud that covers the surface of this moon, which is why it is difficult to examine Titan’s surface from space. The origin of all the methane in the atmosphere still remains a mystery.

The presence of methane and nitrogen in Titan’s atmosphere causes orange clouds

The potential for life on Titan

Cassini’s numerous gravity measurements of Titan suggest that the moon has a subsurface ocean of liquid water, possibly mixed with salt and ammonia. The European Space Agency’s Huygens probe also measured radio signals from the moon’s surface in 2005, indicating oceans 55 to 80 kilometers below Titan’s icy surface. The discovery of a global ocean of liquid water also places Titan in the group of moons of the solar system that have the potential for life. In addition to these rivers, lakes, and seas of methane and liquid ethane on the surface of Titan, they could act as a habitable environment on the surface of this moon, although any possible life on this moon would be different from terrestrial life; Therefore, Titan can host habitats and suitable conditions for life, including life that we know (in the subsurface ocean) and life that we do not know (in surface hydrocarbon liquids). Although evidence of life on Titan’s surface has yet to be discovered, the moon’s complex and unique chemical nature are definitive findings that make it an ideal destination for exploration.


Few moons in the solar system are as fascinating as Enceladus. Some of these moons are thought to have oceans of liquid water beneath their frozen crusts, but one of the unique features of Enceladus is its glaciers. Based on samples obtained from space probes, Enceladus has the most chemical elements necessary for life and probably has hydrothermal or hydrothermal vents that transport hot mineral water from subsurface oceans.

About the size of Arizona, Enceladus has the whitest and most reflective surface in the Solar System. This moon has a ring system and releases ice fragments into its orbit in space. These fragments form Saturn’s E ring. The name Enceladus comes from Greek mythology. The images of the Voyager spacecraft in the 1980s show that this moon, despite its small size (approximately 500 km in diameter), has a relatively smooth ice surface in some places and has a high brightness. In fact, Enceladus is one of the most reflective bodies in the solar system, the reason for which scientists did not know for years.

Since Enceladus reflects a large part of the sunlight, its surface temperature is extremely low and reaches minus 201 degrees Celsius. Enceladus is located at a distance of 238 thousand kilometers from Saturn between the orbits of two other moons, Mimas and Tethys. The moon is tidally locked to Saturn, taking approximately 32.9 hours to complete one orbit in the densest part of Saturn’s E ring.

In 2005, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft revealed water ice, and gas particles ejected from the surface of Enceladus at speeds of approximately 400 meters per second. These eruptions appear to be continuous, creating a huge halo of icy dust around Enceladus that forms the material of Saturn’s E ring. Only a small fraction of this material enters the ring, and most of it falls on the surface of Enceladus as snow. For this reason, this moon has a white and bright surface.

Enceladus’ glaciers originate from relatively warm cracks in its crust, which scientists call tiger stripes. Several gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and maybe a little ammonia, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen along with salt and silica make up the gas cover of Enceladus’ glacial channels. The density of biological material in glaciers is twenty times higher than expected by scientists.

Based on measurements of the Doppler effect and the very small amplitude of Enceladus’ wobble as it spins around, scientists have discovered a global ocean beneath the moon’s surface. They believe that the thickness of the ice shell of Enceladus in its south pole is close to 1 to 5 km. The average thickness of the entire crust is between 20 and 25 km.

Since the ocean of Enceladus has ice, and the glaciers form Saturn’s E ring, examining the E ring could mean examining the ocean of Enceladus. A large part of the E ring is made up of ice particles, but among them you can also find very small particles of silica. These particles are formed when liquid water and rock react with each other at temperatures above 90 degrees Celsius. This is another indication of the existence of warm blue channels under the icy crust of Enceladus, which are not dissimilar to the warm blue channels of the Earth’s oceans. Enceladus is one of the prime candidates for life in the solar system with features such as a global ocean, unique chemistry and internal heat.


Iapetus is the third largest moon of Saturn and the eleventh largest moon in the entire solar system. The young Cassini discovered this moon on October 25, 1671. However, Iapetus was seen by astronomers as a point whose brightness changed during Saturn’s orbital period. Voyager 1 and 2 probes visited the Saturn system and this moon in the 1980s and revealed its strange features. The diameter of the Iapetus reaches 736 km. Like Rhea, three-fourths of Iapetus, the other moon of Saturn, is made of ice, and one-fourth of it is made of rock.

According to the two claims of Iapetus, Saturn’s moon is included in the list of strange moons of the solar system. This moon was discovered in 1671 and one side is dimmer than the other side. The part of the hemisphere facing Saturn’s orbit is dark brown in color; while the other hemisphere is light gray. According to a theory explaining the color difference of this moon, the side facing Saturn is covered with dust that was spread by small meteorite impacts on other small outer moons of Saturn.

Meanwhile, the Cassini images tell a more complicated story. Most of the dark material on the surface of Iapetus originates from inside this moon and leaves behind dark streaks by the sublimation of dusty ice from the moon’s surface (solid to vapor). This process probably begins with the accretion of dust from exoplanets.

Also, Iapetus has a mountain range 13 km high and 20 km wide at the equator, which gives it a distinctive walnut-like appearance. The origin of this mountain range is unknown. According to some theories, this mountain is a fossil from the time of the faster rotation of Iaptus, which arose in the equatorial part; While others believe that this mountain is the result of pebbles from the ancient ring system around this moon that collapsed and landed on the surface.

Moon Iapetus

Hyperion is the largest non-spherical irregular moon of Saturn. Its average radius is 135 km, but since this moon is potato-shaped, its shape can be described based on its diameter along three axes. Hyperion has a strange appearance: its surface is like a sponge or coral with dark pits and sharp grooves formed by ice and lighter rocks. However, this is not the only strange feature of Hyperion: Hyperion was the first discovered non-spherical moon and has an eccentric orbit.

Hyperion’s rotation does not coincide with its orbital period and orbits Saturn in an irregular pattern; so that its rotation axis fluctuates unpredictably. Like other moons of the solar system, Hyperion is made of water ice; But its surface is strangely dark. According to Cassini spacecraft estimates, the density of Hyperion is 55% of that of water; As a result, a large part of its interior is empty.

According to a popular theory, one of the reasons for Hyperion’s strange properties is that it was a remnant of a larger moon that was probably located between Titan and Iapetus and was destroyed by a collision with a large comet. The remaining material condensed again and formed Hyperion.


The Voyager probes shocked scientists by capturing detailed images of Saturn’s moon Mimas in the 1980s. This moon is very similar to the Death Star in the sci-fi movie Star Wars. A large impact crater covers one of the hemispheres of this moon and is exactly the same size and similar to the destructive laser plate that George Lucas mentioned; But Mimas is more than just an element of popular culture.

Mimas is Saturn’s innermost moon, orbiting closer to Saturn than Enceladus and farther than Pan and Atlas. The diameter of this moon reaches 396 km; For this reason, the smallest object in the solar system is spherical in shape.

Saturn's moon Mimas
Herschel impact crater on the surface of Mimas. The name of this impact crater is derived from the name of William Herschel, who discovered this moon in 1789.

Pan and Atlas

Pan and Atlas are both Saturn’s innermost moons. Atlas orbits Saturn at the outer edge of the A ring. It takes approximately 14.4 hours for Atlas to complete one orbit of Saturn, and 8.13 hours for Pan. Saturn’s moons Pan and Atlas are the smallest moons in the solar system. Despite their small size, these moons can influence Saturn’s ring system. These small worlds are perhaps the best-known examples of shepherd moons. Shepherd moons are small moons that are located in the ring systems of giant planets. As their name suggests, these moons help particles in the Saturn system stick together, while also cleaning up other particles.

Pan causes Encke Gap; A prominent resolution is seen in the bright ring A; While Atlas is located outside the ring A. The most important feature of both moons is their smooth surface, which looks like a flying saucer or a walnut. Bonnie Borrati of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Experiment believes these moons are covered in tiny particles that clear the space between the rings.

Pan and Atlas
Pan and Atlas in the shape of a flying saucer


Rhea is the second largest moon of Saturn, but its average radius is one-third that of Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. Rhea is a small, cold and airless world that is very similar to its moons, Dione and Tethys. Like the other two moons, Rhea has a tidal lock to Saturn, which means that one side of it is always seen from Saturn. It takes 4.5 Earth days for Rhea to complete one orbit of Saturn. The surface temperature of Rhea is similar to that of Dion and Tethys, which reaches minus 174 degrees Celsius in sunny areas and minus 220 degrees Celsius in shadow areas. Rhea, like Dion and Tethys, has a high reflectivity and shows that its surface is mainly composed of water ice.

Rhea is located at a distance of 527,000 km from Saturn and is a bit further from Dione and Tethys. In 2010, the Cassini spacecraft discovered a very thin atmosphere called the exosphere around Rhea, which is a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Cassini also detected signs of material in Rhea’s orbit in 2008. This was the first discovery of a ring around a moon.

Rhea Qamar Zahul

Dione is a small moon with an average radius of 562 km that completes the orbit of Saturn once every 2.7 days. This moon is located at a distance of 377 thousand kilometers from Saturn, which is exactly equal to the distance between the moon and the Earth. The density of dione is 1.48 times that of liquid water, as a result, one-third of dione is made up of a dense core (probably of silicate rock), and the rest is made of ice.

Very fine icy powders (similar to smoke) from Saturn’s E ring bombard the surface of Dione. The E ring dust is formed from the icy moon Enceladus. The surface of Dion is full of impact craters so that the diameter of the craters reaches 100 km.


Tethys is the fifth largest moon of Saturn. Its average radius reaches 633 km. This cold and airless moon is very similar to its sister moons, Dione and Rhea. Of course, with the exception that Tethys does not have many impact craters like the other two moons. A large part of Tethys is made up of water ice and a small part of it is made up of rock.

Tethys has a high reflectivity and this feature is another indication of its ice composition. The average temperature of Tethys reaches minus 187 degrees Celsius. Tethys appears as a small dot in the night sky, and its true nature was revealed after a visit by the Voyager probes. It takes 3.45 hours for Tethys to complete the orbit of Saturn.

Tethys, the moon of Saturn

Hexagonal Storm: Saturn’s north pole has a fascinating feature called a hexagonal wind flow. This hexagonal pattern was first observed from images sent by the Voyager spacecraft and then observed from a closer distance by Cassini. This hexagon, whose diameter reaches 30,000 km, is a wavy current, whose wind speed reaches 322 km/h, and a storm is placed in its center. This storm is unique in the entire solar system. At the south pole of Saturn, there is also evidence of storm currents, but no hexagonal waves are seen. According to NASA reports from Cassini in November 2006, a tornado-like storm was observed at Saturn’s south pole.

Saturn's North Pole Hexagon

Reduction of rings: According to NASA research, Saturn’s rings have been decreasing at a maximum speed since Voyager probes visited this planet. These rings were attracted towards this planet due to gravity and under the influence of Saturn’s magnetic field. According to scientists, Saturn’s rings will be completely destroyed in three hundred million years, on the other hand, according to Cassini’s findings, Saturn’s rings are relatively young and their life is less than one hundred million years. As a result, the rings of Saturn are much younger compared to the life of this planet (4 billion years).

Long seasons: Saturn has seasonal changes like Earth, but Saturn’s seasons have a major difference from Earth’s seasons. It takes one year for the Earth to complete the orbit of the sun, during this time the Earth experiences cold and hot seasons. But since Saturn is far from the Sun, it takes 29 Earth years to complete the orbit of the Sun. As a result, one Saturn year is equal to 29 Earth years. Therefore, the seasons also get longer and the duration of each Saturnian season is approximately seven years.

Diamond rain: Since the internal structure of Saturn is completely different from the structure of Earth, its rains are not made of water but of diamonds. According to scientists, ten million tons of diamonds are produced in Saturn’s atmosphere every year. This phenomenon occurs thanks to the combination of methane gas (CH4) with the wind activities of this planet. Saturn’s rays have a high temperature and are 10,000 times stronger than Earth’s rays, and when they are emitted, they break molecular bonds and separate hydrogen and carbon.

Ten million tons of diamond rain falls on Saturn every year

The carbon atoms join together to form larger molecules that result in a soot-like compound. This black cloud is far from a diamond, but the story does not end there. The new molecule is relatively heavy and will fall down when caught in the planet’s gravity trap. By falling to greater depths, the temperature and pressure on the molecules also increase. These conditions lead to carbon transformation. At first, carbon is converted to graphite. The same stuff that’s inside your pencils and then turns into one-centimeter-diameter diamonds and they keep falling.

Seeing Saturn from Earth

The observation and exploration of Saturn can be divided into three phases. The first period of ancient observations (including observations with the naked eye) is before the invention of the telescope. Advanced ground-based telescopic observations began in the 17th century. According to written history, the planet Saturn has been one of the main elements of many myths. Babylonian astronomers systematically observed and recorded the movements of Saturn.

The third phase was the visit of space probes, simultaneously with this period of ground-based observations (including the Hubble Space Telescope) continued. To see Saturn’s rings, you need a telescope with a diameter of at least 15 mm. Christian Huygens was able to achieve this success in 1659. Before that, Galileo had observed Saturn with his early telescope and thought that Saturn was not completely spherical. Until Huygens was able to observe Saturn’s rings for the first time with a more advanced telescope. Huygens also discovered Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. Later, the young Domenico Cassini discovered four more moons of Saturn: Iapetus, Rhea, Tethys, and Dione.

William Herschel discovered two other moons, Mimas and Enceladus, in 1789. A British team also discovered Hyperion in 1848. William Henry Pickering discovered Phoebe in 1899, which is an irregular moon that does not rotate perfectly in sync with Saturn and its other moons. In the 20th century, studies of Titan proved the existence of a thick atmosphere on this moon.

Discoveries of Saturn in the Space Age

In the modern era, Hubble Space Telescope observations continued. Pioneer 11 was the first spacecraft to observe Saturn from a close distance, later Voyager 1 and 2 provided more detailed observations. But Cassini was the only orbiter that provided more detailed and comprehensive information about Saturn, and the Huygens probe of this spacecraft landed on the surface of Titan for the first time in 2005.

Pioneer discoveries 11

Pioneer 11 passed through the upper clouds of Saturn for the first time in September 1979. Pioneer 11 photographed Saturn and several of its moons, although the quality of the images is low and does not show much detail. The spacecraft also examined Saturn’s rings and revealed the thin F ring.

Pioneer 11 also showed that dark gaps in Saturn’s rings appear bright and contain light-scattering material when viewed from a high phase angle (towards the Sun). Another achievement of Pioneer in the exploration of Saturn was to measure the temperature of Titan.

Pioneer image of Saturn
Pioneer 11 low quality image of Saturn

Voyager 1 and 2 discoveries

Voyager 1 visited the Saturn system in November 1980. The probe released the first high-quality images of the planet, its rings, and its moons. The surface features of Saturn’s moons were first revealed by Voyager. Voyager 1 approached the moon Titan and sent back a lot of information about the moon’s atmosphere. According to the data of this probe, Titan’s atmosphere is impenetrable in visible wavelengths, as a result, none of its surface details were seen.

Almost a year later, in August 1981, Voyager 2 continued its survey of the Saturn system. More detailed images of Saturn’s moons were sent, as well as evidence of atmospheric changes and its rings. Unfortunately, the probe’s rotatable camera malfunctioned for several days during the Saturn survey, and many views were not recorded. Operators used Saturn’s gravity to redirect the spacecraft toward Uranus. The two Voyager probes discovered a number of moons near and inside Saturn’s rings, as well as the small Maxwell fissure (a gap in the C ring) and the Keeler fissure (a wide, 42 km gap in the A ring).

Image of Saturn's rings from the Voyager probe
Image captured by Voyager 2

Cassini Huygens: Exploring the Saturn System

The Cassini spacecraft began orbiting Saturn on June 30, 2004 and continued its mission until September 15, 2017, when the probe ended its life by hitting the planet’s atmosphere. The destruction of Cassini was intentional and to ensure that the moons Enceladus and Titan were not contaminated. Cassini’s achievements include the discovery of the glaciers of Enceladus and the discovery of new moons for Saturn. Cassini was a joint project of multiple space agencies and was pitted against NASA’s older and larger probes, including Pioneer and Voyager. Cassini’s partners were NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency.

Cassini was the first spacecraft dedicated entirely to studying Saturn and its ring system. The orbiter was named after Giovanni Cassini, an astronomer of the 17th century. Cassini was not launched directly at Saturn. Rather, its mission was a little more complicated. Before reaching Saturn, he checked the planets Venus (twice), Earth, and Jupiter and thus used the gravity of each planet to increase his speed. This 5700 kg spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997. It reached Venus in April 1998, Earth in August 1999, and Jupiter in December 2000.

Cassini finally entered Saturn’s orbit on July 1, 2004. One of the main goals of this mission was to discover more moons for Saturn and to discover the structure and color of the rings, as well as to get more information about the moons of this planet. Cassini carried a passenger called the Huygens probe. Huygens landed on the surface of Titan on January 14, 2005, and transmitted data to Earth for 2.5 hours.

In this short period of time, the researchers obtained images of the surface as well as information about the gases and winds in the atmosphere and on the surface of Titan. Cassini discovered two new moons for Saturn and discovered the presence of liquid water on the surface of Enceladus and its glaciers. It also published more details about Titan’s methane lake. Other Cassini discoveries include the following:

  • Debris 80 km from the surface of Iapetus
  • A close-up view of the Rhea moon and its impact craters.
  • The discovery of a large ring approximately 12 million kilometers from Saturn, which is probably composed of particles from the moon Phoebe.
Cassini captured this image just two days before leaving Saturn
An image of a storm cloud captured by Cassini from Saturn's north pole.
Spring at Saturn's North Pole: A View of the Hexagonal Storm
A view of Titan and Devon in front of Saturn
Three views of Titan from the Cassini probe
Cassini captured this amazing image in 2013: Saturn, its rings, and Earth (the white dot) in one frame.
Tethys from the Cassini probe
Saturn's rings as seen by Cassini
A selection of images captured by the Cassini Huygens spacecraft

Farewell to Cassini

Cassini’s last data was transmitted to Earth on September 15, 2017; Then this probe was destroyed by collision with Saturn’s atmosphere. This was Cassini’s last orbit around Saturn after 13 years of exploration and investigation. According to NASA experts, Cassini disintegrated 45 seconds after its last transmission due to the heat and friction of the fall.

Shortly after Cassini broke up, its mission planner Eric Sturm outlined his plan to report on his and his team’s experiences on the mission. The mission is over, but its scientific results will be published for decades to come because the entire data has not yet been analyzed.

Future missions to Saturn

Among the proposed plans for explorations on the planet Saturn, the robotic probe Dragonfly has reached the approval stage of NASA. The probe is in the form of a drone and will investigate hundreds of locations on Titan, Saturn’s moon. It will also sample and measure the composition of biological materials on the surface of Titan and search for life on this moon. Dragonfly will launch in 2026 and reach Saturn in 2034.

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WWDC 2024; Late but long-awaited features of iPhone and iPad




WWDC 2024
At the WWDC 2024 event, Apple unveiled features for its products, many of which were already present in competing products.

WWDC 2024; Late but long-awaited features of iPhone and iPad

Apple’s software-centric events were once full of promises that were ahead not only of other competitors, but of Apple’s own apps; If you were old enough to see the introduction of Siri when the iPhone 4S was unveiled, you probably remember how Phil Schiller proudly announced on stage that Apple had finally realized the dream of two-way conversation with digital devices, and now we could ask Siri to do our jobs for us. do it; 13 years later, this dream has not yet become a reality.

But at the WWDC 2024 event, we clearly saw for the first time that Apple is not only ahead of its competitors in terms of software, but is also trying hard to close the gap with them. No matter how excited Craig Federighi introduces the ability to freely arrange or change the color of application icons, or the artificial intelligence capabilities that we have seen before in Google, Microsoft, and Samsung products, are presented with the label “Apple’s intelligence”; The fact of the matter is that Apple has been lagging behind in the software competition for several years, both intelligent and non-intelligent, and now it has no choice but to compensate for this backwardness.

Apple once shied away from using the term “artificial intelligence” when talking about its products’ machine learning capabilities, but now it uses artificial intelligence across its platforms; A decision that was inevitable for Apple due to the rapid development of competitors and the demands of users.

Of course, Apple moves faster than its competitors in upgrading the hardware of its products. Just some time ago, the new iPad Pro was introduced with the powerful M4 chip, so the iPad is the best tablet you can buy, at least in terms of performance. All 2025 Macs will be equipped with the M4 chip, and the iPhone 16 Pro is going to experience another jump in hardware power in September; But hardware improvements can only keep Apple ahead of the competition so far, and at some point, it’s necessary to focus heavily on software and AI capabilities.

  • iPad, 14 years later; Did the controversial prediction of Steve Jobs come true?

In summing up the iPad event, I said that Apple has been stuck in the endless loop of hardware upgrades for some time, without its products becoming more useful in the true sense of the word. But now the rules of the game have changed; Apple has to change its attitude towards product development because now the survival of its business depends on this change of attitude.

9 important events of the WWDC 2024 event

In the following, we will take a quick look at the 9 important features that were introduced at last night’s Apple event.

Apple’s first artificial intelligence system on the way to iPhone, iPad, and Mac

Apple's artificial intelligence capabilities

Apple unveiled “Apple Intelligence” at the WWDC 2024 event; A term that Cupertino residents use to refer to the new artificial intelligence capabilities of the iPhone, iPad, and Mac, including generating images and summarizing text.

  • “Apple Intelligence” was introduced; All the artificial intelligence capabilities of iPhone, iPad, and Mac

Apple says the company’s artificial intelligence capabilities are either processed locally on the device itself or sent to a more private server for processing to keep users’ information safe. However, not all iPhone and Mac users will be able to use Apple’s AI. Due to hardware limitations, only iPhone 15 Pro and iPhone 15 Pro Max equipped with A17 Pro chip,s and Macs equipped with M series chips support AI capabilities.

Siri, smarter than ever

A sketch of Siri and the Apple logo

The voice assistant Siri has been completely transformed and now uses new icons and animations. The answers provided by Siri appear in highly detailed cards. The new version of Siri understands the sequence of questions with the help of large language models and does not need to repeat the information for subsequent requests.

  • Apple unveiled the smartest version of the Siri assistant

Siri reacts to the content that the user is interacting with and has the ability to perform in-app actions. For example, if you’re filling out a form that asks for driver’s license details, Siri will display your license and even extract the requested details.

New Siri features will be added to iOS 18 over time. The people of Cupertino want to bring the new version of Siri to iPad and Mac.

RCS support in iMessage

Apple finally announced due to pressure from the European Union that the Messages application in iOS 18 supports the RCS protocol and this new standard will replace SMS; Of course, he did not share any other details about this happy news.

  • The end of Apple’s resistance; RCS is officially coming to the iPhone

Currently, when iOS and Android users exchange messages with each other, the service reverts to SMS, lower-quality photos and videos are sent, messages are shortened, and conversations are not end-to-end encrypted. Additionally, messages from Android phones appear in green bubbles in iMessage chats.

RCS provides the ability to send longer messages and supports higher-quality images and videos, almost like the iMessage protocol. RCS has been accepted as the messaging standard on Android phones, but Apple has not yet recognized it.

9 important events of the WWDC 2024 event

ChatGPT integration with Siri

The iPhone in hand is running Siri with artificial intelligence

The popular GPT-4o-based ChatGPT chatbot is coming to iPhone, iPad, and Mac in “late 2024” and will help Siri answer users’ questions. This good news probably means that instead of displaying search results in Google, Siri will ask ChatGPT to provide the user with the answer.

  • ChatGPT officially entered the iPhone; Apple software is getting smarter

According to Apple, Siri will first ask the user’s permission to use ChatGPT. The giant of the technology world said that at the beginning of the journey, he chose the best chatbot to integrate with his ecosystem, but he will also use other artificial intelligence models in the future.

More iPhone customization in iOS 18

Despite the improvements every year, the iPhone operating system always gave less freedom to users for personalization compared to competitors; But in iOS 18, users can arrange the application icons more freely, coordinate the color of the icons with the background image, have more options in the control center, and even change the default flashlight and camera icons with any option in the control center.

  • iOS 18 was introduced; Homescreen personalization and a host of artificial intelligence capabilities

iOS 18 also allows users to put any app they want behind the iPhone’s authentication wall or hide them completely so that the app icon is only displayed when the iPhone is sure of the user’s identity.

Interesting feature of InSight for Apple TV Plus

In the tvOS 18 update, Apple TV Plus is equipped with a new feature called InSight, which allows the user to view the names of the actors and their characters in the movie by swiping down on the remote controller. Users can also find the name of the song playing in the movie and add it to the Apple Music playlist. Apple TV Plus automatically activates subtitles by muting the movie while it is playing.

9 important events of the WWDC 2024 event

iPhone Mirroring to display iPhone screen on Mac

Mirror iPhone on Mac

This feature, which is part of the Continuity feature in macOS and available in macOS Sequoia, allows the user to mirror the iPhone screen in a window on the Mac and take control of it without touching their phone.

  • Mac OS Sequoia was unveiled; Smarter than ever and more integrated with the iPhone

This feature also allows working with the phone using a mouse and keyboard; It also provides iPhone in standby mode. You can also drag and drop to move anything between your Mac and iPhone. Also, you can receive iPhone notifications directly on a Mac.

The Window Tiling feature, which has been a part of the Windows operating system since 15 years ago, can be easily arranged by dragging the windows to the edge of the screen.

3D images and ultra-wide virtual display in visions 2

Ultra-wide virtual display of Headset Vision Pro

Apple has updated the Photos app in visionOS 2, which adds depth to normal and 2D images, giving users a more engaging experience when viewing photos. visionOS 2 supports motion gestures for easier access to the home screen and control center.

  • visions 2 operating system was unveiled; From watching movies with friends to virtual ultra widescreen

Apple has announced that it will add the SharePlay feature to the Photos application in the visionOS 2 operating system so that two Vision Pro users can watch movies together or even edit documents in 3D space.

Vision Pro’s virtual display feature now puts a virtual ultra-wide display in front of the user, which is equivalent to two 4K displays.

Calculator app on iPad

Math Notes app on ipadOS 18

Apple has finally added a calculator app to iPadOS after years of waiting. The iPad calculator app is very similar to its iOS counterpart but offers more buttons and controls to take advantage of the iPad’s larger display.

  • iPad 18 introduced with customizable home screen, calculator app, and more

The outstanding feature of the iPad calculator is Math Notes, which allows users to write mathematical formulas in their own handwriting and immediately see their solution in their own handwriting. The iPadOS 18 update also brings the Smart Script feature to the Notes app to enhance your handwriting with artificial intelligence.

Training Load feature and interactive widgets in watchOS 11

Training Load feature in watchOS 11

This year, the Training Load feature is dubbed the new star of watchOS 11. In Training Load, the recorded and personal data of each user is used to measure the intensity and duration of the exercises to calculate the effect of the exercises on his physique. With this data, the Apple Watch tells the user whether it is better to increase the intensity of his training or to push himself less in physical activities.

  • watchOS 11 introduced new health features

The new watchOS update also improves widgets. Now the widgets are interactive and by tapping on them you can apply changes through the widgets. For example, by tapping on the Home widget, you can turn the house lights on and off.

Another new app that will come with watchOS 11 is called Vitals, which shows the user’s important health parameters at a glance and also offers the possibility of tracking the pregnancy period for women.

What did you think of WWDC this year? Are you satisfied with the new features of iOS 18 and Apple’s artificial intelligence capabilities?

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Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review




Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

Reviews of Motorola Edge 50 Fusion phone, price, technical specifications, design, screen, software, hardware, battery life and charging and other specifications of this phone.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

Review of Motorola Edge 50 Fusion phone


After introducing the Edge 50 Pro and Edge 50 Ultra, Motorola has added a third member to its Edge line in the Edge 50 Fusion. The phone currently retails for around €350 in Europe, while its Pro counterpart costs over €800 and the Ultra is right around €1,000.

So, let’s just say that the mid-range title is solid and matches the Edge 50 Fusion quite well. Its Snapdragon 7s Gen 2 chipset certainly fits the bill well. But don’t rush to judge by this feature alone. The Edge 50 Fusion has good features, such as premium looks and IP68 ingress protection. Also, stereo speakers and a large 6.7-inch, fast 144Hz display.

Specifications of Motorola Edge 50 Fusion at a glance:

  • Body:  161.9×73.1×7.9mm, 175g; glass front, silicone polymer back (eco leather), plastic frame; IP68 dust/water resistant (up to 1.5m for 30 minutes).
  • Display:  6.70 inch P-OLED, 120 Hz (LATAM), 144 Hz (INT), 1600 nits (peak), resolution 1080 x 2400 pixels, aspect ratio 20:9, 393ppi.
  • Chipset:  Qualcomm SM7435-AB Snapdragon 7s Gen 2 (4nm) – International, Qualcomm SM6450 Snapdragon 6 Gen 1 (4nm) – LATAM: Octa-core (4×2.40GHz Cortex-A78 and 4×1.9x5Hz) – Inter International, Octa-core (4×2.2 GHz Cortex-A78 and 4×1.8 GHz Cortex-A55) – LATAM; Adreno 710.
  • Memory:  128GB 8GB RAM, 256GB 8GB RAM, 256GB 12GB RAM, 512GB 12GB RAM; UFS 2.2.
  • Operating System/Software:  Android 14.
  • Rear camera:  Wide (main)  : 50 MP, f/1.9, dual-pixel PDAF, OIS, 1.0 µm;  Ultra Wide Angle  : 13MP, f/2.2, 120°, 1.12µm, AF.
  • Front camera:  32 MP, f/2.5, (wide), 0.7 µm.
  • Videography:  Rear camera  : 4K@30fps, 1080p@30/60/120fps, gyro-EIS.  Front camera  : 4K@30fps, 1080p@30fps.
  • Battery:  5000 mAh; 68 watts wired, 50% in 15 minutes (advertised).
  • Connectivity:  5G; Electronic SIM card with two SIM cards; Wi-Fi 5; BT 5.2; NFC.
  • Other features:  fingerprint sensor, accelerometer, gyroscope, proximity, compass. Stereo speakers

It should be noted that  the Latin American version of the Edge 50 Fusion has differences in technical specifications compared to the international model as it is closer to the Moto G Stylus 5G (2024). This display has 120 Hz instead of 144 Hz and uses the Snapdragon 6 generation 1 chipset.

Back to the global model we’re reviewing here, there are naturally some reductions in the Fusion’s spec sheet compared to the Pro and Ultra. For example, the Fusion lacks a telephoto camera. It’s not all bad news, though, as the Fusion’s 50MP primary camera is pretty impressive on paper, as is the 13MP ultra-wide camera that has autofocus and doubles as a macro shooter.

Charging is also slightly reduced and Fusion uses only 68W wired charging without wireless charging capability. On the plus side, unlike the Pro and Ultra, which both pack a 4,500 mAh battery, the Edge 50 Fusion has a larger 5,000 mAh battery.


Motorola Edge 50 Fusion comes in plastic-free packaging. This product is shipped in a thick and sturdy cardboard box without any detailed color scheme. There’s a cardboard stand inside to hold the actual phone and a compartment for accessories.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion has a very rich accessory package. You get a 68W charger in the box along with a USB Type-C to Type-C cable. The cable contains an electronic indicator chip. However, it is passive. It can still draw 5 amps, which converts to 100 watts at 20 volts. Data transfer through it is limited to USB 2.0 speed or 480 Mbps. Also, in the retail box, you get a hard plastic case for the phone.

Design and handling

Whether it’s in terms of shape, materials, or color, Motorola just has a way of making great-looking devices, and the Edge 50 Fusion is no exception. It looks elegant in the hand. Its body is quite thin and 7.9 mm. The back and front curve towards the middle frame, which has nice rounded corners.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

Let’s start with the back. Although Motorola doesn’t mention Pantone’s involvement in the Edge 50 Fusion’s color choices, the design is just as appealing.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

Each of the three distinct color options also comes with a special back material and finish. Our Marshmallow Blue review unit has a veggie leather finish that feels very soft and supple. It tends to pick up some lint and dirt, but more than makes up for it with its look and feel.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

The hot pink color is complemented by something called vegan suede. We haven’t seen it in person, but we imagine a woven fabric-like texture. Finally, there’s Forest Blue, which is only described as having a “smooth matte finish.”

Just to reiterate, we love the look and feel of the Marshmallow Blue unit. It’s a very subtle blue, even though it appears off-white in photos. And the feel of the ultra fine and soft texture is excellent.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion has a standard control set and layout. The power button and volume button are on the right side and are in a good position in terms of height. They’re on the thinner side, as the middle bezel isn’t particularly wide either. Tactile feedback could be better, but it’s not too bad.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

Both sides of the display curve are fairly aggressive. There are some bezels on the display, which are enough to hold a few sensors like the light and proximity sensors above the screen, hiding them nicely with the phone. However, we wouldn’t call the frame condition excessive by any means.

This phone uses an optical fingerprint sensor under the display. It is both fast and accurate. We have no complaints about it.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

That being said, the Edge 50 Fusion looks and feels great. Motorola has done a great job with the mid-frame in particular. The color matches the back quite well, and even though it’s plastic, at least in our color variant, it provides a metallic finish.

The back is also made of plastic. It is covered with Corning Gorilla Glass 5 on the front.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

Although some may not appreciate the plastic, we still do.. It’s structurally sound and rigid, without much weight. The total weight of the Edge 50 Fusion is only 175 grams. Plastic also does not dent like metal or shatter completely like glass. Plus, there’s absolutely no flex or hollowness in the Edge 50 Fusion.

The phone is well built, and the Fusion also has IP68 ingress protection.


Motorola Edge 50 Fusion has a large 6.7-inch P-OLED display. We have the international version of the phone, which means we get a 144Hz refresh rate. The panel has a native FullHD+ resolution of 1080 x 2400 pixels, which is slightly lower than the 2712 x 1220 pixels of the Edge 50 Pro and Edge 50 Ultra, but still quite sharp at around 393 ppi.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion is very bright for its class. We measured exactly around 520 nits with the slider maxed out in manual mode, which is perfectly reasonable and on par with most competitors. In auto mode, the phone hit 1,322 nits in our standard test  – more than enough for full outdoor use.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

 We measured just  2.8 nits of minimum brightness in the white point.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

The Edge 50 Fusion’s display has 8-bit color depth and multiple color modes, including one for the sRGB color space and one for DCI-P3.

The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion can be upgraded to 144Hz. This screen supports 60Hz, 90Hz, 120Hz and 144Hz modes. The Latin American version of this phone is limited to 120 Hz. Our universal 144Hz unit has four refresh rate modes – Auto, 60Hz, 120Hz and 144Hz.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion reviewThe 60Hz mode is quite clear. It just locks the refresh rate to 60Hz. All other modes use some form of automatic switching. The default auto mode only goes up to 120Hz and often switches to 90Hz depending on the amount of movement on the screen. Leave the phone for a few seconds and the refresh rate drops to 60Hz to save power. Even though this is not the most complex switching logic, it is generally good enough to improve performance.

120Hz and 144Hz modes also automatically change refresh rates. Only the latter actually goes up to 144 Hz. The actual switching logic does not change much and remains the same. It’s worth noting that some apps tend to insist on 60Hz or 90Hz performance, and there’s no list of per-app settings to override this behavior.

Naturally, we also tested high refresh rate games with a selection of titles that we know can push past the 60fps mark if allowed. Overall, we had little luck when using the default Auto mode. Switching to 144Hz allowed all of our test games to break the 60fps barrier, making high refresh rate gaming quite possible on the Edge 50 Fusion.

Overall, we are satisfied with how the device performs with its high refresh rate capabilities.

Unfortunately, the Edge 50 Fusion lacks any HDR video support. As reported by the operating system, the display is not HDR certified and does not even support an HDR decoder. On the plus side, the phone has the highest Widevine L1 DRM certification, which allows apps like Netflix to deliver FullHD streams to saturate the native screen resolution.

battery life

The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion scored very well in our exclusive test  at 12:40 hours  of active use. While it’s by no means a battery champ, it did particularly well in call and video playback tests. We wish web browsing and gaming were less of a drain on the battery, but still overall good performance.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

Charging speed

The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion packs a 5,000mAh battery and supports Motorola’s 68W TurboPower charging. You get a compatible wall charger and a USB Type-C to Type-C cable right in the box.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion reviewMotorola Edge 50 Fusion is not a fast charging device. However, it holds up well, managing to go from dead to 33% in 15 minutes  and then  60% in 30 minutes  . A full charge   takes over an hour – pretty reasonable in our book.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion


Speakers – loudness and quality

The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion has a hybrid stereo speaker setup. There’s a dedicated speaker on the bottom, and amplified headphones take care of the other channel. This inherently causes the setup to be less than ideally balanced, as one speaker is larger than the other and faces downward rather than forward. Still, the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion sounds surprisingly good, with a rich and expansive soundstage and decent stereo separation. It’s worth noting that proper stereo only works when the phone is turned horizontally.

The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion earned a “Very Good” rating for loudness in our speaker test. It performed slightly better than the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion, but not by much. The Fusion 50 sounded significantly better to our ears than either of the Edge 40s, offering lower-end presence and a more balanced response in the higher frequency range.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

Use playback controls to listen to phone recordings (best with headphones). We measure the average loudness of the speakers in LUFS. A lower absolute value means a louder sound. A look at the frequency response graph tells you how far the reproduction of the bass, treble and mid-range frequencies is from the ideal flat “0db” line. You can add more phones to compare their differences. Scores and ratings are not comparable to our old speaker test.

The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion supports Dolby Atmos, including a Smart Audio mode that automatically adjusts volume, several equalizer presets, and a full manual equalizer mode. There is also a volume equalizer and surround sound for supported sources.


Motorola Edge 50 Fusion is available in single or dual SIM variants. It also supports eSIM. It has SA/NSA Sub-6 5G connectivity. For location services, it supports GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO.

For local connectivity, there is dual-band Wi-Fi ac and Bluetooth 5.2 with LE support. There’s an NFC on board but no radio receiver or 3.5mm audio jack.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion reviewThe Type-C port on the Edge 50 Fusion is backed up by a USB 2.0 data connection, which means a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 480Mbps. This port has Host/OTG support, but unfortunately, no video output support. So basically there is no Motorola Ready For/SmartConnect support for connecting external displays via a cable connection.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion reviewMotorola Edge 50 Fusion has a complete set of sensors. There is a TDK-Invensense ixm4x6xx accelerometer and gyroscope combo, a QST qmc630x magnetometer and compass combo, and a Sensortek stk3acx light and hardware proximity sensor combo. There is no barometer on the plane.

Android 14 with Hello UI on top

The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion runs Android 14 with Motorola’s in-house customizations, now called Hello UI (“Hello, Moto!”). Motorola promises three major Android updates and four years of security updates for the Edge 50 Fusion.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

We’ve said many times that Motorola’s software is very similar to AOSP, with some built-in features and enhancements, which is largely true.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

However, something as simple as a font can add a lot of personality, and Motorola has done it expertly. If you’re looking for personalization, there’s also an AI-generated wallpaper option – Motorola calls it Style sync, and the idea is to have a wallpaper that matches your current outfit.

There’s also an edge-to-edge lighting feature on the display that adds a little extra flair.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

The customizations are in the regular Moto app “hub,” which has been reshaped for this iteration. Now things are organized more neatly, categories with lots of entries, like gestures, fitting things on one page, without having to scroll.

Moto App - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Moto App - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Moto App - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Engine application

Speaking of which, the info page for each move now has a better visual explanation.

Moto App Gestures - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Moto App Gestures - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Moto App Gestures - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motion gestures of the Moto app

Moto Unplugged and Family Space are two features that limit access to apps and features for one of two reasons: on the one hand, to keep you calm or focused, or to limit the use of the child’s phone.

Moto Unplugged Review - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Moto Unplugged Review - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Family Space - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Moto Unplugged • Moto Unplugged • Family Space

As mentioned earlier, unfortunately the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion does not support wired video output. However, you can still connect the device to a computer or external monitor (Miracast, Chromecast) via the new Smart Connect app. The new program replaces the old Ready For program and consolidates all connection options under one roof.

Smart Connect App - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Smart Connect App - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Smart Connect App - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Smart Connect app

While the OS and interface itself are very clean and clutter-free, the Edge 50 Fusion installed many apps and games without giving us the option to opt out.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

Of course, you can remove them afterwards, but it’s still annoying.

Benchmarks and performance

So far, Motorola has avoided MediaTek chipsets in the Edge 50 family and has gone for Qualcomm components instead. The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion is based on the Snapdragon 7s Gen 2 – a chip that was recently announced in Q3 2023 and is based on Samsung’s 4nm 4LPE manufacturing process. Despite being a thoroughly modern chip, as the “s” in the name suggests, the 7s Gen 2 doesn’t have all the features of a modern chipset, according to Qualcomm’s naming convention. For example, it lacks a new and conventional CPU core. Instead, its CPU configuration has two quad-core clusters. One with ARM Cortex-A78 cores up to 2.4 GHz and the other with four Cortex-A55 cores running up to 1.95 GHz. The CPU is paired with an Adreno 710 GPU.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion is available in a total of four memory configurations: 128GB/8GB, 256GB/8GB, 256GB/12GB and 512GB/12GB. For this review, we have the high-end version with 12/512 GB. The RAM chips are LPDDR5, while the storage is UFS 2.2. There is no expandable storage, so make sure you get as much storage as you need.

We also remind you that we are reviewing the international version of the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion. In Latin America, the Snapdragon 6 generation 1 chipset is used.

Moving on to some real benchmarks, we start with the CPU and GeekBench tests. The Snapdragon 7s Gen 2 doesn’t shine much in the CPU department. This device is almost as powerful as the Samsung Exynos 1380 Dimensity 7030. The lack of a powerful core definitely hurts single-core performance, and the chipset fares slightly better in multi-core scenarios. However, you can get much better CPU performance in this price range.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

AnTuTu is a much more sophisticated benchmark with GPU and memory tests. Compared to Edge 50 Fusion, it is not very favorable. However, at least it has devices like last year’s Edge 40 Neo and the ever-popular Redmi Note 13. The performance of the Edge 50 Fusion is pretty much in line with other devices that have the same Snapdragon 7s Gen 2 chipset.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion

The Adreno 710 graphics processor in the Edge 50 Fusion is also not particularly powerful. However, the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion outperforms the Edge 40 Neo and Moto G84, as well as the Samsung Galaxy A35 and Redmi Note 13.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion


The Snapdragon 7s Gen 2 may not be an overly powerful chip, but it’s not too hot. The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion does a great job of cooling it and exhibits excellent thermal behavior.

Thermal bottleneck - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Thermal bottleneck - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Thermal bottleneck - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

Thermal throttling

Even with the long-term stress test, the surface of the phone is warm but still comfortable.

Good dual camera setup

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion has only one pair of rear cameras. Its bigger counterparts – Pro and Ultra also have telephoto. However, the 50-megapixel main camera is quite modern and equipped with OIS, and the 13-megapixel ultra-wide is no ordinary camera either. It has autofocus, so it can double as a macro shooter.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

The main camera of the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion uses a Sony LYTIA LYT-700C 50MP sensor that offers full pixel autofocus and the lens has OIS. Motorola claims that this is the most advanced sensor in the segment.

The ultra-wide camera seems to be borrowed directly from the Edge model of 40 years ago. The lens is based on a 13-megapixel SK Hynix HI1336 sensor with 1.12 µm individual pixels and 1/3-inch optical format. The f/2.2 aperture lens has autofocus, so it can also function as a close-up camera.

  • Wide (primary)  : 50 MP Sony LYTIA LYT-700C f/1.9, 1/1.56″, 1.0 µm, PDAF, OIS; 2160p@30fps
  • Ultra-wide angle  : 13 MP SK Hynix HI1336, f/2.2, 1/3″ 1.12 µm, AF; 2160p@30fps
  • Front camera:  32MP Samsung ISOCELL S5KJD1, f/2.5, 1/3.14″ 0.7μm; 1080p@30fps

The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion uses Samsung’s 32MP ISOCELL S5KJD1 sensor on the front. Commonly known as the ISOCELL JD1, it features 0.7μm pixels and a 1/3.14-inch optical format. Its f/2.5 lens only has fixed focus.

The camera app on the Edge 50 Fusion is developed in-house, as opposed to the software approach it seems.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

The basics are as usual – the camera modes are arranged in a customizable carousel shape, with the “More” tab at the far right end of the carousel holding rarely used shooting modes.

Pro mode gives you full control over camera settings such as white balance, ISO, focus, shutter speed and exposure compensation, and works on all cameras – both rear and selfie cameras (minus manual focus). A small live histogram is provided, but there are no focus points or zebras.

You get some settings in each camera mode right on the main interface, and others are hidden away in the settings menu. However, there is no direct separation of what you want to find where. For example, full-resolution mode for selfies is found in the settings menu, while full-resolution shooting for the rear cameras is accessible from the ‘Ultra-Res’ mode in the carousel. Many of the app’s features are vintage Moto stuff, so if you’re a repeat user you might be right at home, but that doesn’t necessarily make them intuitive.

Before we move on, we’d like to point out that on our Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review unit, we found the camera app to be very laggy and unresponsive. Hopefully it will be fixed with an update, but its current state is really poor. So much so that it seems to introduce stuttering into the captured footage.

Day photo quality

Main camera

The main camera of the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion takes photos with a resolution of 12.5 megapixels by default. These photos are solid through and through. There is a lot of detail in the frame and everything looks nice and sharp. There is practically no noise. The contrast is also good, the color saturation is very high. Many will enjoy the extra “pop”.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1474s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1150s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/3826s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/2683s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/3252s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1228s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/3426s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 636, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 321, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 432, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/169s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1787s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera samples

The Edge 50 Fusion has a “style” selector in the main camera UI. There’s the default “Natural Style,” and then there’s the “Auto Enhance Style,” which is the equivalent of what the Enhance button does in the Google Photos app. The latter takes the color saturation up a notch for more “pop”. Here are some examples.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera Auto-enhancement style samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1418s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera Auto-enhancement style samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/2214s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera Auto-enhancement style samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1932s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera Auto-enhancement style samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/2492s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera Auto-enhancement style samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/3501s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera Auto-enhancement style samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/2805s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera Auto-enhancing style samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/3940s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera Auto-enhancement style samples - f/1.8, ISO 628, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: Style samples 12.5MP main camera with auto upgrade

The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion takes great portraits with its main camera. Faces look beautiful and natural with pleasant skin tones and plenty of texture. The subject detection and separation is excellent and the background blur quality is excellent. The portrait camera interface offers keys for zoomed-in portrait shots that also look great.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Portrait Samples - f/1.8, ISO 322, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera portrait samples - f/1.8, ISO 293, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera portrait samples - f/1.8, ISO 314, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Portrait Samples - f/1.8, ISO 443, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera portrait samples - f/1.8, ISO 388, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Primary Camera Portrait Samples - f/1.8, ISO 413, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera portrait samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/169s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera portrait samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/168s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera portrait samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/163s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Portrait Samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1870s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP Main Camera Portrait Samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1736s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera portrait samples - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1641s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera portrait examples

You can force the main camera to shoot at full 50MP resolution (even a little over 50MP). However, these photos are useless in terms of detail. They are noticeably less processed and therefore smoother than regular photos. However, you have to deal with large file sizes.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1938s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 50MP - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/2840s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/618s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 50MP - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1414s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP • 50MP • 12.5MP • 50MP

The Edge 50 Fusion lacks a dedicated telephoto camera, but still has plenty of resolution in the main camera for a nice 2x digital zoom.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera with 2x zoom - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1891s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera with 2x zoom - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1863s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera with 2x zoom - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/2818s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera with 2x zoom - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/2192s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera with 2x zoom - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/1607s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera with 2x zoom - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/2036s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera with 2x zoom - f/1.8, ISO 100, 1/2860s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera with 2x zoom - f/1.8, ISO 892, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera samples with 2x zoom

Ultra wide camera

The 13-megapixel ultra-wide camera on the Edge 50 Fusion is perfect. Its photos are beautiful and detailed and very sharp given the resolution available. However, a lot of this sharpening can look artificial.

Colors look good and have a bit more saturation and “pop” just like the original, although they don’t exactly match the original.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Samples - f/2.2, ISO 100, 1/1256s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Samples - f/2.2, ISO 100, 1/1166s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Samples - f/2.2, ISO 100, 1/1546s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Samples - f/2.2, ISO 100, 1/1690s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Samples - f/2.2, ISO 100, 1/1926s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Samples - f/2.2, ISO 100, 1/476s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Samples - f/2.2, ISO 100, 1/2286s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Samples - f/2.2, ISO 339, 1/33s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP ultra-wide camera samples

The ultra-wide camera has a neat party trick thanks to its autofocus capabilities. Can do close-ups. These come out fairly well.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Macro Samples - f/2.2, ISO 364, 1/33s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Macro Samples - f/2.2, ISO 290, 1/100s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra-Wide Camera Macro Samples - f/2.2, ISO 169, 1/50s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Macro Samples - f/2.2, ISO 100, 1/695s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Macro Samples - f/2.2, ISO 100, 1/870s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP Ultra Wide Camera Macro Samples - f/2.2, ISO 100, 1/4383s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion Review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: Macro samples of the 13MP ultra-wide camera

selfie camera

Selfies from the 32-megapixel camera are released at 8-megapixel resolution by default. These look pretty good, although not perfect. Some skin texture is lost, and skin tones are decent, though a bit oversaturated.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 8 MP selfie camera samples - f/2.4, ISO 100, 1/150s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 8 MP selfie camera samples - f/2.4, ISO 100, 1/426s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 8 MP selfie camera samples - f/2.4, ISO 100, 1/183s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 8 MP selfie camera samples - f/2.4, ISO 100, 1/397s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 8 MP selfie camera samples - f/2.4, ISO 100, 1/245s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 8 MP selfie camera samples - f/2.4, ISO 100, 1/539s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 8MP selfie camera samples

Camera quality in low light

The main camera takes very good photos in low light. There are many details. Colors look nice and light sources are well managed. Noise is also minimized.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5 MP low-light main camera samples - f/1.8, ISO 3371, 1/33s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5 MP low-light main camera samples - f/1.8, ISO 2351, 1/13s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5 MP low-light main camera samples - f/1.8, ISO 2471, 1/33s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5 MP low-light main camera samples - f/1.8, ISO 2000, 1/13s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 12.5MP main camera examples in low light

Expect the ultra-wide camera to have a bit more trouble in low light than the main camera. However, the photos it takes are generally quite decent. There is a lot of detail, although there is also a lot of noise. Light sources tend to fade out quite often, but surprisingly, some details in the shadows aren’t quite crushed.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP ultra-wide low-light camera samples - f/2.2, ISO 2624, 1/20s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP ultra-wide camera samples in low light - f/2.2, ISO 6400, 1/13s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP ultra-wide camera samples in low light - f/2.2, ISO 2224, 1/20s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP ultra-wide camera samples in low light - f/2.2, ISO 3504, 1/20s - Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review
Motorola Edge 50 Fusion: 13MP ultra-wide camera examples in low light

Video quality

The Motorola Edge 50 Fusion can shoot 4K video at 30fps on all of its cameras, something you don’t see every day in its price segment. By default, videos are stored in an AVC/h.264 video stream at around 63Mbps with a 48kHz stereo AAC audio track inside an MP4 container. You can choose to shoot in HEVC/h.265 instead and save some space at the price of more limited playback compatibility.

The main camera takes excellent 4K videos. These have plenty of detail, no noise and a very wide dynamic range. Colors are once again fully saturated. There is no trace of over-sharpening or extreme contrast that we saw on the Edge 50 Pro and Ultra.

At 2x zoom, videos look comparable, though slightly sharper.

The ultra-wide camera captures surprisingly clean and detailed videos. These are a bit softer than the original, but on the plus side the colors aren’t nearly as saturated and look much better.

Interestingly, if you turn off the camera’s electronic stabilization, you’ll get a shaky 22fps video along with a wider field of view.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

Selfie videos are completely static. Well, unfortunately, not in the literal sense, but because they are quite shaky with passive stabilization. Other than that, the quality is excellent and there is plenty of detail. Skin tones look good and some skin texture is lost.

Speaking of stabilization, you can enable it at full 4K resolution on either camera, which is great. It eats up a lot of frame, but that’s understandable. EIS generally does a great job of smoothing out bumps and shakes, but unfortunately, it introduces a bit of focus on the main and ultra-wide cameras. Since focus is fixed, selfies are not affected and benefit from near-perfect stabilization.

At night, the main camera does very well, especially in terms of detail. On the other hand, there is little noise in the frame, light sources are mostly muted, and darker areas lack detail for the most part.

Related article: Motorola Edge 50 Ultra review

Check competitors

At the time of writing, a base 8.128GB Motorola Edge 50 Fusion retails for around INR 25,499 (€280) in India. An 8/256GB unit   sells  for around €350 in Europe, and we  found a 12/256GB unit in the US for $550 (€506) . Therefore, it seems that the prices vary wildly. Let’s cap our rough budget at $500/€500 and see what else you can get for the price.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

Starting from the Samsung camp, the Galaxy S23 FE is well-depreciated and fits right in our budget. However, it has aged quite a bit since it was launched in October 2023. So, we suggest you explore the Galaxy A55 instead. On average, it’s slightly cheaper than the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion, but the Exynos 1480 keeps it up and even beats the Snapdragon 7s Gen 2 inside the Moto. The phone has some great features like IP67 ingress protection, Gorilla Glass Victus Plus, stereo speakers, a microSD slot for increased storage and a stunning 6.6-inch, 120Hz, HDR10+ Super AMOLED display. And you certainly don’t have a telephoto camera like the S23 FE, but the A55’s settings are still pretty versatile. And as an added bonus, the Galaxy A55 has a bigger battery than the S23 FE and has much better battery life.

Samsung Galaxy A55 Xiaomi Redmi Note 13 Pro+ Xiaomi Poco F6 Realme GT 6T
Samsung Galaxy A55 • Xiaomi Redmi Note 13 Pro+ • Xiaomi Poco F6 • Realme GT 6T

Xiaomi’s own product line also has some interesting alternatives. There is the ever popular Redmi Note 13 series. Its most popular member right now seems to be the Redmi Note 13 Pro, at least according to our statistics. And you can certainly go this route and save a lot of money. You’ll have to live with IP54 ingress protection and a relatively unremarkable Snapdragon 7s Gen 2 chipset – like the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion. So why not spend just a little more and get the IP68-rated Redmi Note 13 Pro+ instead, as well as 120W fast charging, MediaTek Dimensity 7200 Ultra and a powerful 200MP main camera?

Speaking of Xiaomi phones, there is the new Poco F6 series. While the flagship F6 Pro is probably a bit pricey for the current budget, the entry-level Poco F6 is perfectly fine. And to be honest, we think this product is the better of the two phones. Some of the highlights include an IP64 body, Victus Gorilla Glass, and stereo speakers. You also get a great 12-bit HDR, super bright AMOLED display and 90W charging with a 5000 mAh battery.

Finally, let us introduce a regional variant – the Realme GT 6T. It has an excellent and ultra-bright HDR display, Gorilla Glass Victus 2 protection, stereo speakers and Snapdragon 7+ Gen 3, which is more powerful than the chip inside the Edge 50 Fusion. You also have a large 5500 mAh battery with super fast 120W charging.


Motorola Edge 50 Fusion is undoubtedly a wonderful device. This phone is very well made. IP68 ingress protection is also a great bonus to have. The Edge 50 Fusion’s display is also very solid, perhaps with the exception of the lack of HDR support. We have nothing but praise for the hybrid stereo setup. Camera performance is also very good all around.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

We have to say that the biggest weakness in the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion specs sheet is probably the Snapdragon 7s Gen 2 chipset. It does not provide enough performance in the CPU or GPU departments. Even so, it’s not as if the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion didn’t struggle to do any specific task we threw at it, so we’re not too hard on the chipset, although it’s worth noting that you can get a lot better performance for this price. Be. We’d also like to see faster charging than the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion and possibly expandable storage, but again, we wouldn’t hold that much against the phone.

Motorola Edge 50 Fusion review

Finally, we’d say that when it comes to looks, you won’t be disappointed at all with this phone, but if looks aren’t your top priority, you should look elsewhere.

Why should we buy Motorola Edge 50 Fusion?

  • Excellent design, color and material.
  • IP68 ingress protection
  • Bright OLED with 144 Hz refresh rate and good refresh rate control.
  • Very good stereo speakers
  • Excellent cooling and thermal behavior.
  • All-round camera performance.

Why we should not buy the Motorola Edge 50 Fusion phone

  • No HDR support.
  •  There is no private fast charging.
  • There is no Type-C wired video output.


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