Connect with us


10 powerful telescopes that will change our view of the world



10 powerful telescopes

10 powerful telescopes that will change our view of the world . By building powerful space telescopes, man was able to find his place in the universe and realize its extent. With the development of huge telescopes, we will find out more about the secrets of existence.

10 powerful telescopes that will change our view of the world

With super telescopes making our understanding of the universe even greater, we are in for a very exciting time. We will be able to watch the formation of planets around young stars, take a look at the earliest ages of the universe, search the atmospheres of exoplanets for signs of life, and maybe finally discover the secret of dark matter and dark energy and realize their role in the universe. Most likely, along the way, unexpected observations and discoveries will surprise us.

Supertelescopes are technological masterpieces and without access to the levels of technology available in the world today, the construction of these instruments would not be possible; In fact, the development of super telescopes has led to the advancement of technology. The emergence of these instruments is rooted in Galileo’s simple observations using a two-inch telescope and his curiosity about nature. Although Galileo is not the inventor of the telescope, his name is associated with the first telescopes and he was the first person to use a telescope to see the night sky and thus discover the Milky Way.

There are several types of telescopes in the world that are used to observe different types of electromagnetic radiation. For example, optical, radio, and X-ray telescopes have all in turn contributed to the advancement of science. Space telescopes help humans to observe and study stars and galaxies from a closer distance. This human invention receives visible light from distant objects and uses that light to create an image. This functionality is exactly what makes telescopes so useful to scientists and astronomers.

Large, unknown, and mysterious galaxies have always occupied the minds of humans and mankind has been able to discover many of these mysteries with the advancement of science and the construction of more equipment. Every day, science becomes more advanced, and as a result, new discoveries occur in this field. In the following, we will mention 10 of these telescopes. Be with Zoomit.

1. Spherical telescope with 500-meter aperture (FAST)

10 powerful telescopes

The FAST radio telescope, which is the first option among the powerful telescopes is the world’s largest single-dish radio telescope, is nearing the end of its experimental phase. Like optical telescopes that absorb visible light and concentrate it in a point so that it is possible to analyze the received images, radio telescopes also collect and concentrate weak radio waves so that they can be analyzed. Scientists use radio telescopes to study stars, galaxies, black holes, and other cosmic objects and phenomena.

China TV had previously announced that the FAST telescope has detected 99 rotating neutron stars known as pulsars. Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are short but powerful pulses of energy that originate in the far reaches of the universe. The first of them was detected in 2007, and more signals have been discovered since then. Although astronomers have made exciting progress in tracking fast radio bursts in recent years, we don’t really know much about their nature.

Maybe black holes or neutron stars known as magnetars play a major role in their production. The powerful receiver on the FAST telescope has a high sensitivity to radio signals and covers the frequency range of 1.05 to 1.45 GHz. The more we observe these fast radio bursts, the better our chances of identifying their true nature and source. Some speculate that fast radio bursts are caused by the decay of the shells of certain types of neutron stars. According to McLaughlin, the FAST telescope will also be used in an international collaboration to detect gravitational waves.

The International Pulsar Timing Array uses radio telescopes around the world to observe regular bursts of pulsars and detect low-frequency entanglements in these transient gravitational waves. Unlike the Arecibo telescope, which has a fixed spherical curvature, the FAST radio telescope is able to form a parabolic mirror. Such a feature makes the researchers master more degrees.

Although the diameter of the new dish of the world’s largest radio telescope is 500 meters, the FAST telescope can observe the sky overhead with an effective size of 300 meters from the dish with angular turbulence of ±40 degrees, the sensitivity of this dish is 10 times that of the Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico. This $180 million telescope will be used for research in the field of gravitational waves, pulses, and signs of life in space. The construction of the FAST telescope was not without controversy and the Chinese government relocated 9,000 residents of the telescope site to create suitable conditions for the operation of the telescope and gave the residents approximately $1,800 in subsidies for new houses.

The plan to build the FAST radio telescope was first presented in 1994 until the National Development and Reform Commission of China approved the final project plan in 2007. Currently, the 65-meter Parkes Telescope in Australia is among the telescopes used to search for extraterrestrial life and can detect signals up to 4.5 light-years away. Arecibo can also detect signals up to 18 light-years away, but this figure reaches 28 light-years for Fast. Extensive researches on neutral hydrogen and timing array of pulsars and the discovery of interstellar molecules are also other research goals of FAST.

2. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

10 powerful telescopes

The LSST telescope, is another one of the powerful telescopes which is equipped with a 3200-megapixel camera, will be called the world’s largest digital camera after it is built, and thanks to it, scientists will be able to reach the mysterious parts of the universe. It is said that this camera can detect the dark energy that has accelerated the development process of the world. The LST telescope is supposed to be used to scan the entire night sky several times a week for ten years.

In addition to imaging the supernova from a great distance, the LST telescope will also be able to detect asteroids close to Earth. This telescope, which is the result of the cooperation of American and Chilean public and private organizations, will reveal unprecedented details about the universe and will help to unveil great mysteries. LST proves that big mirrors aren’t the only thing that makes a powerful telescope.

The LST telescope has a diameter of about 8.4 meters, which is still very large, but this large size is compensated by its field of view and speed. As a survey telescope, the LST telescope is designed to scan the entire night sky instead of focusing on individual targets, using the largest digital camera on Earth to produce color and time-lapse movies of the night sky every few nights. The LST telescope will be built on the 2,682-meter peak of Cerro Pachon in northern Chile, where the Jiminy South telescope is now located. According to the manufacturer, the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation are working on this telescope. The LSST telescope camera adds new capabilities to the quality of astronomical imaging.

The LSST telescope provides unprecedented 3D maps of the night sky that can help us study dark energy. The operation of this telescope is planned for 2022, and this is the first time that a telescope will observe more galaxies than there are humans on Earth. It is said that this technology detects tens of billions of celestial objects; The LST telescope camera is the size of a small car and weighs more than three tons.

The LST camera provides full images in such resolution that 1,500 high-definition television screens are required to display just one of them. This telescope is considered the most powerful sky mapping tool that can survey a wide area of the sky.

Charles Simoni, the former CEO of Microsoft, who traveled twice to the International Space Station (ISS) as a space tourist, has donated $20 million and Bill Gates has donated $10 million to the project to build the mirror. The unique open field of view of this telescope can survey a large part of the sky in a short time and take more than 800 panoramic images every night. This camera covers the entire sky twice a week, and with the high power and precision of this new telescope, asteroids with a width of 140 meters can be found in the asteroid belt at a high speed. One of the goals of this telescope is to examine and classify asteroids in the Kuiper belt, and the asteroid belt, and investigate the possibility of their collision with the Earth.

3. Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT)

10 powerful telescopes

Thirty-Meter Telescope is the third option among the other powerful telescopes. After a long debate between the native inhabitants of the island of Hawaii and the officials of the international organization, about the location of the construction of an extremely large telescope, the court finally decided to build a space telescope. The island of Hawaii is an extremely attractive area for astronomers, but the indiscriminate construction of various space telescopes has caused the anger and discomfort of the natives of this oceanic island. According to experts, this telescope will be the largest terrestrial telescope in the northern hemisphere. The construction of the 30-meter observatory, which will be one of the largest telescopes in the 2020s, is a costly project of 1.4 billion dollars, and the diameter of the primary mirror of this telescope is 30 meters.

The TMT telescope can image the sky in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths, and according to the officials of this project, the resolution of the 30-meter telescope will be 12 times that of the Hubble space telescope. However, the TMT and other giant ground-based telescopes cannot replace space telescopes such as Hubble or replace NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope. Space telescopes will find the targets, and ground-based telescopes will examine their details.

The TMT telescope will join the twin Keck telescopes between 2025 and 2030. Scientists from the University of California and the California Institute of Technology began designing this telescope, which eventually led to the design and development of a 30-meter telescope that consists of 492 mirror pieces and will be 9 times more powerful than the Keck telescope.

Due to the high power of gathering light and optimizing the observation conditions that exist in the high points of Maunakea, the TMT telescope enables scientists to carry out research that is impossible with today’s instruments. This telescope is designed to observe ultraviolet and mid-infrared rays (0.31 to 28 microns of wavelength). The TMT telescope will be at the highest altitude of any very large telescope and will receive government grants from countries such as China, Japan, India, and Canada.

The TMT telescope will be built with the cooperation of research teams from different countries of the world, including the International Organization of TMT Observatory led by the University of California, California Institute of Technology, and the countries of Japan, China, India, and Canada. The engineers of the international organization of this observatory have announced that if the plan to build this telescope in Hawaii is not operational, they will build TMT in the Canary Islands. Researchers hope to be able to obtain unique information about space by launching this ultra-advanced telescope.

Using its unique telescope and mirror, astronomers can somehow travel in time and study space for the past 13 billion years and obtain new information about the formation of the universe and the formation of the solar system and the Milky Way galaxy. Protesting the environmental damage to the island of Hawaii, native residents are planning to implement a plan to dismantle five ground telescopes that were previously built in valuable areas of the island and restore the biological cover of the area to its original state after the destruction of the telescopes.

4. Very Large Telescope (ELT)

10 powerful telescopes

ELT is another option among the rest of powerful telescopes. The location of this telescope was chosen due to the high percentage of cloudless nights and little light pollution, and the green light was given to its construction in 2014. Since then, the construction of this large telescope is expected to last nearly a decade, and the ELT telescope in 2024 is still in the process of completing this project. The LT telescope is built in the mountains of Chile because the high altitude and low humidity make it a good choice for telescope construction.

The Chilean mountains were selected in 2010, and in 2011 the Chilean government donated the land for the base while pledging to keep the 362-square-kilometer area free of buildings so as not to interfere with the telescope’s observations. According to Alfredo Moreno, Chile’s foreign minister, Chile has the clearest skies on Earth and hosts the most important centers for astronomical observations. The ELT will be the largest optical and infrared telescope in the world when it is launched.

The LT telescope will consist of a 39-meter main mirror, which itself is made of 798 individual hexagonal pieces. The size of each piece will be 1.4 meters and its thickness will be five centimeters. In total, all the pieces collect tens of millions of times more light than the human eye can collect. Initial plans for the LT telescope included a 42-meter segmental mirror and a 5.9-meter secondary mirror. In 2011, the European Southern Observatory decided to reduce the size to 39.3 meters for the primary mirror and 4.2 meters for the secondary mirror in order to reduce the cost and finish the preparation of the telescope faster. The main mirror of this giant telescope allows it to advance science in groundbreaking ways, observe exoplanets, introduce us to other galaxies, and improve our understanding of fundamental physics.

The ELT telescope observes giant planets around young stars and in star-forming regions that have evolved over time. ELT will answer our fundamental questions about the formation and evolution of planets and the conditions of planets in other stars, and will also be able to peer into the hearts of galaxies and count their stars. Currently, astronomers can only observe individual stars in our galaxy and their nearest neighbors, none of which are elliptical galaxies. The stellar population of a galaxy represents the entire star formation history of that galaxy, and deciphering this information provides detailed insight into the galaxy’s past.

The ELT telescope also goes back to the end of the “Dark Ages,” when galaxies formed after the Big Bang, to identify some of the early galaxies and their characteristics. According to ESO’s website, the Very Large Telescope is recognized worldwide as one of the highest priorities in astronomy.

The Very Large Telescope will greatly advance the knowledge of astrophysics, enabling detailed studies of topics such as planets around other stars, the first objects in the universe, supermassive black holes, the nature and distribution of dark matter, and dark energy that dominates the universe. The telescope will also be able to see more distant galaxies, surveying hundreds of massive galaxies in the farthest reaches, providing scientists with information about their ages, stellar masses, stellar radiation, metallicities, and more.

One of the most exciting aspects of the Very Large Telescope’s science program is the discovery and characterization of planets and protoplanetary systems around stars. The LT telescope should be able to detect Earth-like masses and also directly image larger planets and determine the properties of their atmospheres. This telescope will make giant planets visible around young stars and in star-forming regions, they will follow their evolution over time. As mentioned, ELT will be located in Cerro Amazonis mountain in Chile; Because of its high altitude and low humidity, it is a suitable place for a telescope.

5. Keck telescope

10 powerful telescopes

Keck is the fifthe option in the list of powerful telescopes. The Keck telescope is located at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii, USA, and its construction was completed in 1993. Today, the Keck Observatory is supported by public funding and philanthropic donations. The collection is administered by the California Society for Research in Astrophysics, and its board of directors includes representatives from the California Institute of Technology and the University of California, with ties from NASA and the Keck Foundation.

Keck 1 and Keck 2 telescopes were opened in 1993 and 1996, respectively, and both telescopes have a diameter of 10 meters. The mirror of each of the telescopes consists of connecting 36 hexagonal optical sections that work together as a large 10-meter mirror. The University of California and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began to design these two telescopes in 1977, but it was Howard B. Keck who donated the $70 million needed for construction and development to the owners of the project and thus made his name. also immortalized in the history of space science.

Construction of Coke 1 began in 1985, but the project’s popularity quickly grew and more funding was received, eventually allowing the construction of Coke 2. The University of California, Caltech, and NASA are working together to accept research proposals and allocate time to use the telescope. The California Astronomical Research Society also operates this observatory. The location of Keck telescope is one of the best observation sites in the world.

The stable air that reaches the 4,200-meter peak of Manakia after traveling thousands of kilometers over the ocean creates a clear sky and excellent visibility in this observation site. Keck telescopes also use an adaptive optics system that eliminates the destructive effect of the atmosphere on astronomical images. The massive Keck mirrors that gather and focus light, like those in the SALT telescope, are a series of smaller mirrors that form a perfect curve.

Keck telescopes have internal cooling systems that prevent the mirrors from bending due to thermal effects, but one of the most important parts of this system is a small mirror that happens to be bent. Even atop Manakea, the Keck telescopes have to deal with turbulence from the Earth’s gaseous atmosphere, which is the greatest enemy of ground-based telescopes. In each of these telescopes, there is a 15 cm mirror that changes its shape 670 times per second to neutralize the effect of the Earth’s atmosphere on the light.

The compensation system for atmospheric turbulence is called the adaptive optics system. Keck telescopes are reflecting telescopes, each of which has a diameter of about 10 meters, and the type of installation of these telescopes is side-height type, which gives the telescope the necessary balance. Large computers with advanced analysis have precisely determined that the maximum strength and stiffness required to use the least amount of steel is about 270 tons for each telescope. This work is very important not only for economic reasons but also to prevent telescopes from deforming because a large telescope must resist deformation caused by gravity while following the path of a star in the night sky.

The dome type of both Keck telescopes is spherical and the volume of each dome is more than 700,000 cubic feet. An internal cooler protects the insulated dome from temperature changes that could deform mirrors or steel, and a giant air conditioner runs continuously to keep the dome temperature at or below zero.

6. Large Magellan Telescope (GMT)

10 powerful telescopes

GMT is the sixth option in the list of powerful telescopes. The next generation of ground-based telescopes is slowly arriving, and in the mid-2020s several giant telescopes are set to gaze into the sky for the first time. The Magellan telescope is one of these telescopes that is being prepared for its location in Chile. The Magellan telescope will consist of seven main mirrors, which together will form a mirror with a diameter of 24.5 meters. The diameter of the mirror of the largest current telescope is about ten meters, and so far only one mirror of this telescope has been fully prepared.

The mirrors of the Magellan telescope are made at the University of Arizona, and there is no other way to transport the mirrors to Chile except by ship. The Magellan telescope will help scientists in various fields of astronomy; From examining the atmospheres of nearby exoplanets and searching for signs of life in them to examining how the first galaxies formed and collecting information that may help solve the mystery of dark matter and dark energy.

Magellan telescope will probably start its work in 2028 with four or five mirrors. According to the officials of the project, with the preparation of four or five mirrors, headquarters, a dome, and a number of scientific instruments the Magellan Observatory will begin to operate. This work will make the necessary engineering studies and experiments to be done before the telescope starts its main work. Finally, the telescope will probably observe the sky in 2028 with all its power.

According to one of the officials of Magellan Construction, the structure of this telescope consists of a thousand tons of steel, which is located inside a rotating chamber with a height of 22 meters and a width of 56 meters. Also, to provide better visibility, Magellan is equipped with mirrors that weigh nearly 20 tons each. Magellan’s mirrors collect more light than any other telescope ever built. According to the official Large Magellan Telescope website, this advanced view of the cosmos could play a key role in answering some of the most important questions in modern astronomy.

Some of the most important questions include how galaxies formed, the nature of dark matter, and dark energy, and how stars formed after the Big Bang. Perhaps this telescope will help astronomers answer the questions that come to mind when looking across the sky: Are we alone in this universe? How big is the universe?

7. Infrared Open Field Mapping Telescope (WFIRST)

10 powerful telescopes

WFIRST is the seventh option in the list of powerful telescopes. The WFIRST telescope has successfully passed initial checks, meaning the telescope has been approved for performance, planning, and budget. This telescope was first introduced in 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine by astronomers as a priority. However, the progress of its project was very slow due to the skyrocketing costs of the James Webb Space Telescope, although this delay had a good side.

In 2012, the US National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) gave NASA a pair of 2.4m mirrors built for spy satellites. These mirrors were larger than previously designed for WFirst, but design studies showed that a new mirror would not need to be cut and a larger observatory could be built at no additional cost. The size of the primary mirror of this telescope is equal to that of Hubble, but its imaging power is 100 times higher than that of Hubble. Like the Spitzer and James Webb space telescopes, this telescope will operate in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which is invisible to the human eye. The Earth’s atmosphere also absorbs this light, and telescopes on the ground cannot see this part of the spectrum. Light from this mirror is transmitted to the spacecraft’s instruments, one of which is a large camera that produces images with an open field of view. This camera allows astronomers to map the dark matter in the universe.

Dark matter is only detectable through the gravitational effects it exerts on the observable matter of the universe. This camera will also help astronomers to study dark energy. This camera can be used to discover new exoplanets because it can sense smaller and more distant planets and finally we will know if our solar system is common or rare in the galaxy.

Another WFIRST instrument is Corona, which will directly observe the planet orbiting the star by blocking the light from the star. The results of this coronation have been very useful for observing and determining the characteristics of exoplanets, and it will carefully examine the planets that orbit their mother star at a distance of 3 to 10 times the Earth from the Sun.

The Wfirst telescope will search for these distant worlds with a method called gravitational micro convergence; In this method, the telescope examines the bending or magnification of the light of a distant star. This bending or magnification is the result of the gravitational influence of an exoplanet orbiting between the central star and the observing telescope. According to experts at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), discovering the nature of dark energy is one of the main reasons for building the WFirst telescope.

With a better understanding of dark energy, mankind will have a better understanding of the past and future developments of the world. The observatory was originally designed to study dark energy, but new optics allow the telescope to image exoplanets directly. Of course, the telescope does this by using a chronograph, a mask that blocks the star’s light so that the planets around it can be seen. In addition, due to its wide field of view (100 times wider than Hubble), the telescope can measure the shape, location, and distance of millions of galaxies to gain a better understanding of matter and dark energy. Until recently, NASA officials did not expect the WFirst project to start so soon.

Later, the US Congress accelerated the progress of the project by allocating more funds to NASA. In the past years, Congress approved the allocation of 90 million dollars to WFirst, and it was decided that this project will go ahead at a high speed in early 2016. On February 17, NASA’s program management presented a plan to launch the observatory in mid-2020. The next step is to present an official plan and estimate the cost of World First, which seems to reach more than two billion dollars for this program.

8. Large Binocular Telescope (LBT)

10 powerful telescopes

LBT is the eighth option in the list of powerful telescopes. Unlike most telescopes today, which contain a mirror to collect light, the Large Binocular Telescope consists of two 8.4-meter mirrors that help astronomers and other researchers observe the night sky from the Mount Graham Observatory in Arizona, USA. Unfortunately, the location of this telescope has been hotly debated and the San Carlos Apache tribe has strongly objected to its use on Mount Graham.

In fact, the natives of the region respect the mountains as a sacred place, and this issue had caused disputes. Of course, the San Carlos Apache tribe was not the only ones who objected to the construction of the LBT telescope, environmentalists were also concerned about the destruction of the native habitat of the Mount Graham red squirrel. It even got to the point where the United States Congress approved a plan that allowed the destruction of this telescope. The LBT telescope was the result of a joint effort between the Italian National Astronomical Institute, the University of Arizona, the University of Notre Dame, the University of Missouri, the University of Virginia, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Germany, and others.

The LBT telescope has a binocular telescope that will allow astronomers to explore the universe in greater detail and at greater depths. The imaging power of the LBT telescope is about 10 times better and clearer than the images sent from the Hubble Space Telescope. About 120 million US dollars were spent to build the LBT telescope, and its implementation took about 20 years due to special problems in the design of optical parts and its construction. The University of Arizona manages this telescope.

Read More: What would happen if the Ryugu asteroid hits the Earth?

9. Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)

10 powerful telescopes

ALMA is the ninth option in the list of powerful telescopes. ALMA’s telescope array studies the universe at specific radio wavelengths and can probe many things that are difficult to see at visible wavelengths. Among these things, we can mention the planetary systems that are being created. ALMA also has the ability to observe some of the most distant and oldest galaxies in the universe. ALMA telescope can reveal celestial objects with high quality by using several receiving dishes. The telescope has high resolution at radio wavelengths, a capability that made the Hubble Space Telescope famous in the past.

According to ALMA’s website, each 50 antenna of the ALMA telescope array has a radius of 12 meters. The ALMA telescope has another compact array, which includes four antennas with a radius of 12 meters and 12 antennas with a radius of seven meters. ALMA was built in partnership with the European Southern Observatory, the US National Radio Astronomical Observatory, and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The location of the ALMA telescope helps a lot to make observations; Some of its highest receivers are located at an altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level.

Astronomers are working at an altitude of 2,900 meters and if they are going to stay at this altitude for a while, they receive supplemental oxygen. Alma’s 66 antennas can be placed in many different configurations, side by side or far apart. Each telescope receives data individually and then sends it to a supercomputer that analyzes the data to identify the signal. This technology allows astronomers to investigate three fundamental questions: the nature of the first stars and galaxies in the universe, how planets and stars came together, and the chemical properties of the gas and dust clouds that eventually collapse to form planets and stars.

ALMA is a productive scientific observatory that has produced many important results. The first image from ALMA shows a composite view of the antenna collision galaxies, which are approximately 75 million light-years away from Earth. In 2014, ALMA examined the remnants of a supernova (1987A) and saw dust ejected from its region. In 2016, this telescope managed to measure the mass of a giant galaxy with the highest accuracy. This black hole, located in the center of the galaxy “NGC 1332”, has a mass equal to 66 million times the mass of the Sun. The astronomy team made this discovery by measuring the speed of rotation of the material that was swirling around this black hole.

10. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

10 powerful telescopes

James Webb space telescope is the last option in the list of powerful telescopes. The development and construction of the JWST space telescope have faced delays since the project began in 1996, but a recent milestone has brought us closer to the final stage; This magnificent device is now fully assembled for the first time. Experts have announced that the James Webb space telescope is on the verge of final completion and sending into space.

This space telescope, the construction of which was one of the most challenging space projects, has been able to show good resistance to severe temperature fluctuations and tolerate the vacuum in space, and scientists hope that this telescope will be launched into space in 2021 as planned.

In the construction of the James Webb telescope, the most advanced technologies are used and it has mirrors connected to each other, which finally form a large mirror. Due to the special appearance of this telescope, placing it in a suitable space rocket that can carry the telescope is one of the challenges facing the scientists, that is why they considered a design for the telescope that changes in appearance in space, and in Its finally got its final shape. The James Webb telescope will observe the universe at slightly different and longer wavelengths; From visible to infrared wavelengths. Hubble’s capabilities range from the infrared to the infrared, so James Webb can observe farther distances to see objects at redshift (redshift), such as galaxies in the early universe, that were difficult for the Hubble telescope. Considering the importance of the James Webb space telescope from a scientific point of view, the efforts and expenses made can be considered quite valuable.

The James Webb Space Telescope will observe the sky at infrared wavelengths, giving astronomers the opportunity to answer some of the biggest questions in astronomy. The James Webb Space Telescope will be located 1.5 million kilometers from Earth.

Investigating the atmosphere of exoplanets and searching for signs of life in them and studying the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the universe are the main goals of the James Webb Space Telescope mission; A telescope that can make a big leap in astronomy and expand the boundaries of human knowledge. The team behind the James Webb telescope has announced that additional tests are still needed to ensure the telescope is working properly.

One of these tests involves exposing the telescope to extreme motion and shaking and simulating space in terms of cosmic rays so that scientists can ensure that the telescope is not damaged during launch. The James Webb Space Telescope testing process is underway in a laboratory in Houston. In this laboratory, the telescope will be subjected to vacuum simulation tests and exposure to heat and shock during launch. After the success of all the tests, the James Webb Space Telescope will be transferred to “Guiana” in France for launch, and from there it will be sent into space using the Ariane 5 rocket.

James Webb is on a mission at very cold operating temperatures to observe infrared wavelengths, so shielding and shielding the telescope’s equipment is critical, as thermal infrared radiation can interfere with the signal, hence the complex five-layer solar shield. , is used. The next step for the team is to fully deploy the solar shield. This sector faced problems in 2017; Several tears were observed in the aluminum and silicon-coated polyamide sheets, which were related to the work error.

The sun shield has been tested separately since 2017, just like all other components. Now the engineers’ goal is to see if the components perform as expected on the assembled telescope. According to web program manager Gregory Robinson, it’s an amazing time to see the results of the work; Web components are finally connected and assembled for the first time, the engineering team has taken a big step, and soon we can see new views of our amazing world.


What are the obstacles on the way for humans to reach Mars?





Sending the first humans to Mars has not only been a dream for countless generations, but also dates back to the early modern era. Also, one of the topics of the space age is the planning of such missions, and it is considered an integral part of the current vision for the future of space exploration, but this long-standing dream has not yet been realized.

What are the obstacles on the way for humans to reach Mars?

In the last 20 years, the public has heard claims that NASA will send the first humans to Mars by the early 2030s. First the moon, then to Mars! This is the plan NASA seemed to be sticking to for a while.

According to IA, in recent years, other players, including the China National Space Agency (CNSA) and Elon Musk’s commercial space giant, SpaceX, have joined the “race for Mars“. According to several sources, China, like NASA, plans to build infrastructure on the moon that will help the country send its first astronauts to Mars as early as 2033.

SpaceX’s plans are even more ambitious, with missions planned for the late 2020s and plans to build a self-sufficient city on Mars before the end of the decade. Unfortunately, many naysayers have said that reaching Mars by 2033 or sooner is unrealistic.

There have also been numerous delays along the way, showing how the entire Moon-to-Mars mission could fall behind its planned timeline.

2040 may be a more likely year for a manned mission to the surface of Mars, according to statements issued last summer by Deputy Administrator Jim Reuter. While delays are common in spaceflight, a seven-year delay seems significant and raises questions.

For example, why does such a mission take so long? And what would it take to send the first humans to Mars?

Answering these questions requires recalling memories.

The journey begins

Efforts to carry out missions to Mars began in 2004 with the announcement of a project called Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) by NASA. This vision came in response to the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, the state of human spaceflight at NASA, and a desire to rekindle public interest in space exploration.


The project’s specific goals included completing the International Space Station (ISS), retiring the Space Shuttle by 2010, and creating a new fleet of heavy launch vehicles that would enable manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

The plan included a series of robotic missions to the Moon to prepare and support future human exploration activities that began in 2008.

The plan also supports the use of lunar exploration, science, and resources to develop the technologies and systems necessary to support sustainable human space exploration to Mars and other destinations.

Meanwhile, NASA will resume sending robotic missions to Mars to search for evidence of life and prepare for the eventual arrival of manned missions. This led to the formation of NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover (MER) program, which consisted of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers and the Curiosity and Perseverance rovers.

Following this, the NASA Authorization Act of 2005 officially launched the Constellation Program.

The program called for a new group of launch vehicles, including a crew launch vehicle (CLV) and a cargo launch vehicle (CaLV), which led to the design of the Ares I and Ares V rockets.

Other vehicles included the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM).

NASA planned to use Eriz 1 and 5 back-to-back to send astronauts to the Moon and Mars. The crew was to be launched using a two-stage Ariz-1 rocket capable of delivering 56,000 pounds (25,400 kg) to low Earth orbit (LEO). The payload was sent separately on Ariz 5, which was capable of sending 88,000 kg into low Earth orbit. This program came to fruition in 2009 when NASA completed the Launch Stop System (LAS) and the first stage of the Ariz 1 rocket. The second one was successfully tested on October 28 of the same year.

Unfortunately, the Constellation program was canceled in 2010 due to the global financial crisis known as the “Great Recession” that began in 2007-2008. Almost a year later, the Obama administration signed off on the Mission to Mars.

Details and goals of the program were published in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 and the US National Space Policy of the same year. NASA’s priorities in this matter are summarized as follows:

Our next step is deep space, where NASA will send a robotic mission to capture and guide an asteroid into lunar orbit. Astronauts aboard the Orion spacecraft will explore the asteroid in the 2020s and return to Earth with samples. This experience in human spaceflight beyond low-Earth orbit will help NASA test new systems and capabilities, such as solar electric propulsion.

Beginning in fiscal year 2018, NASA’s powerful Space Launch System rocket will enable these missions to test new capabilities. Human missions to Mars will rely on Orion, an evolved version of the Space Launch System rocket that will be the most powerful launcher ever to fly.

In many ways, “Journey to Mars” picked up where the Constellation program left off.

While the Ariz 1 rocket and lunar lander were discarded, the Ariz 5 launcher and crewed exploration spacecraft were retained and became the basis for the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Orion spacecraft.

Timelines were also updated, with missions to Mars planned for the early 2030s.

The proposed journey will include three phases and 32 launches of the Space Launch System between 2018 and 2030. These missions send all the necessary components to space between the Earth and the Moon and then to space near Mars before landing the crew on the surface of Mars.

Phase one, called the Earth-based phase, will focus on further long-term studies on the International Space Station until 2024 and testing the Space Launch System and Orion spacecraft. This included Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2018, the first flight of the Space Launch System, and the second unmanned test flight of Orion.

As with the Constellation program, NASA also planned to launch an Asteroid Redirection Mission (ARM) in 2020, in which a robotic spacecraft would rendezvous with a near-Earth asteroid and pull it into lunar orbit.

Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2) will include a manned flyby of the Moon and asteroid ARM between 2021 and 2023. At this point, NASA moves to Phase Two, shifting the focus from Earth to the space between the Earth and the Moon. The multiple launches of the space launch system will bring the important components of the mission to the lunar surface and orbit at this stage.

Since 2012, these elements have included the lunar gateway known as the Deep Space Habitat, an orbiting space station consisting of a Power and Propulsion Element (PPE), a Habitat and Logistics Base (HALO), a refueling supply system, and infrastructure. and has a communication module (ESPRIT), an international habitation module (I-Hab), and a reusable lunar lander.

Other elements include the Artemis Base Camp, which consists of a lunar base surface habitat, a habitable mobile platform, a Lunar Ground Vehicle (LTV), and a Deep Space Vehicle (DST). The spacecraft will integrate with Orion to transport a crew of up to four to Mars and other deep space destinations.

In the early 2030s, phase three (ground-independent) will begin, which will include essential elements delivered to Mars by a deep space vehicle. This second space station will be equipped with a reusable Mars lander that will allow the crew to perform scientific operations on the surface and then return to orbit.

A road map is formed

In 2017, NASA’s long-term vision to return astronauts to the Moon and Mars began. According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s 2017 Transfer Authorization Act, NASA’s priorities for the Moon to Mars program were determined.

These priorities included continued development of the Space Launch System, Orion, the Lunar Gateway, and other critical mission elements. The bill also directed NASA to scrap the asteroid reorientation mission in favor of something more cost-effective. Other priorities included expanding the US commitment to the ISS and restoring domestic launch capability through the Commercial Orbital Transportation Service (COTS) and the Commercial Crew Program (CCP).

According to their timeline, the construction of the Moongate space station will be completed by 2028. The first manned missions to Mars will be launched from the Moon Gate in 2033. The crew will spend up to a year conducting science operationsthen make their return trip to Earth.


The spacecraft and crew will then spend 6 to 9 months en route, returning to the lunar gateway and landing on Earth with the Orion capsule. Subsequent missions are carried out once every 26 months. These missions will lead to the establishment of a long-term habitat on Mars, allowing for return visits. It could also deliver the first Mars sample to Earth, similar to how the Apollo astronauts returned moon rocks for analysis.

Read more: Can humans endure the psychological torment of living on Mars? 

However, by 2019, NASA was forced to reevaluate its priorities and long-term goals as the Trump administration inaugurated a new program.

As you can see, NASA’s long-term vision for the first manned missions to Mars has evolved since its inception 20 years ago, and even in its early stages, there were doubts that the timelines and commitments were realistic. With all these challenges, the most important pressure factors had not yet arrived. You can read these factors in the second part of this report.

Continue Reading


History of the world; From the Big Bang to the creation of the planet Earth




History of the world
The universe started from a singularity and continues to expand until today, 13.8 billion years old. in this article we’re going to examine the history of the world.

History of the world; From the Big Bang to the creation of the planet Earth

Since its launch in 2021, the James Webb Space Telescope has sent us spectacular images of the universe’s deep field. This telescope revealed fine details like a galaxy with an age of 13.1 billion. Such distant objects may not be visually impressive, appearing as fuzzy red blobs in images, but they can provide a fascinating glimpse into the universe’s infancy.

Space and time are intertwined. Light travels at a constant speed, so the images captured by telescopes like James Webb’s are actually images of the universe from millions or even billions of years ago. The higher the sensitivity and accuracy of a telescope, the more distant objects it can observe and thus display more distant times. As the most powerful telescope ever launched, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is extremely sensitive. This telescope can theoretically see objects within 100 million years since the formation of the universe.

Table of Contents
  • The first moments
  • Initial plasma
  • The world becomes transparent
  • Cosmic Dark Age
  • The first habitable age
  • The first lights in the dark
  • Blooming cosmos with stars
  • Star seeds
  • The oldest known star
  • The oldest known planet
  • The formation of galaxies
  • Large-scale structures of the universe
  • Collision of galaxies
  • Massive black holes
  • The formation of the Milky Way disc
  • Overcoming dark energy
  • The birth of the sun
  • The formation of the earth
  • The first forms of life
  • Extraterrestrial life and alien civilizations

There are still many unknowns about the history of the universe, but telescopes like Webb’s can unravel these mysteries and reveal unprecedented detail.

History of the world

The first moments

The first moments of the worldThe universe was born about 13.8 billion years ago from the Big Bang.

The entire universe was created from an ancient and vast explosion that continues to this day. This spark , called the Big Bang, happened nearly 13.8 billion years ago. The Big Bang is the best hypothesis ever proposed for the existence of the universe. Although there is still no way to directly observe the Big Bang, this theory is well established and has been confirmed by many scientists over the past few decades.

In the first moments of the universe, a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, everything was inside a singularity, which is an infinitesimally small point of space with a very strange and high density that encompasses everything. In a few moments after the birth of the universe, the world was in an era known as Planck’s age. In this era, the whole world was so small that space and time had no meaning. Then, in less than a second, the universe entered a phase known as cosmic inflation, and for a moment, it expanded greatly. The infant universe consisted of a hot soup of subatomic particles and radiation, preventing any kind of structure from forming.

Initial plasma

The beginning plasma of the worldThe universe was initially filled with turbid, hot plasma.

The early universe was a highly viscous place filled with turbid plasma for several thousand years. This murky plasma was a mass of subatomic particles that were too hot to contract into atoms. The lack of transparency of the early world makes it impossible to see the events of that time; However, the early chapters of the universe’s history are of interest to many cosmologists because they represent a stage for the existence of everything.

Scientists believe that the early universe was filled with equal amounts of matter and antimatter, which eventually annihilated each other, leaving only a small amount of matter in the present universe. The question of why one of them was more remains a mystery and physicists are still trying to answer this question.

Eventually, the universe cooled and atoms and then strange molecules began to form. The first molecule that was formed in the world was made of only two elements, hydrogen and helium. These molecules finally made a compound called helium hydride. This chemical reaction actually created a helium compound that looks like it shouldn’t exist.

The world becomes transparent

Transparency map of the universeThe world became transparent after 300 thousand years.

On its 300,000 birthday, the world entered an era known as the age of recombination. It was during this period that atoms began to form, although the word “recombination” is a bit of a misnomer because it was during this period that everything was combined together for the first time. As the universe cooled enough, matter began to form atoms, and the universe became transparent for the first time. This transparency allowed the light left over from the Big Bang to spread throughout the universe.

The ancient Big Bang radiation marks the edge of the visible universe and can still be observed. As the universe continues to expand, the light in it is stretched, which astronomers witness in the form of the redshift phenomenon. The older the light of an object, the more it is stretched and moves to the red side of the spectrum like infrared and finally to longer wavelengths.

The initial light of the birth of the world is the most stretched light and the human eye cannot observe it. This light can be seen in all directions today as the cosmic background radiation (CMB). As seen in the image above, some speckled areas show slight fluctuations left over from cosmic inflation. These faint background rays are the last reflections of the birth of the universe.

Cosmic Dark Age

darkness of the universeThe world had no stars in the dark ages.

With the universe filled with atoms, light was finally able to move freely in open space. However, there was nothing in the universe capable of producing light. In fact, this age of the world is known as the age of cosmic darkness. In this period, the stars were not yet born and the space was full of silence and infinite darkness. The universe was in its infancy and there was nothing but dark matter with neutral helium and hydrogen, But it was in this darkness that the materials of the world gradually joined each other.

Finally, with the formation of the first stars, the world entered an era known as the Bazion, and the first stars shone. They emitted intense ultraviolet light in the dark and eventually removed the electrons from the new atoms; But even though the stars were shining for the first time in the universe, their light could not travel very far. Because the entire space was filled with a fog of hydrogen gas and blocked the light of the first stars. After some time, the starlight traveled further distances and reached us today.

The first habitable age

Early habitable ageAccording to calculations, the first habitable age started in 10-17 million years of the world.

According to human earth standards, any place with liquid water can be classified as habitable. As the early Earth cooled, the surprising truth was revealed that the entire universe was once at a habitable temperature. According to an article published in the International Journal of Astrophysics, this period is called the early habitable age. Based on this hypothesis, the question arises as to what exactly happened in a world where life theoretically existed everywhere. According to calculations, this cosmic age corresponds to the time when the universe was still 10 to 17 million years old.

Of course, scientists have differences in this hypothesis. According to an article in Nature that argues against this idea, life requires a hot-to-cold energy flow and cannot exist in a uniformly warm universe. Furthermore, at this early age it is not known whether the universe had stars or planets, or even oxygen to produce water. However, this hypothesis cannot be completely rejected. The first planets were probably formed in the first few billion years of the universe; So the hypothesis of an early habitable age is little more than a fascinating thought experiment.

History of the world

The first lights in the dark

The first lights of the worldThe first stars of the universe were composed of light elements.

The first stars of the universe were formed from the virgin material left over from the Big Bang and were the cause of the formation of the first heavy elements of the universe. These stars, which lacked elements heavier than helium, are known as population 3 stars (confusingly named stellar populations in the wrong order). Since these stars were responsible for the formation of the heavy elements of the universe, they must have existed at some point in history. These objects are expected to have formed between 100 million and 250 million years after the Big Bang.

According to the models, Population 3 stars were very massive and short-lived by today’s stellar standards. The lifetime of some of these stars reached only 2 million years, which is a long time from the human point of view; But on a stellar scale, it’s like a blink of an eye. When these stars ended their lives, they likely perished in unstable binary supernova explosions, the most violent type of stellar explosion in the universe. Although no stars belonging to this group have been observed so far, perhaps this trend will change with powerful instruments such as the James Webb Space Telescope.

Blooming cosmos with stars

The formation of starsSome stars of the Milky Way date back to 11 to 13 billion years ago.

We live in a season of the world known as the age of star formation. This age is the beginning of the stars shining in the dark and is actually the modern age of the world, in which the cosmic matter turns into stars, planets and galaxies. According to scientists, the era of star formation began approximately one million years after the Big Bang and will continue until the universe is 100 trillion years old. Until the very distant future, the birth, life and death of stars in the universe and the fusion of hydrogen into heavier elements will continue until hydrogen disappears completely.

Although stars are actively forming in the universe, there is a wide range from newly born stars to very old stars. Stars can live for billions of years. Red dwarfs, the smallest and most populous stars in the universe, live so long that their deaths have not been recorded until now because the universe is not old enough. Astronomers have also observed very old stars in the universe, some of which date back to the earliest days of the Milky Way, between 11 and 13 billion years ago. Stars like this have been observed for most of the history of the universe.

Star seeds

A star nebulaNebulae are breeding grounds for the formation of new stars

By weight, most of Earth is made up of chemical elements heavier than helium, which are made in the cores of stars. This process is known as nucleation. During the lifetime of a star, nuclear reactions combine light elements and produce heavier elements. In this way, elements such as carbon, oxygen, silicon, sulfur and iron are formed in the hearts of stars. When stars run out of fuel, they throw the elements they made back into the universe.

Stars fill the galaxy with elements by their birth and death over billions of years. Carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are among the most abundant elements made by smaller stars. As these stars die, their outer layers form a stellar nebula. From this example, we can refer to the Southern Ring Nebula, whose image was published by the James Webb telescope.

The life of the biggest stars also ends in a supernova explosion. These explosions not only fill galaxies with heavy elements such as iron, but their shock waves can be the basis for the birth of new stars.

History of the world

The oldest star in the worldThe oldest star in the universe was formed only 100 million years after the Big Bang

The hunt for the oldest stars in the universe is one of the fascinating fields of astronomy that can help scientists understand the early days of the universe. The oldest star ever discovered is HD 140283. The star is so old that the first estimates of its age are older than the universe itself. However, this effect is an illusion caused by the uncertainty in the estimates. Therefore, measuring the age of a star is not an easy task.

According to another research in the Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the age of HD 140283 was estimated to be almost the same as the age of the universe, i.e. 13.7 billion years. In other words, this star was probably born a hundred million years after the Big Bang, and thus it is one of the first generation of stars that were born in the world. This star is metal-poor, or in other words, has a small number of chemical elements heavier than helium, and thus it is placed in the category of population 2 stars. Such stars are among the oldest objects that have ever shone in the universe. Based on the ratio of chemical elements, these stars are survivors of early stars from the early days of the universe.

The oldest known planet

The oldest planet in the worldThe oldest planet in the world is nearly 12.7 billion years old.

No one knows exactly when the first planets formed, but they seem to be able to outlive stars. The oldest known planet orbits two dead stars, one of which is a pulsar and the other a white dwarf. Both stars are stellar wrecks that have run out of fuel and have released much of their chemical material into their galaxy. The mentioned pulsar is called PSR B1620 and the planet located in its orbit is known by the nickname Methuselah. This planet, which is a kind of gas giant, is not unlike the planet Jupiter.

According to estimates, the lifespan of Methuselah reaches 12.7 billion years, but this age is not exact. There is no good way to estimate the age of planets, so this estimate is based on other stars in the Methuselah cluster. Globular clusters, such as the Methuselah host cluster, are full of stars that formed at the same time.

According to the research of Science magazine, the existence of the ancient planet Methuselah offers interesting hints about the time of formation of the oldest planets. If the estimates are correct and Methuselah is really 12.7 billion years old, we can say that the planets were formed earlier than we think. In other words, Methuselah may not be the only ancient planet in our galaxy.

The formation of galaxies

The formation of galaxiesGalaxies usually come together in several clusters

When the universe was only 200 million years old, the first galaxies were formed. The discovery initially surprised astronomers because they thought galaxies formed much later. Early galaxies were not similar to today’s massive galaxies. Rather, they were shapeless clouds of irregular gas and dust. These galaxies, accompanied by a wave of star birth, eventually became the massive galaxies that fill the universe today. It seems that the Milky Way galaxy was formed approximately 13.6 billion years ago. Our galaxy was then an unrecognizable mass of stars, not unlike the present spiral.

The oldest galaxy ever discovered was formed 300 million years after the Big Bang. This galaxy is called HD1 and the James Webb telescope played an important role in determining its age. HD1, if confirmed, would be the oldest galaxy ever seen by astronomers and could offer fascinating insights into the formation of the universe’s first galaxies. The formation of galaxies is still a mysterious research field full of unanswered questions. Helping to solve these questions will be one of the main goals of the James Webb telescope.

Large-scale structures of the universe

The large-scale structure of the universeGalaxies are held together by gravity and form large-scale cosmic structures

Much of the world seems to be an empty void, But the universe has complex structures on very large scales. The universe is covered with an array of dark matter filaments that form a web-like structure. This network of dark matter, called large-scale structure, shapes the universe and causes galaxies to fall into regular patterns. The gravity of the large-scale structure causes both dark and visible matter to lie next to each other. By examining this structure, we can find signs of the youth of the world.

Deep background images, such as the James Webb Telescope image, can reveal how galaxies fit together. These structures are actually the largest visible structures or galaxy strings in the universe, held together by gravity. In addition, the structures are not random but have an order that still fascinates researchers. Galaxies and large galaxy clusters appear to be evenly spaced in the galactic strings, resembling a pearl necklace. There are still many uncertainties about large-scale structures.

Collision of galaxies

Collision of galaxiesSome galaxies collide and form larger galaxies.

Gravity pulls everything in the universe together, and the heavier the mass, the greater this attraction. Galaxies are among the heaviest objects in the universe, whose formation and evolution are still a matter of discussion and their evolution is strongly influenced by their interaction with each other.

Galaxies usually tend to form groups or clusters that come together due to gravity and start interacting when they are close to each other. The gravitational pull of galaxies leads to the creation of lethal forces. In the most dramatic examples, galaxies can collide and their merger may take billions of years.

Galactic collisions can lead to the formation of new stars; Because the change of gravitational forces causes disturbances on huge scales. Some stars are ejected into the dark intergalactic space, while others are trapped by the gravity of supermassive black holes at the center of colliding galaxies. As the galaxies merge, their spiral arms are eventually destroyed, and the two galaxies eventually become one massive elliptical galaxy. In this way, some of the largest galaxies in the universe are formed. Some galaxies also grow by absorbing smaller galaxies. According to some evidence, the Milky Way has experienced such a collision in the past, and its signs can be seen in the form of remnants of galaxies that it has absorbed in the past.

History of the world

Massive black holes

QuasarQuasars are caused by the feeding of the black hole from the surrounding matter.

The largest galaxies, such as the Milky Way, have a supermassive black hole at their center; Although how these black holes formed is still a mystery, it is clear that they are very old. The European Space Agency has released an image of an ancient galaxy known as UDFj-39546284, which appears to be a small red dot in the image. This spot is actually the oldest quasar observed by astronomers and dates back to 380 million years after the Big Bang.

Quasars are among the brightest objects in the world, which are created by the feeding of the supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy from the surrounding material. The big question here is how these black holes have reached these dimensions at a high speed. According to a study published in the journal Nature, supermassive black holes appear to have formed suddenly from turbulent cold gas in the early universe. In the right conditions, black holes were formed with great intensity and suddenly as a result of the collapse of streams of initial materials grew to dimensions exceeding 40,000 times the mass of the Sun.

The formation of the Milky Way disc

milky way discIn the first 3 billion years of its existence, the Milky Way had no spiral arm.

Today, the Milky Way is a spiral galaxy, but it hasn’t always been this way. The spiral galaxy formed in a galactic disk, but the Milky Way disk formed about ten billion years ago. This means that our galaxy spent its first three billion years without a disk and therefore had no spiral arm.

The disk of a spiral galaxy contains a large part of the material of that galaxy. In such galaxies, star birth often occurs in spiral arms, as stars are formed from vast clouds of gas and dust slowly swirling around the galactic core. How and why spiral arms and disks are formed is still not completely clear, although this phenomenon has been observed frequently in the sky.

Some galactic disks appear to be very old. The oldest galactic disk ever seen is the Wolf disk. This old spiral galaxy dates back to when the universe was only 1.5 billion years old. Of course, due to the distance of this galaxy, we have no information about its new appearance.

Overcoming dark energy

Dark energyMysterious dark energy is responsible for accelerating the expansion of the universe.

One of the milestones in world history can be related to dark energy; The mysterious force that controls the expansion of the universe. No one knows exactly what dark energy is, although astronomers can measure its effects. Until a long time ago, the universe was in a tug-of-war between the force of gravity and the repulsive force of dark energy. At some point around 5-6 billion years ago, dark energy won the race. As the universe continued to expand, dark energy overcame gravity and accelerated the expansion of the universe.

The effect of dark energy on the future of the universe is still unclear. Without knowing more about dark energy or how it works, there’s no way to know. Although dark energy appears to make up a large part of the universe, its specifics are still shrouded in mystery. According to a possibility, this energy can be one of the inherent characteristics of space itself.

The birth of the sun

The birth of the sunThe sun was formed about 4.6 billion years ago from a cloud of gas and dust.

The sun is almost a third of the entire universe. This star was formed about 4.6 billion years ago. With the formation of the sun, the clouds of gas and dust around it formed planets such as Earth and many moons of the solar system.

The sun is one of the population’s 1 stars. Such stars are among the newest stars in the universe and are rich in heavy elements, examples of which can be found on Earth. According to a hypothesis, the shock wave resulting from a supernova was the cause of the formation of the solar system from vast dust clouds. The traces of this supernova exist in the form of radioactive isotopes in the entire solar system; So a star died so we could live.

The formation of the earth

The formation of the earthEarth was formed from the joining of asteroids.

According to scientists, the story of the formation of the earth goes back to 4.6 billion years ago. Our planet formed in a disk-like cloud of gas and dust around the primordial Sun. Inside this disk, gas and dust particles of different sizes were rotating at different speeds in the orbit of the sun and in this way, they collided and stuck to each other. Finally, the tiny particles turned into huge rock fragments and objects called asteroids, whose diameters ranged from one to hundreds of kilometers.

Asteroids eventually gained enough gravity to clear their orbits and attract other bodies through collisions, becoming larger bodies several thousand kilometers in diameter and forming planets.

Single cell lifeThe first life on earth dates back to 3.7 billion years ago.

Life on Earth is the only life we ​​know of in the entire universe. Life first appeared about 3.7 billion years ago, shortly after the formation of the Earth itself. Thus known life is roughly a quarter of the age of the universe, although the complex life that would eventually become humans is much more recent.

Carbon is an essential element for life and appears to have been unavailable until 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang. For this reason, it is still not possible to estimate with certainty the first form of life in the entire universe. Maybe other parts of the world have different chemistry or different elements than life on Earth.

Extraterrestrial life and alien civilizations

planet EarthLife in other parts of the world may be chemically different from life on Earth.

To quote the late astronomer Carl Sagan, “We are a way of knowing the world.” Humans are part of the world like the most distant stars or galaxies. In other words, at least a part of the world is capable of thinking and observing other parts. The oldest early humans appeared on earth approximately 2.4 million years ago; This means that humans and our direct ancestors only existed in 0.02% of the entire history of the world. On a cosmic scale, it seems like we were born just yesterday. However, humans may not be the only civilization in the world.

The question about the existence of other civilizations in the galaxy has a long history. Half of all Sun-like stars could host habitable universes; Therefore, there is no shortage for the formation of civilizations. According to a relatively conservative study, there should be at least 36 space civilizations capable of communicating in the Milky Way. According to another research, there are more than 42 thousand civilizations in the Milky Way. Currently, there is no way to find out the existence of these civilizations. With more accurate telescopes, we may be able to find evidence that we are not alone in this infinite universe.

Continue Reading


A mystery that is solved by the China’s Chang’e-6 probe!




Chinese explorer

China’s Chang’e-6 probe, launched to retrieve samples from the far side of the moon, has a big mystery to solve about Earth’s moon.

A mystery that is solved by the China’s Chang’e-6 probe!

China’s Chang’e-6 mission, which is currently on its way to bring back samples from the far side of the moon, will help investigate theories about why the far and near sides of the moon differ.

According to Space, Changi 6 is expected to land in early June in the Apollo impact basin, which is located within the larger South Pole–Aitken basin.

The Aitken Antarctic Basin is the largest collisional feature of its kind in the solar system, with an area of 2,400 x 2,050 km. This basin was formed about 4.3 billion years ago, which is very early in the history of the solar system.

Although the Apollo Basin is younger, it is the largest impact site within the Aitken Antarctic Basin. Apollo has a two-ring structure, the inner ring consists of mountain peaks with a diameter of 247 km, and the outer ring is about 492 km wide.

The Chang’e-6 mission was launched on May 3 from the Wenchang Satellite Launch Center in Hainan Province, located in southern China, and went to the moon on a Long March 5 rocket.

As the first mission to bring samples from the far side of the moon, Changi 6 is supposed to bring back about two kilograms of precious lunar material. The far side of the moon is a relatively unknown place. The fact that we can’t see the far side of the moon from Earth adds to its mystery. For the first time, the Soviet Union’s “Luna 3” spacecraft photographed the far side of the moon in 1959.

With that photo, scientists around the world were amazed to see how different the far side of the moon is from the side we are familiar with. Although both the far and near sides have many craters, the near side also contains vast volcanic plains called “lunar maria” that cover about 31% of it.

The far side of the moon is opposite and volcanic plains cover only about 1% of it.

So how did the far side and the near side become so different? It seems that the thickness of the shell is one of the factors. In fact, NASA’s GRAIL mission found in 2011 that the far-side crust is on average 20 kilometers thicker than the near-side crust.

The reason for this is thought to be that our moon was formed from debris from the impact of a Mars-sized planet on Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. As the Moon formed from that debris, it became tidally locked. This means that it always shows the face of our planet.

The surface of the earth was completely melted by that big impact and it radiated heat towards the near side of the moon and kept itself molten for a longer time. Scientists believe that the rock vaporizes on the near side and condenses on the colder side, thickening the crust on the far side.

Hong Kong University (HKU) researcher Yuqi Qian is one of the lead researchers on a new project that shows that a sample to be returned to Earth by Chang’e 6 could test this theory. Keyan said: Basic findings show that the difference in crustal thickness between the near and far sides may be the main cause of the difference in the moon’s volcanism.

In places like most distant parts where the Moon’s crust is thick, magma can’t seep through fractures to the surface. In areas such as the near side where the crust is thin, fractures can allow magma to seep in and lead to lava eruptions.

The Aitken and Apollo Antarctic Basins, despite both being on the far side of the Moon, create contradictions. That’s because they’ve gouged deeply into the Moon’s crust, and at the base of these giant impact sites, the crust is thinner than elsewhere on the far side. Volcanic plains also exist within these basins, but only five percent of their area is covered by basalt lava. This limited amount of volcanism seems to contradict the conventional idea that crustal thickness dictates volcanic activity. This creates a paradox in lunar science that has been known for a long time.

An alternative possibility suggests that the near side could contain more radioactive elements than the far side. These elements may have generated heat and led to the melting of the lower mantle. As a result, much more magma has formed and a thinner crust has formed on the near side. Hence, the volcano is more in this area.

However, by landing on one of the few volcanic plains on the far side, Chang’e 6 could provide samples to directly test such theories. In particular, the Apollo Basin area where Chang’e 6 will land contains a variety of materials that require investigation.

Some evidence shows that there were two major volcanic eruptions in this area. Scientists believe that one of them covered the entire region in magma containing a small amount of titanium around 3.35 billion years ago. The other, which probably occurred 3.07 billion years ago, probably contained titanium-rich magma and erupted near the Chaffee S crater. Thus, the thickness is reduced.

Read more: Discovering new evidence of the impact that formed the Earth’s moon

New research shows that bringing samples from near the Chafi S crater will bring the most scientific benefits. This area has titanium-rich basalt in the upper part, titanium-free basalt in the lower part, and various pieces of projectile material from the impact.

“Joseph Michalski” (Joseph Michalski), a researcher at the University of Hong Kong and one of the researchers of this project said: “Diverse sample sources provide important information to answer a set of scientific questions about the Moon and the Apollo Basin.”

These diverse samples can also provide scientists with information about magmatic processes occurring on the far side of the moon. By comparing them with nearby samples brought back to Earth by the Apollo missions, scientists may be able to answer the question of why the number of volcanoes on the far side of the Moon is so limited.

This research was published in the journal “Earth and Planetary Science Letters”.

Continue Reading