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A hidden layer probably exists in the earth’s core



A hidden layer probably exists in the earth's core

In school, we were taught that the Earth has four main layers, but now scientists have announced that a hidden layer probably exists in the earth’s core .

A hidden layer probably exists in the earth’s core

New evidence on the possibility that the Earth’s inner core has a separate inner core of its own was published yesterday (February 21) in the journal Nature Communications.

The latest findings suggest that this “Earth’s innermost core” may be an iron ball with a radius of about 650 kilometers inside the Earth’s inner core.

Scientists say the discovery could represent a dramatic event in the history of our planet and improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of Earth.

What evidence is there for the discovery of the innermost inner core of the Earth?

In this new study, Thanh-Son Phạm and Hrvoje Tkalčić of the Australian National University compiled data from existing probes. In this way, they measured the different arrival times of seismic energy waves created by earthquakes on the earth.

For the first time, they observed waves that resonated up to five times the diameter of the Earth. The travel time of these waves indicates the existence of a distinct inner shell with a radius of approximately 650 km, which is separated from the outer layer of the inner core.

Read More: Water purification with hydrogel made from “leaf” plant.

The researchers say this inner interface may reflect a past change in the growth of Earth’s inner core.

They also recommended that to better understand the deep interior of the Earth and its history, future research should focus on characterizing the transition between the innermost core and the outer crust of the Earth’s inner core.

A hidden layer probably exists in the earth's core

How many layers does the earth have?

Traditionally, we have been taught that the Earth has four main layers, the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core.

Although the Earth’s solid inner core makes up less than one percent of the Earth’s total volume, it has played an important role in the evolution of our planet, especially in the generation of the Earth’s magnetic field. However, since its discovery in 1936, the Earth’s inner core has remained distinctly obscure.

In fact, the idea of a separate and hidden layer in the Earth’s inner core was proposed decades ago due to evidence of compositional change (or anisotropy) deep within the Earth.

Geophysicist Adam Dziewonski and seismologist Miaki Ishii were the first scientists to describe specific differences in the fit of travel times of wave patterns in the Earth’s inner core.

However, probing the Earth’s innermost core has always been challenging due to the lack of probes sensitive enough to sample the Earth’s deep interior. Furthermore, the status of the innermost inner core as a distinct entity remains debated, with opponents arguing that anomalous data can be explained by other means.

Meanwhile, about two weeks ago, a group of researchers from the University of Texas at Austin (UTA) found a new layer under the earth’s crust called “melt”.

They say this layer contains hot molten rock and provides useful insights into the activity of Earth’s plate tectonics.

This newly discovered molten layer is located at a depth of 100 miles (161 km) below the earth’s surface and is part of the asthenosphere – a flexible layer under the lithosphere at a depth of 80 to 400 km from the earth’s surface.

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The strangest science stories of the past year




In this report, we review some of the strangest science stories that we came across last year.

The strangest science stories of the past year

Some scientists are working on tackling climate change or curing cancer, but others are more focused on finding out if time travel is really possible.

The report explores where “love” is felt in the body, the scientific value of giant piles of bird poop, and talking to whales as an exercise in communicating with aliens and extraterrestrials.

Here, we review 10 of the weirdest science stories of the past year.

science stories
Brain computers

Brain computers is the first science stories of the past year. Nothing like experimenting on the human brain in a crazy glass jar. This is despite the fact that researchers approached this case strangely and worryingly last year.

An Australian company called Cortical Labs has grown human brain tissue from stem cells and attached them to computer chips, growing neurons in simulations and allowing them to perform computational tasks and even play the popular game of Pong. Teaches Pong.

Another group developed brain organoids called “Brainoware,” which are literally tiny three-dimensional brains and taught them to recognize sounds and perform mathematical calculations.

In another study that was published late last year, a group of researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison created the first functional tissue of the human brain with 3D printing technology to examine brain function and investigate various neurological disorders, which can be used to study various neurological problems and disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease is useful.

While these systems are still too crude to demonstrate anything close to realizing consciousness, we’d better be prepared to set some ethical guidelines.

science stories

The strangest science stories of the past year

Did James Webb detect stars made of dark matter?

The James Webb Space Telescope may have spotted the first signs of theoretical “dark stars,” which are invisible objects that generate heat from the decay of dark matter particles in their cores, astronomers say.

Because the James Webb Space Telescope can look deeper into the universe than any other instrument, we are always open to discovering truly new and surprising things with it.

James Webb observes giant, ancient galaxies that expand our understanding of how the universe formed. That’s why some astrophysicists say that instead of messing with the standard model of cosmology, maybe what we’re seeing right now are “dark stars,” hypothetical bodies that generate heat from decaying dark matter particles in their cores.

These monsters are 10,000 times larger than the Sun, 10 million times heavier, and 10 billion times brighter (albeit in the infrared spectrum), which makes them look like galaxies from this distance.

This idea is interesting and at the same time completely speculative, but luckily it is testable. So we may have an answer to that soon.

science stories
Eerie dreams of artificial intelligence

Among these strange science stories, AI is the next one. The world of artificial intelligence is moving so fast that it’s hard to believe that just a few months ago we were laughing at the unrealistic results of its video production efforts. But now, within a short period of time, it has reached a place where it often leaves us with our fingers in our mouths.

Visualizer systems like ModelScope and Runway’s Gen-2 are designed to produce short videos based on text messages, and the results are amazing.

Google also recently unveiled its newest artificial intelligence called Lumiere, which is specialized for video production and editing only by receiving text commands.

We now stand at a point in history that seems both interesting and scary, because the continuous development of artificial intelligence, while offering new possibilities to mankind, is also accompanied by dangers that the greats of this field, such as Elon Musk and Sam Altman, have warned of. They have warned of its unmanaged development.

science stories

The strangest science stories of the past year

Artificial intelligence fashions feet in shoes

Artificial intelligence has shown that it can also enter the world of fashion, but not in the way you might think.

An Italian company active in the field of fashion called “Capable” has unveiled a line of colorful clothing that not only attracts the human eye but also deceives artificial intelligence.

These flamboyant patterns are designed in such a way that they also confuse artificial intelligence object recognition algorithms so that the wearer sees these clothes as giraffes or zebras.

This technology is very expensive, but at least it tries to make future fashion more fun than redesigning an old coat.

science stories

Calling all aliens

This science stories among other sience stories is about aliens. Scientists have recently made contact with a “non-human intelligence”, although not the aliens we are thinking of. At least not yet.

Scientists from the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) were able to talk to a whale in its own whale language as an exercise in communicating with aliens. This exercise could come in handy the day we probably finally meet extraterrestrials.

Meeting with aliens is a subject that mankind always has in mind and seems to be waiting for such an event to happen. Scientists are also now looking to practice communicating with extraterrestrials in the future by trying to talk to whales in their own language.

Communication between humans who speak different languages is difficult enough. This is despite the fact that we all have the same biological characteristics. But aliens could not only have their own language but probably have completely different ways of communicating. For example, they may convey a complete emotional spectrum through sound, frequency, tone, smell, taste, and density of the passing gas.

The team called it the first human-whale communication exchange, and all they did in the study was play a recording of a whale saying “hello” over and over until the whale got bored and left. That area was distanced.

The idea is that scientists can make conversations with whales more interactive so that eventually it can help us create filters that can pick up the structures of any alien message.

Scientists say whales are a good place to start. They are highly intelligent and have complex social communication systems that can be deciphered. Also, if we attack them, the only casualties might be a few yachts, not strategic world locations.

Scientists say we hope to manage the first close encounters with aliens with the help of whales.

where is the love?

Even the most hard-hearted people feel and experience love in some way, even if it is the love of a pet.

Scientists say there are 27 different types of love and they sought to determine where in their body people feel these 27 different types of love and how strong each one is.

So participants in one study were asked to point to a drawing of the human body, color the spot they wanted, and describe how physically and mentally pleasurable it was.

Interestingly, each type of love was felt in the head, and not surprisingly, most of them were also felt in the chest.

Love for children or parents was strongly felt in the heart and chest.

The strength and intensity of the feeling of love also differed according to its type. Love for beauty, wisdom, God, strangers, or country was felt more in the head, while participants inscribed true love across the entire body.

Of course, according to the researchers, expectations and preconceptions probably influenced the participants’ answers here.

Read More: Recording the first X-ray image of an atom with a “quantum needle”

science stories

Time has been slower in the past

Astrophysicists have discovered that time passed more slowly in the early universe than it does now.

So time seems to be speeding up. Physicists studied the ticking of quasars billions of years away in space-time and found that one ancient second had passed as much as five seconds today.

It should be said that according to scientists, time did not feel slower for anyone at that point, although we know that everything is relative. But if there were people back then who could see us in the future, they would wonder why we are all moving and living in such a hurry.

This phenomenon is the result of “time dilation” which is caused by the deviation of the relativistic effects of the fabric of space-time. Just like the planet that revolves around a black hole in the movie Interstellar.

Time dilation is one of the physical concepts related to Albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity, which is expressed on the basis of relativity in such a way that the passage of time is examined differently from the perspective of two observers with different speeds. In general, the faster we move, the slower time passes and these two have an inverse relationship.

science stories
History hidden in a pile of bird droppings

On a rock in Argentina is something that probably wouldn’t be on a tourist website’s list of attractions, unless it’s interesting to scientists. Talk about a pile of excrement.

This unusual pile of excrement was created by generations of Andean condors that returned to the same spot where their nest was every year.

The Andean vulture with the scientific name (Vultur gryphus) is the name of a species of the New World vulture family. The Andean vulture is the largest flying bird in the world with a maximum wingspan of 3.3 meters.

When the scientists split this hill, they realized that it actually preserved 2200 years of history. By studying the layer by layer of this unpleasant mound, they found that these birds initially feasted mostly on the carcasses of native species, but after the arrival of European immigrants, they showed an interest in sheep and cattle.

Scientists could even say that the vultures have left this place for several centuries and moved their place of residence due to a period of volcanic activity in this area.

science stories

The genetic mystery of a woman who feels no pain

A new genetic study has identified specific genetic mutations that appear to allow a Scottish woman to feel no pain.

Jo Cameron is the name of this Scottish woman who feels no pain, fear, or anxiety and her wounds heal faster than usual.

Interestingly, this superpower of his was discovered in his 60s.

When scientists researched him, they found that these features were mostly due to mutations in two genes called FAAH and FAAH-OUT. Of course, hundreds of other genes, including those associated with wound healing, mood regulation, and drug levels, were also suppressed or enhanced.

science stories

Charged with contradictions

It seems that this woman is a very interesting case for the world of science, and research on her can help scientists create new treatments to relieve pain or mental illnesses.
Causality (the relationship between cause and effect) is the key to our experience of reality. For example, dropping a glass will break it, so the glass cannot shatter before being dropped. But in the quantum world, these rules don’t necessarily hold, and scientists have now shown how these wonders can be harnessed to charge quantum batteries.

In a sense, quantum batteries are powered by contradictions. On paper, they work by storing energy in the quantum states of atoms and molecules. Of course, as soon as the word “quantum” enters the conversation, you know something weird is about to happen. In this case, a new study has shown that quantum batteries can work by violating cause and effect as we know it.

Now, scientists at the University of Tokyo have taken advantage of this strange phenomenon to create a battery that charges faster and more efficiently. They conducted a laboratory experiment using lasers, lenses, and mirrors that act as a large-scale quantum battery.

Basically, the causality in quantum batteries can exist in a time superposition, leading to another strange effect where a low-power charger can charge a battery more efficiently than a high-power charger. Thus, this battery is charged by disrupting our understanding of the flow of time.

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Inventing a material resistant to heat of 1000 degrees Celsius




a material resistant to heat

Korean researchers have produced heat-resistant materials that can withstand temperatures of up to 1000 degrees Celsius, and not only withstand high temperatures, but also withstand intense ultraviolet radiation, and are ideal for use in space. So here we will talk about inventing a material resistant to heat of 1000 degrees Celsius.

Inventing a material resistant to heat of 1000 degrees Celsius

A research team at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) has produced a refractory material that maintains its optical properties even at a temperature of 1000 degrees Celsius and under strong ultraviolet radiation.

According to SA, this material can be used in various applications from aerospace to thermal photovoltaic (TPV) systems.

Thermal radiation is a term used to define the electromagnetic radiation emitted by all materials whose temperature is above absolute zero. This radiation comes from the heat created during the movement of the charges in the material and its release in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

Scientists have been working on exploiting this radiation as a kind of energy source. The heat from facilities such as thermal power plants and industrial sites can be used for heating, cooling, and even energy production if suitable thermal refractory materials are available.

Most of this research has focused on deploying technology in general environmental conditions. To expand its scope of application, newer materials that can operate in harsh environments are sought.

Electricity generation from indirect solar radiation

In our efforts to phase out fossil fuels, large-scale energy production projects using sunlight are underway in various parts of the world. However, the spectrum of solar radiation that enters the Earth and remains unused is another renewable resource that scientists want to tap into.

As an alternative to renewable solar and wind energy, whose power output varies depending on weather conditions, friendly thermoelectric energy generation technology, says Jungbum Kim, senior researcher at KIST, whose team developed the new refractory materials. The environment that uses the radiant energy emitted from the sun and high-temperature environments to generate electricity has received attention.

Read More: 10 influential people in the world of science in 2023

How was this new material made?

Typically, materials such as tungsten, nickel, and titanium nitride are used as refractory conductors. However, these materials are easily oxidized at higher temperatures.

According to a press release from the Korean researchers, they used pulsed laser deposition techniques to fabricate lanthanum-doped selective barium oxide (LBSO) in a nanoscale thin film. This material can maintain its performance even when it is exposed to a temperature of 1000 degrees Celsius and intense ultraviolet radiation with a power of 9 megawatts per square centimeter.

The research team also made a thermal emitter in the infrared spectrum using LBSO and found the material to be stable when used in multilayers or as a thin film. This opens up the possibility of using LBSO for thermovoltaic (TPV) power generation.

Interestingly, this material allows thermal radiation to be transferred directly to the PV cells, thereby preventing its oxidation by air.

The LBSO provision will help address climate change and the energy crisis by accelerating the commercialization of thermoelectric power generation, Kim added in a press release.

The researchers are confident that LBSO will find applications beyond power generation and waste heat recovery from industrial equipment. Because the material is resistant to UV exposure, it can also handle heat generated by absorption or exposure to strong sunlight. This usually occurs in harsh environments and can help develop applications in the aeronautics and space fields.

The findings of this research have been published in Advanced Science magazine.​

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Expected scientific news in the new year




scientific news in the new year

“Prolonged Covid treatment” and “Artificial Intelligence regulation” are among the topics we expect to see important news in the new year. Here we will talk about the expected scientific news in the new year.

Expected scientific news in the new year

With the US elections approaching and European parties’ differences over green policies, political tensions and differences can create problems and uncertainties for scientists in the new year. While the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are winding down, a long-running COVID treatment trial may be showing its first results.

The warming of the Pacific Ocean known as “El Niño” is also likely to lead to the strengthening of the global temperature to higher limits. “Science” reporters have reviewed the research and policy areas that could make news in 2024.

Read More: 6 historical secrets scientists discovered in 2023

El Niño may perpetuate record heat

The first scientific news in the new year is El Niño. An El Niño heat wave in the eastern Pacific is likely to intensify in the next few months, pushing global average temperatures 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels for the first time. Also, the El Nino weather phenomenon is also expected to worsen the drought in the Amazon and Australia.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
This change started last year and it is suspected that 2023 will become the hottest year in the history of the modern era, with the average temperature in the first 11 months of the year being 1.4 degrees above the pre-industrial level, which is higher than It can be explained only by the emission of greenhouse gases.

On the other hand, El Nino has reduced the heat absorption capacity of the ocean and this pattern will continue in the new year.

Competing to regulate artificial intelligence

The second scientific news in the new year is artificial intelligence. Governments around the world announced ambitious plans to increase AI oversight last year, and the race to regulate AI is expected to intensify in the new year.

American organizations will face a serious task in this field; Especially since the US government announced policy guidelines in November last year with the aim of determining the criteria for the responsible development of artificial intelligence.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Members of the US Congress have also been active in this regard and have presented more than 150 plans to ensure that artificial intelligence will be beneficial – and not threatening.

This is while it seems that the European Union is closer to approving and adopting ethical guidelines. But specific regulations may soon fall out of favor as new artificial intelligence software, such as chatbots based on large language models, enter the field so quickly and seemingly endlessly.

The arrival of anti-malarial mosquitoes

The next scientific news in the new year is anti-malarial mosquitoes.The strategy of releasing laboratory-modified mosquitoes to prevent the spread of dengue fever is being intensified this year after a string of successes.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, developed and tested by the non-profit organization “World Malaria Mosquito Program” (WMP), carry the bacteria Wolbachia pipientis, which prevents them from transmitting certain viruses.

A pilot program in Indonesia has shown that this strategy reduces the number of dengue cases and hospitalizations.

In the fall of last year, researchers reported that dengue fever material has decreased by at least 95% in the release areas of this laboratory mosquito in Colombia.

The first results of the long COVID treatment trial

Four years after the beginning of the pandemic caused by “SARS-CoV-2”, millions of people in the world have suffered from the consequences of the “prolonged COVID-19” syndrome, which is accompanied by symptoms such as fatigue, constant headache, and shortness of breath.


While there is no approved treatment for this condition, patients and their doctors are experimenting with various medications and nutritional supplements to treat the condition.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Scientists hope to announce the results of some long-running Covid treatment clinical trials this year, although the results may be preliminary. Some drugs, such as Paxlovid and other antiviral drugs, target SARS-CoV-2, and other proposed drugs will target some of the other unusual cases identified in long-running Covid research.

Even if these experiments are not successful, the scientists hope that the results of the experiments will shed light on the biology behind the prolonged COVID-19 state so that they can determine what to test next.

Creating order in the neutrino mass

Two ongoing experiments can show how clumps of tiny, elusive particles called neutrinos aggregate. These particles appeared in three types of electron, muon, and tao, which transform into each other and this phenomenon can explain why the universe has produced more matter than antimatter.

First, scientists must define their theoretical model. They know that two of the neutrinos have roughly the same mass, but they don’t know if there are two light neutrinos and one heavier one, or vice versa. Physicists working on the T2K experiment in Japan and the NOvA experiment in the US are studying neutrinos by firing them hundreds of kilometers into large sensors.

They plan to publish a joint analysis in the new year that could determine which of the two alternatives is correct.

Opposition to the green ambitions of the European Union

While far-right nationalist parties are doing well in polls leading up to June’s European elections, observers predict opposition to the EU’s green agenda will intensify. The “European Green Deal” adopted in 2020 aims to make Europe the “first climate-neutral continent” and reduce greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2050. In this context, environmentally friendly measures have been designed in various sectors, including energy and transportation.

This is even though far-right parties and the conservative party “People of Europe” have already adopted friendly positions towards farmers and industries and, for example, have opposed policies aimed at reducing the use of insecticides. European lawmakers may also act to limit funding for implementing green laws, such as those related to ecosystem restoration.

Delay in nuclear fusion super project

Project managers for the Large Experimental Nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which has been in the works for decades, are expected to announce a new completion date this year, putting the “first plasma” test beyond 2025.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
This facility under construction in France at a cost of tens of billions of dollars for the international partners of this project is supposed to prove the feasibility of nuclear fusion as a carbon-free energy source, but it has been facing problems.

The COVID-19 pandemic delayed the production of parts; Some parts of the reactor were wrongly designed and shaped and did not fit in the work. The cooling pipes were worn out and corroded, and the French Atomic Regulatory Organization was not sure of the project’s safety.

The new head of this project is trying to restore the construction and implementation work to its routine. He is expected to announce a new and revised plan this year, but told a fusion energy conference late last year that “it’s not going to be good news.”

Cooperation with local experts

After centuries of colonial wars and decades of exploitation by some scientists, many indigenous peoples have hesitated to interact with researchers, but hopes have been created for reconciliation between the two sides and more research projects under the guidance of indigenous peoples aim to bring indigenous knowledge from the world into Western science. do

In the new year, new contributions may be made based on the excellent examples of the past year, including the study of the North American horse breed. The American National Science Foundation supports the development of efforts with 30 million dollars in five years to create a new scientific center in this field, and some other American institutions have allocated funds in this field to cooperate with universities.

Although some areas of past tension still remain, new models of cooperation will likely be created in the new year.

The launch of the expensive “Europa” probe

The last scientific news in the new year is the launch of the expensive “Europa” probe. NASA’s five-billion-dollar Europa Clipper probe is scheduled to launch this October with a SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket, and it will be NASA’s most expensive planetary exploration mission since the Viking Mars mission in the 1970s.

خبرهای علمی مورد انتظار در سال جدید میلادی
Europa, one of the large moons of Jupiter, has an icy crust several kilometers thick, under which there is a large salty ocean that could potentially be a place for life to grow.

When the Clipper probe arrives at its destination in 2030, it will not directly sample the ocean but will fly by the moon 50 times, scanning its surface and gathering clues about the moon’s interior.

Scientists had hoped that this probe would be able to follow up on clues related to telescopic investigations of an active eruption from the side of this moon into space, but recent efforts with NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope did not find any evidence of this issue.

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